Essential Oceanic Expeditions from the beginning of Zoological binominal nomenclature until the 1950s.

(The 2:nd half of the 19:th century was in a way the peak period of marine zoological expeditions and some of the ships used during this period were sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco: Novara (1857-60) from Austria, Challenger (1872-76) from Britain, Gazelle (1874-76) from Germany, Blake (1877-80) from USA, Vega (1878-80) from Sweden, Washington (1881-83) from Italy, Talisman (beginning of the 1880s) from France, Investigator (1884-97) from India, Hirondelle & Princesse Alice (from 1885 onwards) from Monaco, Buccaneer (1885-86) from Britain, Vitiaz (1886-89) from Russia, Albatross (1891-1921) from USA, Pola (1890-98) from Austria/Hungary, Fram (1893-96) from Norway, Ingolf (1895-96) from Denmark, Amelia (1896-1907) from Portugal, Belgica (1897-99) from Belgium, Valdivia (1898-99) from Germany and Siboga (1899-1900) from the Netherlands). Some of the great scientific expeditions are also good covered elsewhere, like in the Scientific Expeditions and Surveys from the Sea Around Us project.

Some oldfashioned nautical expressions:

frigate / corvette : 3 masted sailing ships; a corvette was always a war ship, else the main difference between them was the types of sails they had - the square sailing frigates were larger than corvettes and usually designed to sail faster than corvettes and were used not only for war, but also for trading. (When engines replaced sails the frigate and corvette names survided for more modern war ships).

brig : 2 masted ship with square sails (and an extra gaff-sail on the last mast).

bark : 3-5 masted sailing ship with square sails everywhere except on the last mast, which was rigged with fore and aft sails. (a "2 masted bark ship" was called a brigantine)

sloop : 1 masted sailing ship.

schooner : 2-6 (7) masted sailing ships with fore and aft sails on 2 or more masts. A difference between a real schooner and a galeas or topsail schooner (i.e. ketch) (like such a ship looked during late 18:th to mid 20:th century) was that the galeas had the last mast shorter than the common schooner and the galeas had usually only 2 (or 3) masts and was rigged with gaff sails like a common schooner.

yacht : a word for a recreation ship rather than a war or trade ship.

Names of ships officers have been italized, scientist names not.

1763-64 "Eagle" (frigate) & "Sphinx" (sloop) (French); L.-A. de Bougainville (commander), Nicolas Pierre Duclos-Guyot (captain of Eagle), François Chenard de la Giraudais (commander of the Sphinx), Alexandre Duclos-Guyot (2:nd in command on the Eagle), Charles-Malo Tison (2:nd in command on the Sphinx), Dom Antoine-Joseph Pernety 1716-1801 (naturalist & writer), Lhuillier de la Serre (engineer & geographer); Atlantic Ocean in order to find and colonize the Malouines (Falkland Islands), which at this time were almost unknown.

(21 June - Portsmouth) 1764-66 (9 May - Downs), The frigate "Dolphin" & the sloop H.M.S. "Tamar" (British); John Byron, 1723-86 (captain); South Atlantic.

1766 H.M.S. "Niger" (British); Constantine Phipps, Sir Thomas Adams, Joseph Banks, Newfoundland & Labrador.

(22 Aug.) 1766-68 (20 May) the 34.4 meter long, 508 tons copper sheathed wooden frigate H.M.S. "Dolphin" & the smaller sloop H.M.S. "Swallow" (British); Samuel Wallis (expedition leader), 1728-95, Tobias Furneaux, 1735-81, (2:nd in command), Philip Carteret (commander onboard "Swallow" - which became separated from "Dolphin" and arrived home a year later).

(6 Dec. - Brest) 1766-69 (16 Mar. - St. Malo) the frigate "La Boudeuse" (40.6 m, 550 ton) & the store ship "L'Étoile" (33.8 m, 480 ton) (French); Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (expedition leader, Nicolas Pierre Duclos-Guyot (captaine of La Boudeuse), François Chenard de la Giraudais (2 Aug. - St. Malo) 1727-76 (27 Feb. - on board Espérance) (captain of L'Étoile), Count Jean François de Galaup de la Pérouse (23 Aug. - Gua Château in Albi, Languedoc) 1741-88 (Mar.) (naval member of the crew), de Commerson (the botanist, who named the flower Bougainvillea), J. Baret (Commerson's mistress disguised as a valet), Pierre-Antoine Veron, 1736-70, (astronomer), Dr. Louis-Claude Laporte (surgeon of La Boudeuse), Dr. François Vives (surgeon of the Étoile), Charles Routier de Romainville (engineer / carthographer of the Étoile), Louis-Antoine Starot de Saint-Germain (writer / historian), South Atlantic & Pacific. There were 214 persons on La Boudeuse and 116 on L'Étoile of whom altogether 9 died during the trip, which was the very first circumnavigation with professional naturalists and geographers on board. (Read more)

(left the Bengal coast in March) 1769-73 (20 Aug. - back in Bretagne) "Saint Jean Baptiste" (French); Jean François Marie de Surville, (18 Jan. - Port Louis, Bretagne) 1717-70 (7 Apr. - drowned in Chilca, Peru on the way home), Guillaume Labbé (liutenant, who took over the command after de Surville's death), Jean Potier de l'Orme (liutenant), Hugues Jean-Marie de Surville, (commander's nephew), circumnavigation. Of the 173 crew members leaving India, 79 died and 28 deserted during the voyage.

(25 Aug. - Plymouth) 1768-71 (12 July - Downs) the 29.7 meter long (369 tons) wooden bark H.M.S. "Endeavour" (British ship with earlier name "Earl of Pembroke"); J. Banks, D. Solander, Herman Diedrich Spöring, 1730-70, Alexander Buchan, 17??-69 (artist), Sydney Parkinson, 1745?-71 (27 Jan.) (artist), Charles Green, 1735-71 (29 Jan.) (astronomer), James Cook (expedition leader), Charles Clerke, Brazil, Otaheite (now spelled Tahiti), Robert Molyneaux, 1746-71, (master), Richard Pickersgill, 1749-79 (appointed master), Isaac Smith, 1752-1831, (master's mate), Zachary Hicks, 17??-71 (25 May) (liutenant), John Gore, 17??-1???, (liutenant), William B. Monkhouse, 17??-70 (5 Nov.) (surgeon), John Reynolds, 17??-70 (18 Dec.) (artist), New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Java (38 of the 94 persons onboard died during the cruise, mainly of dysentery, among them the artist Buchan, the astronomer Green, Banks' amanuensis Parkinson (who also acted as artist) and Solander's clerk from Åbo, Spöring) [Metapenaeus endeavouri (Schmitt, 1926)].

1771-72 "Isle de France" & "Le Nécessaire" (French); Chevalier de Coëtivi (captain on the "Isle de France"), M. Cordé (Captain on "Le Nécessaire", P. Sonnerat? (at least published about the cruise); Nouvelle Guinée.

1772 the brig "Sir Lawrence" (British) ; Banks, Solander, John Gore, islands along theW. coast of Scotland, Iceland.

(13 July - Plymouth) 1772-75 (14 July 1774 - Spithead (Adventure) & 29 July 1775 - Spithead (Resolution)) the bark H.M.S. "Resolution" (originally a 33.7 meter long and 461 tons North Sea collier by the name of "Drake, Marquis of Granby", but rerigged as a sloop) & the wooden North Sea bark rigged collier H.M.S. "Adventure" (British of 39.7 meter and 336 tons which earlier was known as "Raleigh, Marquis of Rockingham"); Anders Sparrman (1748-1820 - a Swedish disciple of Linnaeus, botanist and physician, but perhaps most known for his fight against slavery in Africa), J.R. Forster, G Forster, William Hodges (artist), James Cook (expedition leader), Charles Clerke, & Tobias Furneaux (commanders onboard the "Adventure"), George Vancouver (crew member), Richard Pickersgill, 1749-79 (master), Wiliam Wales, 1734-98, (astronomer), William Anderson, 1750-88, (ship surgeon & naturalist), Pacific Coral Reefs in particular. "Adventure" - the first ship to circumnavigate the globe from west to east - went home a full year before the "Resolution".

(1773 "Racehorse", later "Carcass" (British); Lyons, Phipps, Spitsbergen, trying to find the North Pole.

(Mar. - Brest) 1773-74 (summer) "Roland", "L'Oiseau" & "La Dauphine"; Yves Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, 1734-97, southern latitutes of the Indian Ocean (where they discovered that the land the expedition leader had discovered a year earlier - during an expedition with "La Fortune" & "Le Gros-Ventre" (French 3 masted bark rigged so called flûtes, i.e. military transport ships in which Bruguières took part; Le Gros Ventre was later renamed "Big Belly" when in British ownership) started from Brest 28 Apr. 1771 - was not a continent but a small archipelago which later was named Kerguelen as possibly a kind of practical joke by James Cook, but certainly also a kind of reverence, because Kerguelen was punished when coming back to France for first having exaggerated the size of the "continent", but later rehabilitated by the revolutionaries).

(12 July) 1776-80 (26 Oct.) the bark H.M.S. "Resolution" & the collier vessel "Discovery" (British); James Cook (expedition leader - killed by natives on Hawaii 14 Feb. 1779), Charles Clerke, 1741-79, (commander onboard the "Discovery" - died half a year after Cook), John Gore (took the expedition home after Clerke's death), William Anderson, 1750-88, William Ellis, 1747-1810, (naval surgeon like Anderson), Anders Sparrman, 1748-1820, (Swedish naturalist and disciple of Linnaeus), Joseph Billings (Astronomer); North Pacific. Among the crew were also George Vancouver, who later became a famous explorer (he had also been with Cook on the trip before in 1772-75), helmsman William Bligh, 1754-18??, later captain on the "Bounty" and the Swiss painter John Web(b)er, 1750-93.

1785-88 "L'Astrolabe" & "La Boussole"(storeships reclassified as frigates) (French); La Martiniere, Comte de La Perouse, Paul-Antoine-Marie Fleuriot de Langle ( captain of the Astrolabe) ended in New Hebrides when the two ships were wrecked on a reef and every man was officially lost. At least three naturalists were among the crew - among them were Jean André Mongez, 1751-ca 1788, and likely Claude Urbin Reth, 1755-1804, who thus seems to have survided.

1785-88 "King George", Woodcock, circumnavigation.

1785-94 "Pallas" & "Yasashna" (Russian expedition with international crew also known as the "Slava Russia" expedition), Joseph Billings (English expedition leader), Gavriil Andreevich Sarychev (maps), K. Bering (Vitus Bering's grandson), R. Gall, Carl Merck (naturalist), Carl Krebs (naturalist), Michael Robeck (naval surgeon), Peter Allegretti (naval surgeon); coastlines of N Pacific.

1789-94 the corvettes "Descubierta" & "Atrevida" (Spanish); Estevan Josef Martinez Alessandro Malaspina (1754 (Italy)-1819), José de Bustamante y Guerra, 1759-1825 (captain of Atrevida), Tadeás� (sometimes written Thaddäus or Tadeo) Peregrinus Xaverius Haenke (1761 (5 Dec. - Czechoslovakia)-1817 (Cochabamba, Bolivia)) (botanist), Luis Née (1734 (France)-1807) (botanist), Antonio Pineda y Ramírez, 1753 (Guatemala)-92 (23 June, Philippines) (zoologist), Thomas de Suria (naturalist), Don Felipe Bauzá, (Spain) 1764-1834, (chief navigator), Gerónimo de Arcángel (Filipino gunner assisting Haenke), José del Pozo and José Guio were artists.; circumnavigation.[Cÿesÿka]

(28 Sep. - Brest) 1791-93 the frigate "Recherche" & the frigate "L'Espérance" (French); Chevalier d'Entrecasteaux (i.e. Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni), 1837-93, captain Jean Michel Huon de Kermadec (on the Recherche), Jacques Julien Houton de la Billardière (23 Oct. - Alençon) 1755-1834 (8 Jan. - Paris) (naturalist), Dr. Claude Antoine Gaspard Riche (20 July - Chambiet, Beaujolais) 1762-97 (5 Sep. - Mont-Dore) (naturalist), Louis Auguste Deschamps, 1765-1842 (naturalist), Charles de Beautemps-Beaupré, 1766-1854 (Hydrographer), Felix De Lahaye (gardener); S & W Australia - in search of the lost La Pérouse expedition, which they not found, but instead they found the D'Entrecasteaux Islands among the Papua Guinea archipelago. D'Entrecasteaux died at New Caledonia. The expedition was also extremely unsuccessful regarding weather, winds, illnesses, political conflicts, etcetera, so of 119 crew members 89 died during the expedition.

(1 Apr.) 1791-94 (Oct.) the sloop H.M.S. "Discovery" & a supply ship, the barkentine "Chatham" (British); George Vancouver, (King's Lynn) 1758-98 (Richmond (Surrey)), Archibald Menzies, 1754-1842 (naturalist), Alexander Cranstoun (surgeon/naturalist), Australia, New Zeeland, Tahiti, Hawaii, North American west coast, again Hawaii.

1795 the sloop H.M.S. "Discovery" & a supply ship, the barkentine "Chatham" (English); George Vancouver, Archibald Menzies, 1754-1842, Galapagos.

(19 Oct. - Le Havre) 1800-04 (25 Mar. - Lorient) the corvette "Le Géographe" (earlier named Galatee) & the corvette (storeship - earlier named Mecanante) "Le Naturaliste" (& the 30 ton scooner "Casuarina" - constructed of timber from Casuarina stricta when "Le Naturaliste" left for France) (French); Bory de St-Vincent (zoologist, left the expedition at the first stop at Mauritius), Péron (antropological studies, but served also as a zoologist) Lesueur (artwork) , Stanislas Levillain ((Le Havre) 1774-1801 (23 Dec. - Timor) - zoologist (dysentery)), Nicolas-Martin Petit (1777-1804 (21 Oct. - gangrene after an accident in Paris), - the expedition artist from Paris - beame a close friend of Péron) & N.T. Baudin (expedition leader - commanded "Le Géographe" ), Louis Claude Desaulces de Freycinet ((8 Aug. -Montélimar) 1779-1842 (18 Aug.)) (took over "Le Géographe" on the travel back from Australia, after having been captain of the "Casuarina", because Baudin felt that he himself was too ill to be in command), Jacques Felix Emmanuel Hamelin (1768-1839 - commanded "Le Naturaliste"), Henri-Louis de Freycinet ((31 Dec. - Montélimar) 1777-1840 - the oldest of the two brothers onboard - was carthographer), Pierre Bernard Mil(l)ius - his family name beeing spelled Mylius by Cuvier & Valenciennes (Jan. - Bordeaux) 1773-1829 (11 Aug. - Bourbonne-les-Bains) (second-in-command on "Le Naturaliste"; left the expedition in Port Jackson because of ill health, but found later his way to Mauritius, where he took over as expedition leader after Baudin's death), H. de Bougainville (lieutenant under Baudin - returned to France with Hamelin onbord "Le Naturaliste" - this slower ship left long before the main ship, when the collections had become many and heavy and reached Le Havre 7 June 1803), Charles Baudin (des Ardennes) (1784-1854 - junior officer on "Le Géographe", but not related to the expedition leader), Anselme Riedle (expedition gardener who died at Timor 21 Oct. 1802), Monge (surgeon), Charles-Pierre Boullanger (hydrographic engeneer & maps), Pierre Faure (maps), Vasse (assistant helmsman), René Maugé de Cely (17??-1802 (12 Feb. - Tasmania) - zoologist from Seine-et-Marne and friend of the captain), Désiré Dumont (naturalist), Pierre-François Bernier (1779-1803 (5 June (dysentery)) - astronomer), Frédéric de Bissy (1768-1803 - astronomer), Louis Depuch (mineralogist who died in dysentery during the expedition on way home at Mauritius), Joseph Charles Bailly (mineralogist - one of the 5 scientists and artists - out of 23 - who returned to France with the expedition), Jean Baptiste Louis Claude Théodore Leschenault de la Tour, (13 Nov. - Châlons-sur Saône) 1775-1826 (14 Mar. - Paris), (botanist, who left the expedition during the 2:nd stop in Timor because of illness and returned to France in 1807 via USA after exploring Timor, Java and Ceylon), Stanislas Levillain, 1774-1802 (23 Dec.), (zoologist from Le Havre, who died in dysentery durin the first stop in Timor), Jacques Gérard Milbert, (18 Nov. - Paris) 1766-1840 (5 June - Paris) (artist, who disembarked in Mauritius already in 1801), Jacques Delisse, (13 May - Dax) 1773-1856 (13 Mar. - Bourdeaux) (botanist / pharmacologist, who left the expedition already in 1781 because of scurvy in Mauritius), Dr. Jerome Bellefin (surgeon of the Naturaliste), François-Etienne Lharidon de Cremenac and Hubert Jules Taillefer (surgeons of the Geographe), Etienne Giraud (officer on the Naturaliste). A helmsman, Thomas Timothee Vasse, was lost in a wave in Geograph Bay in June 1801, presumed drowned, but natural inhabitants later witnessed about a white man in the area, who often stood on the shore looking for his ship, so he likely survived there for several years. (See also Baudin - this expedition discovered some 1500 botanical and 3900 zoological species and although reputed as horrible for the participants, it succeded to collect more than almost any other expedition, although Baudin had sold the preserving alcohol, so Péron & Lesueur had to use a strong local drink - named arrack - made from fermented coconut milk to preserve the animals).

1801-02 the sloop H.M.S. "Investigator" (British); Matthew Flinders (1774-1814 July, Captain), Robert Brown (Dec. 1773-1858 June, naturalist from Scotland), Ferdinand Lucas Bauer (1760-1826, Austrian very talented flower painter), Peter Good (17??-1803 (dysentery in Timor) Kew Gardens gardener from Scotland), John Allen (1775-18??, mineralogist), John Crosley (astronomer, who fell ill and returned hone from Cape of Good Hope), William Westall (1781-1850, English landscape artist), S Australia. The ship became unseaworthy in Australia and most of the crew went home to catch a new ship, but Flinders was held prisoner at Mauritius as a spy for several years, so no new ship arrived and after two years in Australia Brown and Bauer went home with the repaired but still leaking "Investigator".

(7 Aug.) 1803-06 the sloops "Neva" & "Nadezhda" (7 Aug. - St Petersburg) the latter name meaning "hope" in Russian and sometimes referred to as "Espérance") (Russian); A.J. von Kruzens(h)tern (expedition leader), Yuri Fyodorovich Lisianski (commander onboard "Neva"), von Kotzebue (cadet on the Nadezhda), Lt. Baron von Bellingshausen, Horner, Nikolay Rezanov, baron Georg-Heinrich von Langsdorf, 1774-1852 (naturalist), Wilhelm Gottlieb von Tilesius von Tilenau, 1769-1857 (surgeon / naturalist), N Pacific in fur buisness and Japan diplomacy. Remarkable is that all members of both crews survived during the more than 3 years.

1806-22 the whalers "Resolution", "Mars" & "Fame" (British); William Scoresby sr, 1760-1829, & jr, 1789?-1857, the area between Spitsbergen and Greenland.

(30 July - Kronstadt) 1815-18 (3 Aug - Neva) the wooden brig "Rurik" (Russian); Eysenhardt, Eschscholtz (physician & naturalist), von Chamisso (botanist), Ludwig Choris (naturalist & drawing artist) & Otto Astawitsch von Kotzebue, Morten Wormskiold (liutenant, assisting as "freiwilliger Naturforscher"), Gleb Simonowitsch Schischmarev (1:st liutenant), all the oceans.

1816 "Congo" (British); James Kingston Tuckey, Cranch, C. Smith, Congo River. Although all expedition members died during this expedition (see Cranch), material from the expedition eventually reached England.

(17 Sep. - Toulon) 1817-20 (13 Nov. - Le Havre); The corvette "L'Uranie" (lost at the Malvinas 14 Feb. 1820; her earlier name was "La Ciotat") after that the expedition continued on an US ship "Mercury", purchased by Freycinet and renamed "La Physicienne" (French); Quoy (chief surgeon & naturalist), Gaimard (naturalist and Quoys assistant), Gaudichaud-Beaupré (botanist), Jacques Etienne Victor Arago (naturalist), Louis Claude Freycinet (captain - also his wife Rose de Freycinet, 1794-1832, who has some plant names named for her, was onboard), Louis Isidore Duperrey, (Paris) 1786-1865 (Paris), (liutenant), Alphonse Odet-Pellion ("élève de la marine de classe"), Antoine Guichenot (amateur botanist born in Paris), circumnavigation. (D. Himbe kindly provided the link to Pellion).

1817-22; H.M.S. "Mermaid" (British); Philip Parker King (captain), Australia.

1818 the brigs "Isabella" & "Alexander" (British); John Ross, Parry, Sabine (& J.C. Ross), Davis Strait

1818 the sloop "Dorothea" & the brig "Trent" (British); David Buchan (commanding "Dorothea") & John Franklin (expedition leader), the area between Spitsbergen and Greenland.

1819-1820 H.M.S. "Hecla" (or simply "Heck") (a wooden 32 meter long bomb vessel launched a week after Napoleon's Waterloo surrender - with sister vessels like Erebus, Sulphur & Fury) & H.M.S. "Griper" (British); W.E. Parry (liutenant & commander on Hecla), Frederick William Beechey (liutenant on Hecla), William Harvey Hooper (purser on Hecla), John Edwards (surgeon on Hecla), Alexander Fisher (assistant surgeon on Hecla), James Hulse (clerk on Hecla), Joseph Nias, William J. Dealey, Charles Palmer, James Clarke Ross, John Bushnan (all midsipmen on Hecla), Matthew Liddon (liutenant and commander on Griper), Captain Edward Sabine (responsible for scientific - mainly astronomical - observations on Hecla), Henry Parkins Hopper (liutenant on Griper), Charles James Beverly (assistant surgeon on Griper), Cyrus Wakeham (clerk on Griper), William Nelson Griffiths (midshipman on the Griper with naturalist interests), Andrew Reid (midshipman on Griper), A.M. Skene (midshipman on Griper) the Arctic American (Pacific) region in order to find the north west passage. During the long overwintering Parry had two newspapers, the "North Georgia Gazette" and the "Winter Chronicle" written by the officers and printed (altogether 121 items) in order to let the crew write and read for amusement.

(4 July - Kronstadt) 1819-21 (28 Aug. - Kronstadt) the 39.6 meter long, 10 m wide wooden navy sloop of 900 tons "Vostok" (Ru. = East) & the accompanying store ship "Mirny" (Ru. = Peaceful, but earlier named "Lagoda" - a navy sloop of ca 3 meter shorter length than Vostok) (Russian); Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (expedition leader), Ivan Zavodowski & M.P. Lazarev (commander of "Mirny"), Antarctic.

(May) 1821-1825 (Oct.) H.M.S. "Hecla" & H.M.S. "Fury" (British); Parry & George Francis Lyon, the Arctic American (Pacific) region. The "Fury" was lost near Somerset Island in 1824.

(11 Aug. - Toulon) 1822-25 (24 Mar.) "La Coquille" (380 ton wooden corvette) (French); Louis Isidore Duperrey, (21 Oct. - Paris) 1786-1865 (25 Aug. - Paris), (captain), Deblois (officer), Auguste Bérard (officer), Dumont d'Urville (exec. officer & botanist), Lesson (surgeon / zoologist), Prosper Garnot , 1794-1838, (surgeon / zoologist), Victor Charles Lottin, 1795-1858, (hydrographer), Jacques Arago, 1790-1855 (artist); circumnavigation.

1822-24 "Jane" & "Beaufoy" (British); Weddell, Antarctic.

(28 July - Kronstadt) 1823-26 (10 July - Kronstadt); The wooden war sloop "Predprijaetje" (Russian); Otto von Kotzebue, von Eschscoltz, Emil Lenz (together with Eschscholtz surgeon and naturalist), Preuss Hoffman; all the oceans - i.a. the first to the Bikini atolls, easier to pronunce and spell than the initially suggested name honouring the naturalist von Eschscholtz.

1824-25 The frigate "Blonde" (British); Lord George Anson Byron, 1789-1868 (captain - and a cousin of the poet), Andrew Bloxam, 1801-78 (naturalist), James Macrae (naturalist); Hawaii.

(2 Mar.) 1824-26 (10 Apr.) the frigate "La Thetis" & the corvette "L'Espérance" (French); le Baron (son of Louis Antoine B. - see 1766-69) Hyacinthe Yves Philippe Potentien Bougainville, 1781-1846, Paul Anne de Norquer du Camper (18 June - Brest) 1776-18?? (commander of the Espérance, became later governor of French Guiana between 1837-39 and of Pondicherry 1840-44), Lesson, Edmond de La Touanne, Francois Louis Busseuil (12 Dec. - Nantes) 1791-1835 (14 June - Gorée) (surgeon & naturalist); circumnavigation.

(19 May) 1825-28 (12 Oct. - Woolwich) The sloop H.M.S. "Blossom" (British); F.W. Beechey, (17 Feb. - London) 1796-1856 (29 Nov. - London), Edward Belcher 1799-1877, Alexander Collie, 1793-1835 (surgeon / naturalist), George Tradescant Lay (1800?-1845); circumnavigation.

1825-30; the surveying sloop H.M.S. "Adventure" & the brig H.M.S. "Beagle" (British); Philip Parker King, 1793-1856 (captain of Adventure), Pringle Stokes, 17??-1828 (captain of Beagle - committing suicide), James Anderson, 1797-1842 (naturalist); South America.

1826-29 The corvette "L'Astrolabe" (originally named "La Coquille" - see 1822 - but renamed after La Perouse's expedition ship - see 1785-88. One of the reasons for this expeditions was namely to try to find the reasons for the disappearance of La Perouse and they really found remains of his ships on Vanikoro Island) (French); Quoy (scientist & surgeon?), Gaimard (scientist), Pierre-Adolphe Lesson (surgeon, brother of René Primevère), Dumont d'Urville (captain), Victor Amédée Gressien, 1798-18??, (hydrographer), Pierre Edouard Guilbert, 1800-66, (hydrographer), Victor Charles Lottin, 1795-1858, (hydrographer), Edmond François Pâris, 1806-93, (stayed in New Zealand a few years and returned in 1831 with "La Favorite"), all the oceans.

1826-29 "Séniavine" (Russian); Ruprecht, von Kittlitz (naturalist), Count Feodor Petrowitch Lütke, 1797-1882 (captain), & P. von Krusenstern, Franz Karl Mertens (surgeon / naturalist), Alexander Postels (mineralogist); circumnavigation.

1827 "Hecla" (British); William Edward Parry (captain), N coast of Svalbard.

1828-31 (Danish) W.A. Graah's expeditions along East Greenland.

1829-33 "Aetna" (British); Belcher, N & W Africa.

1830-32 "Prinzess Luise" (Preussian); Wendt & Frans Julius Ferdinand Meyen (1804-40, Bonn & Berlin physician and botanist), all the oceans.

(30 Dec. - Toulon) 1829-32 (22 Apr. - Toulon) the frigate / corvette "La Favorite" (France); Joseph Fortune Theodore Eydoux, 1802-42 (naval surgeon and naturalist), Joseph Baume, (Toulon) 1810-??, (naval surgeon and naturalist), Cyrille Pierre Théodore Laplace, 1793-1875, (commander), circumnavigation.

(Feb.) 1831-33 "L'Herminie" (French); Gaudichaud Beaupré, E & W South America.

(27 Dec.) 1831-36 (22 Oct.) the brig H.M.S. "Beagle" (British); Robert Fitzroy, Benjamin Bynoe, 1804-65 (surgeon / naturalist), Darwin (naturalist); all the oceans.

1834-42 The bark H.M.S. "Sulphur" (British); Belcher, Henry Kellet (2:nd in command), Andrew Sinclair (ca 1796-1861 - botanist), Richard Brinsley Hinds, (1811-46 - naturalist & surgeon), George W. Barclay (botanist), W America.

1835-36 The corvette "La Recherche" (French); Quoy & Gaimard, Arctic Sea

(28 Dec.) 1835-37 The corvette "La Bonite" (French); Freycinet (leader), Gaudichaud Beaupré (scientist), Auguste-Nicholas Vaillant, 1793-58 (captain), Eydoux (scientist), Souleyet (scientist), circumnavigation & Antarctic region.

(29 Dec. - Brest) 1836-39 "La Vénus" (frigate) (French); du Petit-Thouars (captain), Dortel de Tessan (marine surveyor), Adolphe Simon Neboux, 1806-44 (surgeon / naturalist); all the oceans..

(19 June - Hammerfest) 1837 The schooner "Enigheten" (Swedish); Andrew Michelsen & Lovén, Spitsbergen.

(7 Sep. - Tolon) 1837-40 (7 Nov. - Tolon), The corvette "L'Astrolabe" & the corvette "La Zélée" (French, of 380 and 300 tons); Dumont d'Urville (captain of Astrolabe), Charles Hector Jacquinot, 1796-1879 (captain of Zélée), Clément Adrien Vincendon-Dumoulin, 1811-58, (hydrographer), Jacques Bernard Hombron, 1798-1852 (surgeon / naturalist), Honoré Jacquinot, 1815-87 (naturalist / surgeon); all the oceans including the Antarctic. The ship brought back the largerst natural history collections ever made by an expedition so far, so the result was a success in that way, but 22 crew members had died and another 27 had left the expedition during its time.

1838-40 The corvette "La Recherche" (French); Gaimard (surgeon / naturalist), Krøyer (naturalist), Sundevall (naturalist), Lars Levi Laestadius, 1800-61 (botanist / priest), Xavier Marmier, 1809-92 (antropologist); Spitsbergen and northern Scandinavia

1838-42 the brig USS "Porpoise" (commanded by Cadwalader Ringgold, 1802-1867, from Maryland; it was originally rigged as a brigantine, but was lost during the expedition), (six ships in all - the USS "Flying Fish" (originally a schooner rigged New York harbor pilot boat named "Independence" later sold becoming an opium smuggler named "Spec"; her sister ship USS "Seagull" also took part in the expedition but went missing off Cape Horn in 1839), the ship-slope USS "Vincennes", the ship-sloop USS "Peacock" was wrecked off the mouth of the Columbia River in 1841), (US exploring expedition); John C. Wilkes, (captain of "Vincennes"), William Levereth Hudson, 1794-1862 (captain of "Peacock"), J.L. Fox (surgeon / naturalist), Dana, Pickering, A. Gray, J. Torrey, W. Rich, William Dunlop Brackenridge, 1810-93, Titian Peale, Joseph Drayton (artist), all the oceans.

(30 Sep. - Chatham) 1839-43 (4 Sep. - Folkstone), HMS "Erebus" (British 32 meter long three-masted wooden bomb vessel with a bark rig) & HMS "Terror" (British 31.1 meter long wooden bomb ketch, rigged like the "Erebus"); James C. Ross (captain of Erebus), Francis Crozier, 1796-1848 (captain of Terror) & Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1817-1911 (surgeon / naturalist), David Lyall, 1817-95 (surgeon / naturalist), Robert McCormick 1800-90, (naval surgeon and naturalist), John Robertson (surgeon / naturalist); South Atlantic & Antarctic.

1840-44 (French) Aimé's expeditions between Marseille and Algeria.

1841-42 "Beacon" (British); E. Forbes, Rev. E.D. Daniell, 1???-1842, T.A.B. Spratt (surveying liutenant), 1811-88, Thomas Graves (Captain), William Thompson (naturalist, but took part only during a few months), Aegean Sea & coast of Asia Minor.

1842 H.M.S. "Lucifer" (British); Beechey & W. Thompson, off the Mull of Galloway.

1842-46 "Fly" (British); Francis Price Blackwood, 1809-54, (captain), Benjamin Bynoe, 1804-65 (surgeon / naturalist), Joseph Beete Jukes, 1811-69 (geologist), William Macgillivray, 1796-1852 (naturalist); a trip to study the large coral reefs along northern Australia.

1843-43 "Erebus" & "Terror" (British - see below), James C. Ross, J. Hooker, South Atlantic - including breaking through the Antarctic drifting ice.

1843-47 "Samarang" (British); Belcher, all the oceans (primarily the South China Sea areas).

1845 HMS "Erebus" & HMS "Terror" (British three-masted bomb vessels - sister ships); John Franklin ((16 Apr.) 1786-1847 (11 June)) (expedition leader), Francis Rawden Moira Crozier (captain of Terror) & Harry D.S. Goodsir (assistant surgeon), the Arctic American region. The expedition (including totally 129 persons) succumbed in 1847 in the Canadian Arctic. One of the main reasons of the misfortune of the expedition is thougth to have been lead poisoning from canned provisions - at that time lead was used to seal the cans - making those who ate much of this kind of food very dull.

1845-47 The corvette "Galathea" (Danish); Steen Bille, Rink, all the oceans.

1845-51 H.M.S. "Herald" (British); Henry Kellet, Edward Forbes, Thomas Edmonston (1825-46 - killed by an accidental shot during the trip) (botanical collector), John Goodridge (botanical collector), Berthold Carl Seemann (1825-72) (naturalist), all the oceans, but mainly the Mediterranean.

1846-50 H.M.S. "Rattlesnake" & "Bramble" (British); Owen Stanley, 1811-50 (captain of Rattlesnake), Charles Bampfield Yule (captain of Bramble), T.H. Huxley (surgeon / naturalist), J. MacGillivray (naturalist), James Fowler Wilcox, 1823-81 (naturalist); all the oceans.

1850-58 "Investigator" (British); Mc Clure, the Arctic American region.

(30 Sep.) 1851-53 (around midsummer) "Eugenie" (Swedish) (frigate); Christian Adolf Virgin, 1797-1870 (captain), Kinberg (surgeon / zoologist), Nils Johan Andersson (1821-80 - botanist), Baron Carl Johan Alfred Skogman, 1820-1907, Karl Johan Johansson, 1818-1854 (July - Uppsala) - physics measurements, i.e. earth magnetism and meteorology (together with the officer Skogman), Samuel Benjamin Pontén, (Hultsjö, Jönköpings län) 1823-1905 (Österåker), (ship vicar, also taking part in collections); circumnavigation, with a crew of around 300 persons, most of them soldiers [Nereis eugeniae (Kinberg, 1865)].

1851-53 the brig "Dolphin" (US); Lee (1851-52) & O.H. Berryman (1852-53), North Atlantic.

1852-55 H.M.S. "Herald" (British); J. MacGillivray (naturalist), J. Milne, Sir Henry Mangles-Denham 1800-87 (captain), J.D. Macdonald (Assistant-Surgeon & naturalist), South America & S. Pacific.

(6 May - Hampton Roads) 1853-55 (19 Oct. - San Francisco) "Vincennes", Porpoise" & "John Hancock" (US - North Pacific Exploring Expedition); Lt. John Rodgers (1812-82), Comdr. Ringgold, Lt. Henry K. Stevens, Charles Wright (1811-85 - botanist), Stimpson (zoologist), Madeira, South Africa, Batavia, China, eastern Asian coast to the Bering Sea, San Francisco.

1856 "Arctic" (US); O.H. Berryman, North Atlantic.

1857 "Cyclops" (steam frigate) (British); Pullen, Joseph Dayman, North Atlantic.

1857-59 "Fox" (British); Leopold McClintock (1819-1907), the Arctic American region.

(30 Apr. - Trieste) 1857-59 (26 Aug.) "Novara" (frigate) (Austrian); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Bernhard, Freiherr von Wüllerstorff-Urbair, !816-83 (captain), Ferdinand von Hochstetter (1829-84 - geologist), Joseph Selleny (ship's artist), Georg von Frauenfeld (1807-73 - zoologist), Johann Zelebor (1819-69 - zoologist), Eduard Schwarz (botanist), Anton Jellinek (botanist), Scherzer; all the oceans.

1858 "Fridtjof" (sloop) (Swedish); Torell, Quennerstedt, Dunér, A.E. Nordenskiöld & Torgersson, Spitsbergen.

1859 "?" (Danish); Torell, Carl Christoffer Theodor Amondsen, dredging between Egedesminde and Upernivik in W Greenland from a Danish commercial ship, in which Torell took part, paying his costs privately, because he had been inspired by Lovén to research the Arctic ares already in 1850, when he followed Lovén at a small dredging expedition along the Bohuslän coast and in the Oslo Fjord. The captain Amondsen was also very interested and collected himself rather much.

1860 "Bulldog" (British); Sir Leopold M'Clintock & G.C. Wallich, Walker, Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland.

1860-61 "?" (US); Isaac Israel Hayes (1832-81), Arctic areas. (Stimpson reported on the marine invertebrates).

1860-62 "Thetis" (Prussian); (E. von Martens), East Asia.

1861 "Aeolus" & "Magdalena" (Swedish); Torell, A.E. Nordenskiöld, Chydenius, Dunér, Blomstrand, Malmgren, Smitt, von Goës, von Yhlen, Lilliehöök, Kuylenstierna, Spitsbergen.

1861, -64, -67 & -68 "Osprey" (British, private); Jeffreys, Phillips (captain), Shetlands. (Continued in 1869 by Edward Waller on a dredging cruise off S Ireland).

1863 H.M.S. "Sphinx" (British); T. Coghlan, Palau Islands.

1864 "Axel Thordsen" (Norwegian gunboat) (Swedish); A.E. Nordenskiöld, Dunér, Malmgren & Hellstad, Bear Island & Spitsbergen.

1864-66, H.M.S. "Salamander" (British); Nares, N Australia.

1865 steam frigate "Curaçoa" (British); William Wiseman (captain), Julius Lucius Brenchley, 1816-73 (naturalist), South Sea Islands.

1865, 1866 "Nightingale" (US); Charles Melville Scammon, 1825-1911, Dall, Siberian and Alaskan coasts.

1865-68 "Magenta" (Italian); Vittorio Arminjon, 1830-97 (captain), Filippo De Filippi, 1814-67 (naturalist), Enrico Hillyer Giglioli, 1845-1909 (naturalist); South America, Java, Japan China.

1866-69 H.M.S. "Nassau" (British); Captain R. C. Mano, Prof. Robert Oliver Cunningham, 1841-1918, (Irish physician & natural historian), strait of Magellan & west coast of Patagonia.

1867 "Ingegerd" (H.M. gunboat) (Swedish); von Otter, Norwegian West Coast.

1867-69 "Corvin" & "Bibb" (US); Pourtalès, G.C. Wallich, McClintock (& partly L. Agassiz), East coast of North America.

1868 H.M.S. "Lightning" (gunboat (at that time the oldest paddle-steamer of the British navy, 126 foot long)) (British); Wyville Thomson, W.B. & H. Carpenter & May, between the Hebrides & the Faeroes. Only 6 weeks of cruises in very bad weather.

(28 June) 1868 (20 Oct.) "Sofia" (mail-steamer) (Swedish); A.E. Nordenskiöld, A.E. Holmgren, Malmgren, Smitt, Berggren, Th. Fries, Lemström, Nauckhoff, A. Svensson, von Otter & Palander, North Norway, Spitsbergen & Bear Island.

1868 "Germania" (German); Carl Koldewey (1837-1908), between Spitsbergen & Greenland.

1869 "Josephina" (corvette) (Swedish); von Otter, N Atlantic (Azores & N America). Discovered the Josephine Bank [Amphiura josephinae Ljungman, 1871],

(5 June) 1869-70 (11 Sep.) "Germania" & "Hansa" (German); Carl Koldewey, ((26 Oct. - Bücken) 1837-1908 (18 May - Hamburg)) & Hegemann, von Payer, between Spitsbergen & Greenland. (i.a. Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord was detected and mapped - "Hansa" was wrecked in the ice).

1869-70 H.M.S. "Porcupine" (guard ship (141-foot long, wooden paddle vessel)) (British); Wyville Thomson (2:nd & 3:rd trip 1869), W.B. Carpenter (2:nd & 3:rd trip 1869, 2:nd trip 1870), (W.L. & H. Carpenter - first and third trip 1869 resp. - both sons of W.B. Carpenter), Jeffreys (first trips 1869 & -70), Norman (first trip 1870), J. Lindahl (1870), Hunter (chemist, 2:nd trip 1869), Mr. Laughrin of Polperro (dredger and sifter), B.S. Dodd (picked out and stored the specimens) & Calver, along Faeroes - Shetlands - N, W & S off Ireland (1869) & off Iberian peninsula (first trip 1870) & W Mediterranean (last trip 1870). (The Porcupine Bank west of Ireland is connected with the ship, but not with these expeditions, because it had been detected by this ship under command of Lieut. Hoskyn during an earlier cruise). The cruises were undertaken during the summer seasons [Alvania porcupinae Gofas & Warén, 1982].

1869-72 H.M.S. "Sylvia" H.C. St. John (captain); the coast of Japan and the Korean Sea. Extensive collections and St. John rose after that to the rank of Rear Admiral.

1870 "Norna" (British, private); Marshall Hall (owner of the yacht), Saville Kent, off Iberian peninsula.

1870-71 & 1872-72 "Mercury" (US); P. Giraud; tropical Atlantic.

1871 "Shearwater" (British); Sir George Strong Nares & Carpenter, W Mediterranean.

1871 "Isbjörn"; van Payer, Karl Weyprecht, Arctic

1871 "Ingegerd" (H.M. gunboat) & "Gladan" (brig) (Swedish); Th. Fries, Nauckhoff, J. Lindahl, K.W. Steenstrup, von Otter & von Krusenstjerna, W Greenland (Disco Island).

1871-72 "Hassler" (US); L. Agassiz, Pourtalès & Steindachner, E & W coast of North America. (Not much of marine biological interest came out of this expedition because of incompatibility of the vessel and its equipment with what it was intended to do) The ship got its name from Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler : (see Bache) [Calliostoma hassler Clench & Aguayo, 1939].

1871-72 "Pommeriana" (German); V. Hensen, K. Möbius, Reincke & Hoffman, the North Sea & the Baltic.

1872 "Ingegerd" (gunboat) (Swedish); J. Lindahl, A. Meister, Kattegat & Skagerrak.

1872-73 "Polhem" (mail-steamer), "Gladan" (brig) & "Onkel Adam" (freight steamer) (Swedish); A.E. Nordenskiöld, Wijkander, Kjellman, Palander, von Krusenstjerna, von Holten, Clase, E. Parent, the northern Spitsbergen area.

(13 June) 1872-74 (3 Sep.) "Isbjörn" & "Tegethoff" (Austrian/Hungarian); Weyprecht & von Payer, Spitsbergen & the Northern Ice Sea. "Isbjörn" and "Tegethoff" gets separated arund 20:th Aug. 1872, after which "Isbjörn" starts its journey back to Tromsö. The main vessel (named for Admiral Tegethoff, under whom Weyprecht had served and who had defeated the Italian fleet in the battle of Lissa in 1866) was lost in 82°N, but Weiprecht and his men (in all 24 persons of whom one was Dr. Gyula (Julius) Kepes, 1847-1924, from Vari a.d. Theiss, Hungary) escaped in life boats and was rescued in Dune Bay off Novaya Zemlya by Russian fishermen, commanded by captain Voronin. (Only one person died during the expedition). When drifting, land was sighted, which von Payer named Franz Josef's Land.

(7 Dec. - Sheerness) 1872-76 (24 May - Spithead) The 61 meter long, 12.3 meter wide and 2.306 ktons heavy wooden screw corvette "Challenger" (British); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Sir George Strong Nares (left in Hong Kong for "Alert"), F.T. Thomson (took over in Hong Kong), J.F.L.P. Maclear, T.H. Tizard, J. Murray (geologist), Wyville Thomson, Henry Nottidge Moseley, Rudolf von Willemoës-Suhm (died during the trip), John Young Buchanan (physics / chemistry), & John James Wild (artist / secretary), all the oceans [Radicipes challengeri (Wright & Studer, 1889), Metanephrops challengeri (Balss, 1914), Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, 1883, Nausithoe challengeri (Haeckel, 1880), Polyacanthonothus challengeri (Vaillant, 1888), Lophogaster challengeri Fage, 1940, Ascidia challengeri Herdman, 1882, Graneledone challengeri (Berry, 1916), Stylochoplana challengeri (Graff, 1892, Artacama challengeriae M'Intosh, 1885), Willemoesia challengeri Lund, 1920, Promachoteuthis Hoyle, 1885 (the first part of the world meaning Challenger)].

1873-75 "Tuscarora" (US); Belknap, W coast of North America & Pacific Ocean.

(29 May - Portsmouth) 1875-76 (Oc.) The 48.8 meter long, 751 tons heavy wooden screw sloop H.M.S. "Alert" & "Discovery" (British); S.G. Nares, Arctic - in search for Sir John Franklin's expedition, they found that Greenland was an island that all the real arctic was ice covered.

1874-74 "The Admirality Expedition" with "Volgae" & "Supply"; British expedition to Kerguelean area and Rodriques; Dr. I.B. Balfour, 185?-1922, (Botanist), Mr. George Gulliver, 1804-1882, (fauna investigator), Mr. H.H. Slater, 1851-1934, (cave explorations and extinct animals), the Rev. A.E. Eaton, 1845-1929, (Kerguelen explorations).

(21 June - Kiel) 1874-76 (27 Apr. - Kiel) "Gazelle" (German corvette); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Th. Studer, Börger & Freiherr von Schleinitz, all the oceans.

1875 "Valorous" (British); Jeffreys, Jones, off W Greenland.

1875 "H.M.S. Peterel" Galapagos; W.E. Cookson (commander).

1875 "Proeven" (small Norwegian sloop) (Swedish); A.E. Nordenskiöld, Kjellman, Lundström, Théel, Stuxberg & Isaksen, Novaja Zemlya - Kara Sea area.

1875-76 H.M.S. "Discovery" & "Alert" (British); Nares (captain), Richard William Coppinger, 1847-1910 (surgeon / naturalist), Edward Lawton Moss (surgeon / naturalist), Henry Chichester Hart, 1847-1908 (naturalist), Henry Fielden (naturalist); Arctic - in order to study the difference between magnetic and geographic north pole.

1876 "Argo" (US); R. Cholmondelay.

1876 "Ymer" (steamer) (Swedish); A.E. Nordenskiöld, Kjellman, Stuxberg, Théel, Brenner, Arnell, Trybom & N. Ericson, Novaja Zemlya - Kara Sea area.

1876-78 "Vöringen" (Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition); G.O. Sars, H. Mohn & captain C. Wille, 1:rst helmsman R.M. Petersen; North Ice Sea during the summer months [Montacuta (Montacuta ) voeringi Friele,1877, Leptognathia voeringi (G.O. Sars, 1877), Hyperiopsis voeringii G.O. Sars, 1885, Turrisipho voeringi Bouchet & Warén, 1985].

1877 "Gunhild" (H.M. gunboat) (Swedish); (Lovén), Bovallius, Théel, von Horn, summer dredgings in the deep Skagerrak area.

1877-78 "Fylla" (Danish); Jacobson; Iceland & Greenland.

1877-80 "Blake" (US Coast Survey); A. Agassiz, Sigsbee (1874-79) & Bartlett (1879-80), Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico & East coast of North America. The ship got its name from commodore George Smith Blake, 1803-71, (q.v.). This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. [Molpadia blakei (Théel, 1886), Mohnia (Tacita)) blakei (Verrill, 1885) Solarriorbis blakei Rehder, 1944, Vitrinella blakei Rehder, 1944, Calliostoma blakei Clench & Aguayo, 1938, Microvoluta blakeana (Dall, 1889), Propebela blakei (Verrill, 1885), Gymnobela blakeana (Dall, 1889), Lucinoma blakeana Bush, 1893]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly traced the person behind the ship's name and provided the picture).

1878-79 H.M.S. "Alert" (British); S.G. Nares, South America.

(21 July - Tromsö) 1878-80 (24 Apr. - Stockholm) "Vega" (43.3 meter long wooden ex German bark rigged steam-whaler of 357 tons), "Lena" & two supply ships (Swedish); This vessel (Vega) is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Nordenskiöld, Kjellman, Stuxberg, Ernst Almquist (1852-1946) (physician and botanist), Nordquist, Palander (commander of the Vega), Brusewitz & Hovgaard, North Ice Sea north of Asia [Ampharete vega (Wirén, 1883), Cucumaria vegae Théel, 1886, Haliclona vega (Fristedt, 1887), Edwardsia vegae Carlgren, 1921, Hamatoscalpellum vegae (Nilsson-Cantell, 1926)].

1878 & -79 "Gunhild" (H.M. gunboat) (Swedish); (Lovén), Théel, Trybom & Carlheim-Gyllrenskiöld, Forsstrand (2nd summer) & Lundgren (2nd summer) summer dredgings in Skagerrak - S Baltic region [Hymedesmia gunhildae Alander, 1942].

1878-82 "Alert" (British); R.W. Coppinger (Staff Suggeon and naturalist), in Patagonian, Polynesian, and Mascarene waters. Captain G.S. Nares was initially in command, but in the spring of 1879, he was replaced by Captain J.L.P. Maclear.

1879 "Isbjørn"; a Norwegian cutter commanded by Captain (later Sir) Albert H. Markham, who accompanied Sir Henry Gore Booth to the Barents Sea.

1879-82 "Jeanette" (US); George Washington De Long, 1844-81, North Ice Sea north of Asia. ("Jeanette" was wrecked by the ice).

1880 "Knight Errant" (British); Tizard, between Scotland & the Faeroes. (Discovered i.a. the Wyville Thomson ridge).

1880 "Yukon" (US); Dall, T.H. Bean, Alaska.

1880, 1882 "Travailleur" (a side-wheel advice-boat with coal storage space for only a week (normally used around the port of Rochefort)) (French); A. Milne-Edwards, Jeffreys, Norman, H. Filhol, E. Perrier, L. de Folin, L. Vaillant, P. Fischer, E. Marion, Ernest Richard, Jean de Villegente, Biscay, the Mediterranean and (the last year of use also) the Canaries [Micropleurotoma travailleuri Bouchet & Warén, 1980].

1881 "Willem Barents" (75 feet schooner) (Dutch); Max Weber, Barents Sea.

1881 "Thomas Corwin" (US); Calvin Leighton Hooper (captain), Edward William Nelson, 1855-1934 (naturalist); Bering Sea area

1881-83 "Washington" (Italian); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Managhi, Mediterranean.

1881-84, "Proteus" (US); Adolphus Washington Greely, 1844-1935, Lady Franklin Bay. (Don Cunningham kindly revealed the name of the ship)

1883 (1 June - Rochefort) - "Talisman" (French - replacing the Travailleur and with about the same scientific researchers on board); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. A. Milne-Edwards & Parfait, Atlantic off France - Morocco, the Canaries, the Cape Vertdes, the Azores and the Sargasso Sea [Stephonyx talismani (Chevreux, 1919), Ypsilothuria talismani E. Perrier,1886, Euspira talismaidg.wdgtni Bouchet & Warén, 1993, Fuscapex talismani Bouchet & Warén, 1986, Euonyx talismani (Chevreux, 1919), Parapontophilus talismani (Crosnier & Forest, 1973), Gebiacantha talismani (Bouvier, 1915), Ethusina talismani A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1897, Mastigoteuthis talismani (Fischer & Joubin, 1907), Amigdoscalpellum talismani (Gruvel, 1900), Neomorphaster talismani (Perrier, 1885)].

1882 "Triton" (British); Tizard & J. Murray, between Scotland and the Faeroes.

1882-83 "Dijmphna" (Danish); Hovgaard, H. Theo Holm, Kara Sea [Ascidia dijmphniana Traustedt, 1886]. S/S "Dijmphna" became icebound during over a year together with one of two Dutch expedition steamers "Varna", commanded by captain Knudsen. They lost contact with the other Dutch steamer "Louise", commanded by captain Burmeister. "Varna" was wrecked in the ice, but the crew rescued.

1882-84 "Drache" (German); Holzhauer, the North Sea.

1882-85 "Vettor Pisani" (Italian); Chierchia, Cesare Marcacci & Palumbo, circumnavigation. [Chiridota pisanii (Ludwig, 1886)]

1882-86 "Holstatia" (German); Neumann, Möbius, Hensen, Benecke, Heinke, Schütt, the sea close to Germany.

1883 "Dacia" (British); Buchanan, around NW Africa.

1883 "Sofia" (mail-steamer) (Swedish); A.E. Nordenskiöld, Nathorst, Johan A. Berlin (1851-1910) (physician and botanist), Forsstrand, Kolthoff, Hamberg, Kjellström, Strömfelt, Arpi, Flink, E. Nilsson, Iceland & W Greenland.

1883-85 "Enterprise" (US); Barker, all the oceans.

1883-85 "Fylla" (Danish) gun boat expedition to East Greenland directed by Holm & Garde.

1884-86 "Hauch" (Danish); Petersen, Kattegat [Hauchiella Levinsen, 1893]. (The ship had likely its name from Carsten Hauch, 1790-1872, Danish author and Prof. of aesthetics, who in younger days worked within zoology).

1884-97 "Investigator" (India); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. A. Alcock, Indian Ocean

1885 "Hirondelle" & "Princesse Alice" - and their followers "Hirondelle II" & "Princesse Alice II" - (Monaco) is starting their expeditions with Prince Albert I of Monaco this year; totally he conducted 26 expeditions . The scientific collaborator of Prince Albert, Baron J. de Guerne was replaced by J. Richard in 1888. Another collaborator was the Challenger chemist J.Y. Buchanan. An artist and a zoologist (varying between different trips) were also onboard [Gyrophyllum hirondellei Studer, 1891, Hirondellea Chevreux, 1889, Axinella hirondelli (Topsent, 1892), Eumetula aliceae (Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1896), Phascolion hirondellei Sluiter, 1900, Meromenia hirondellei Leloup, 1949, Maera hirondellei Chevreux, 1900, Anachis aliceae Pallary, 1900, Borsonia hirondellae Dautzenberg, 1891, Chlamys alicei Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1897, Profundisepta alicei (Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1897)]. Hirondelle and Princesse Alice are honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco.

1885 "Holsatia" (German); Hensen, the North Sea and the area W of Scotland.

1885-85 "Lord Bandon" (Irish), off SW Ireland, W.S. Green, Nichols, Haddon.

1885-86 "Buccaneer" (British); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Buchanan, Gulf of Guinea.

1886-89 "Vitiaz" (Russian); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Admiral S.O. Makarov, all the oceans.

1887-88 "Egeria" (British); Pelham Aldrich, Indian Ocean & South Pacific.

1888 "Flying Falcon" (formerly "Lord Bandon" - see 1885-86), (Irish), off Ireland, W.S. Green.

1889 "Flying Fox" (Irish), off SW Ireland, down to 1000 fathoms, W.S. Green

1889 "National" (German Plankton Expedition); V. Hensen, K. Brandt, O. Krümmel & Heekt, N Atlantic Ocean [Doliolum nationalis Borgert, 1893].

1889 "Berentine" (Der Bremer Expedition nach Ost-Spitzbergen"; W. Kükenthal, A. Walter, Svalbard, sent out by the Bremen Geographical Society. The ship ran aground among the Kong Ludvig-øane and was crushed by the ice on 11:th June, but the crew was saved four days later by the whale cargo "Cecilie Maline" from Tromsø and the crew could continue their research during the season.

1889-1915 H.M.S. "Research" (British); a 42 meter long (7 meters broad) paddle-wheeler of 520 tons built in 1888 for survey work around the British Isles (including Northern Ireland, Shetland, etc.) during the period between April and October each year, but also making a plankton expedition trip to Biscay in 1900. Her first commanding officer was Captain Pelham Aldrich (q.v.), but only for around a year. G.H. Fowler (q.v.) used this ship several times.

1890 S.Y. "Fingal" (Irish), off W Ireland.

1891 Steam fishing vessel "Harlequin" (Irish), off W Ireland.

1891 "Albatross" (234 feet steamer) (US Fish Commission); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. The ship was finished in 1882 and served until 1921 as a research vessel. Agassiz, Charles Haskins Townsend (naturalist), Tanner, Schroeder, west coast of central America [Nausithoe albatrossi (Maas, 1897), Acanthocyclus albatrossis Rathbun, 1898].

1890-98 "Pola" (Austrian/Hungarian); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Natterer, Karl Grobben, Emil von Marenzeller, Rudolf Kner, Carl Claus, W. Mörth, E Mediterranean & the Red Sea [Cyclosalpa polae Sigl, 1912].

1890s, (beginning of), "Caudan" (French); ?, Biscay [Henricia caudani (Koehler, 1895), Copidognathus caudani (Trouessart, 1896), Dantecia caudani Caullery].

1891-92 "Hekla" (Danish), Lt. C. Ryder, E. Bay (collector), Scoresby Sound (E. Greenland).

1893-96 "Fram" (Norwegian barquentine rigged steamer - or topsail schooner - constructed by the famous Colin Archer from Larvik, Norway); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Nansen, Henrik Blessing (1866-1916) (physician, botanist hunter and interested in poetry), Hjalmar Johansen (1867-1913), Otto Sverdrup (1854-1930), Northern Ice Sea [Ilyarachna frami Just, 1980].

1894-97 "Windward" (British - the so called Jackson-Harmsworth Arctic expedition); Reginald Koettlitz (ship physician), Albert Armitage (navigator), Frederick George Jackson (expedition leader), William Speirs Bruce (zoologist), Thomas Vere Hodgson (zoologist), David Wilton (Bruce's assistant), Franz Josef Land area. This expedition, financed by the newspaper proprietor Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, 1865-1922, (who from a poor childhood and a life as a free-lance journalist started a newspaper imperium , starting a few, like the Evening News, the Dayly Mail and the Dayly Mirror and buying others like the Observer, the Times and the the Sunday Times), by chance saved and returned Nansen and one of his companions from their perilous North Pole trek attempt.

1895 & 1895-96 "Chazalie" (French); R. de Dalmas, J. Versluys jr.; Caribbean?

(5 May - Copenhagen) 1895-(23 Aug. Copenhagen) 1895 & (3 May - Copenhagen) 1896-(19 Aug. - Copenhagen) 1896, "Ingolf" (64 m. (+9 m beam) 3-masted iron steam schooner) (Danish); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. C.F. Wandel (competent sea officer, who in 1880 had taken part in the US R/V Blake cruise and later became an admiral), C.E. Ostenfeld Hansen (botanist), H.J. Hansen (replaced by C.J. Wesenberg-Lund in 1896), H. Jungersen, W. Lundbeck (zoologists), M. Knudsen (later Prof. of physics, who calculated the salinity titration tables), North Atlantic during two summers, of which the work in the Davis Strait was performed after 15 June during the first summer, else the vessel was working east of Greenland and around Iceland and in the Faeroe area [Histodermella ingolfi Lundbeck, 1910, Leucopsacus ingolfi Burton, 1928, Lernaeodiscus ingolfi Boschma, 1928, Ingolfiella Hansen, 1903, Haploniscus ingolfi Wolff, 1962, Astacilloechus ingolfi Hansen, 1916, Protellina ingolfi Stephensen, 1944, Stegocephalina ingolfi Stephensen, 1925, Oedicerina ingolfi Stephensen, 1931, Agathotanais ingolfi Hansen, 1913, Myzostomum ingolfi Jägersten, 1940, Amphilepis ingolfiana Mortensen, 1933, Anthophiura ingolfi Fasmer, 1930, Stereocidaris ingolfiana Mortensen, 1903, Plicastichopus ingolfi Heding, 1942, Achiridota? ingolfi Heding, 1935, Scyphopodium ingolfi (Jensenius Madsen, 1944), Isozoanthus ingolfi Carlgren, 1913, Anthosactis ingolfi Carlgren, 1921, Parasicyonis ingolfi Carlgren, 1942, Sicyonis ingolfi Carlgren, 1921, Sagartiogeton ingolfi Carlgren, 1928, Isoedwardsia ingolfi Carlgren, 1921, Octocnemus ingolfi Madsen, 1947, Nessorhamphus ingolfianus Schmidt, 1912, Anomopera ingolfiana Hartmeyer, 1923, Volvarina ingolfi Bouchet & Warén, 1985, Halielloides ingolfiana Bouchet & Warén, 1986, Fusceulima ingolfiana Bouchet & Warén, 1986, Bathydoris ingolfiana Bergh, 1899, Tritonia ingolfiana Bergh, 1899, Heterodoris ingolfiana Bergh, 1899, Xyloredo ingolfia Turner, 1972, Amphianthus ingolfi Carlgren O., 1942].

1896-1907 "Amelia" (Portuguese); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. D. Carlos I de Bragança, off the Portuguese coast.

(16 Aug. - Port of Anvers) 1897-99 (5 Nov.), "Belgica" (barque) (Belgian); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Adrien de Gerlache de Gomeroy (1866-1934), Roald Amundsen (mate), Frederick Albert Cook (1865-1940) (physician, who had taken part in a terrestrial Greenland expedition in 1891-92), Johan Koren ((4 Oct. - Fredrikstad) 1879-1919 (3 Mar. - Vladivostok, by the Spanish disease), Norwegian ice sea researcher, related to, but not very closely, his older exact namesake, the Norwegian physician and zoologist (q.v.)) Racovitza, Lecointe,, Antarctic waters [Pseudocyclopina belgicae (Giesbrecht, 1902)].

1898 "Antarktika" (steamer) (Swedish); Nathorst, Kolthoff, Hamberg, Kjellström, Ohlin, G. Andersson, Hesselman, J.G. Andersson, E. Levin, E. Nilsson, Bear Island & Spitsbergen.

1898 "Helgoland" (34 m long trawler) (German), F. Römer, F. Schaudinn, Herman Rüdiger (captain), Svalbard and Northern Ice Sea, called "Die Deutsche Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer", resulting in several good dredgings and plankton hauls and also resulting in the six volumes series "Fauna Arctica". The ship lay alongside the Swedish expedition ship "Antarktika" in Bjørnøya during a week in June 1899 and in September they visited the newly opened marine biological station in Murmansk and were welcomed by their colleague Breitfuss.

1898-1899 "Valdivia" (= "German Deep-Sea Expedition") (German);This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. Chun, Vanhöffen, E Atlantic down to Antarctic waters, Indian Ocean into the Red Sea, passing through the Suez Channel into the Mediterranean [Valdiviella Steuer, 1904, Thenea valdiviae von Lendenfeld, 1906, Paracalliactis valdiviae Carlgren, 1928, Phascolion valdiviae Fischer, 1916, Amphionides valdiviae Zimmer, 1904, Euphysora valdiviae Vanhöffen, 1911, Notolychnus valdiviae (Brauer, 1904), Melanostomias valdiviae Brauer, 1902, Liocranchia valdiviae Chun, 1910, Bathypolypus valdiviae (J. Thiele, in Chun, 1915), Exocoelactis valdiviae Carlgren O., 1928, Bathydactylus valdiviae Carlgren O., 1928, Amphianthus valdiviae Carlgren O., 1928, Pinnixa valdiviensis Rathbun, 1907].

1898-1899 "Fram" (Norwegian). Otto Sverdrup, Johan C. Svendsen (1865-99 (took his life during the cruise June 1, because he suffered from depression)) (physician & meteorologist), Adolf Lindstrøm (1866-1939) (cook), Canadian Arctic.

(23 Aug. - London) 1898-1900 (June) SY "Southern Cross" (British, financed by the British publisher Sir George Newnes; the ship's name was originally "Pollux"); Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink, (1 Dec. - Oslo) 1864-1934 (21 Apr. - Oslo), Norwegian adventurer and expedition leader, Bernard Jensen (captain), Nicolai Hansen (the expedition's Norwegian zoologist died Oct. 14 1899 likely from an intestinal disorder and was the first person to be buried (helped by dynamite) in the Antarctic), Hugh Blackwell Evans (assistant zoologist from Bristol), Herluf Kløvstad (1868-1900) (physician), Louis Charles Bernachi (1876-1942) (Tasmanian, who studied magnetism and meteorology), (totally 30 men and 90 dogs), Antarctic Ocean.

1898-1900 (2 expeditins, the first Aug 1898-Sep. 1899, the second with "Antarctic" from June-Sep. 1900; Amdrup, K. Poulsen (collector, 1:rst exp.), Søren Jensen (collector, 2:nd exp.), East Greenland & Jan Mayen.

1899 "Nero" (US); Hodges, Pacific Ocean.

1899 (31 May-30 July) "George W. Elder" (US); Edward Henry Harriman (commander), Clinton Hart Merriam, 1855-1942, (head scientist), Wesley R. Coe (scientist), Ritter, Kincaid, Dall, John Muir, 1838-1914, (conservationist), Alaska. (Don Cunningham kindly provided the life spans of Merriam and Muir)

1899 "Fish Hawk" (US Fish Commission); B. Evermann, H.F. Moore, Millard Caleb Marsh, 1872-1936, W.A. Wilcox, J.B. Wilson, Puerto Rico. This 157 feet ship was finished in 1880 and served as a research vessel until 1927. (Don Cunningham kindly provided Marsh's life span).

1899 "Antarctic" (steamer) (Swedish); Nathorst, E. Nilsson, Dusén, Hammar, Åkerblom, I. Arwidsson, Forsblad, Jan Mayen, E Greenland.

1899-1900 "Albatross" (US); Agassiz, J.F. Moser, west coast of central America [Aricidea albatrossae Pettibone, 1957, Abyssocucumis albatrossi Cherbonnier, 1947, Bolivina albatrossi Cushman, 1922, Chiridota albatrossi (Edwards, 1907)].

1899-1900 "Siboga" (Dutch); This vessel is honored among 20 ship names sculpted around the facade of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco. M. Weber, M. Nierstrasz, J. Versluys & G.F. Tydeman, East Indian archipelago [Siboglinum Caullery, 1914, Sibogita Maas, 1905, Halecium sibogae Billard, 1929, Heterosaccus sibogae Boschma, 1931, Nephrops sibogae de Man, 1916, Ameira sibogae A. Scott, 1909, Metapenaeopsis sibogae (de Man, 1907), Hymenopenaeus sibogae (de Man, 1907), Hemipenaeus sibogae de Man, 1910, Heterocarpus sibogae de Man, Nennaphaeus sibogae (de Man, 1910), Callianassa sibogae de Man, 1905, Hormiphora sibogae Moser, 1903, Ibla sibogae Hoek, Sluiterina sibogae (Sluiter, 1902), Zygophylax sibogae Gili, Bouillon & Pagés, 1998, Nikoides sibogae de Man 1918, Acanella sibogae Nutting, 1910, Uroteuthis sibogae (Adam, 1954), Ceratocephala sibogae (Horst, 1924), Leviapseudes sibogae (Nierstrasz, 1913), Spengelia sibogae (Spengel, 1907), Cephalodiscus sibogae, Neoamphitrite sibogae (Caullery, 1944), Opisthopista sibogae Caullery, 1944, Pista sibogae Caullery, 1915, Jugamphicteis sibogae (Caullery, 1944), Fenestraja sibogae (Weber, 1913), Trididemnum sibogae (Hartmeyer, 1910)].

1899-1901 "Storozh" (motor schooner) (Russian); Brazhnikov, Domashnev, the Okhotsk Sea.

1900 "Frithiof" (steamboat) (Swedish); G. Kolthoff, Östergren, Levin, T. Odhner, K. Kolthoff, J. Kjeldsen, Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen, E Greenland.

1900s "Helga" (Irish); When the Fisheries Branch of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland (directed by E.W.L. Holt) was established in 1899, they took over the the role of the Royal Dublin Society and began using this ship (or these ships because there were in fact two Helga's, the first beeing a 145 feet long steel twin-screw steam yacht, the second 155 feet long vessel was commissioned in 1908, Irish waters. (Before Helga II was launched in 1908, some other ships together with Helga was used, e.g. Monica and Granuaile and Helga II was renamed Muirchú during the 1920s and 1930s) [Metacyphocaris helgae Tattersall, 1906, Phyllopus helgae Farran, 1908, Hymedesmia helgae Stephens, 1916, Neocyttus helgae (Holt & Byrne, 1908), Bathymysis helgae W Tattersall, 1907].

1900-02 "Diana" (Danish warship); A.C. Johansen (1900), R. Hørring (1901), Ditlevsen (1902); Iceland & Faeroes.

1900-03 "Fram" (Norwegian barquentine rigged steamer); Sverdrup, the Arctic American region [Yoldiella frami Knudsen, 1985].

1901-03 The barque rigged and steam engined RRS "Discovery" (British) and a relief ship the "Morning"; R.F. Scott, Albert Armitage, E. Shackleton (1874-1922), Thomas Vere Hodgson, (1864-1926), Reginald Koettlitz (1860-1914) (physician, botanist and parasitologist with earlier experience of skiing, dog-sledging etc. in the Arcic in an expedition to Franz Josef Land, and who later died in dysentery in South Africa), Edward Adrian Wilson (1872-1912) (physician, hired by Scott, who did not trust Koettlitz' ability), G.A. Davidson (on the "Morning"); Antarctic waters.

1901-03 "Gauss" (German steamer); von Drygalski, Vanhöffen & H. Rüser, Antarctic waters [Mimonectes gaussi (Woltereck, 1904), Gaussia Wolfenden, 1905, Acanthomenia gaussiana Thiele, 1913, Pseudericthonius gaussi Schellenberg, 1926, Callochiton gaussi J. Thiele, 1908 , Lepidophanes gaussi (Brauer, 1906), Vanhoeffenella gaussi Rhumbler, 1905, Gaussicia gaussi (G.W. Müller, 1908), Trianguloscalpellum gaussi (Gruvel), Pseudotanais (Akanthinotanais) gaussi Vanhöffen, 1912].

(16 Oct.) 1901-03 "Antarctic" (Swedish barque rigged steamer with 3 masts); Otto Nordenskjöld (expedition leader & geographer - q.v.), Karl Andreas Andersson (zoologist, later - after dissertation on Antarctic pterobranchs - fisheries scientist, MP, and leader of a liberal party in Sweden - q.v.), Carl Skottsberg (botanist & zoologist - q.v.), Axel Ohlin (zoologist; became sick and was sent home in July 1902 with a British post steamer from Falkland Islands, but died home in July 1903 - q.v.), Gustaf (Gösta) Bodman (1875-1960) (meteorologist), Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874-1960) (geologist), Erik Ekelöf, (1875-1933) (physician) & Carl Anton Larsen (1859-1924) (sea captain from Larvik, Norway), Lt. José María Sobral (1880-1961 - died on his birth day, Apr. 14) (Argentinean observer); Antarctic waters. In 1902 the ship was wrecked and sank, but all onboard were rescued and spent the time until they were picked up by an Argentinean ship in 1903 on Paulette Island continuing their research. Nordenskjöld and and other expedition members built a camp at "Snow Hill" in order to spend the Antarctic winter 1902 there, while the ship cruised in order to take samples in the area between the Antarctic continent, South Georgia and Falkland Islands. However, in October 1902, when the ship should pick up Nordenskjöld and his team, they ran into very bad weather and drifting pack ice, making it impossible to reach the camp and they sent a sledge patrol (3 men) to Snow Hill in order to inform about the situation, but they never reached their destination and had to spend the next winter in a stone shelter 60 km from Snow Hill. Antarctic drifted in bad weather and pack ice and 12 Feb. 1903 the 20 sailors and researchers had to abandon the skip in small boats(together with the ships cats, research results and some food) a few hours before it went down and after 2 weeks they reached Paulette Island, where they could build a large stone hut for overwintering. They had rescued some food from their ship, but most often they had to eat penguins, black pudding from sea leopards and similar things, which the cook (also named Andersson) managed to make tasteful. A Norwegian sailor died the 7 June after some weeks of intensive caughing. October 31 K.A. Andersson, the cook Andersson, captain Larsen and 3 Norwegian sailors starts towards Snow Hill in a small boat and reaches their destinatin 8 Nov. The same day the Argentinean navy ship"Uruguay" reaches Snow Hill. (One Argentinean observer - a marine leutenant - was among the expedition members). A few weeks earlier also the 3 persons from the sledge patrol had arrived. On its way northwards "Uruguay" picks up also Skottsberg and the remaining persons on Paulette Island. The rescued expedition met Charcot and his crew on the "Français" in Buenos Aires in December and gifted him with 5 huskies from the Swedish expedition before the French expedition went southwards. Beside the "Urugyay" and the "Français" (q.v.) also a Swedish rescue expedition led by Olof Gylldén was sent out to search for the men from the "Antarctic", but "Uruguay" was the first vessel to enter the area and found them. The Scandinavians from the expedition are back in Scandinavia in January 1904. The overwintering was of course very problematic, but thanks to some rescued victuals and plenty of penguins and seals in the surroundings, they could survive. When the bakery yeast ended up, Ekelöf found a way to grow yeast cells, so they could manage to continue to make some bread. Several of them became friends during the rest of their life and met at least at one occasion each year until the end of the 1950s, after which the last of them died. Sobral studied and achieved a dissertation in geology in Uppsala in 1913 and was stationed in Norway as general consul 1930-31, so he could likely take part in some such meetings. The longest survivimg of the persons mentioned here were Skottsberg, who died in 1963 and the 5 years older K.A. Andersson, who died more than 93 years old in 1968.

1902 "Michael Sars" (Norwegian); Bjerkan, Faeroes and Iceland. (see document 6 of this pdf file for information about the ship)

1902-04 SY "Scotia" (Scottish, financed by the Coats brothers; Bruce named new discovered part of Antarctica Coats Land after the benefactors; the ship had been a Norwegian whaler); Robert Neil Rudmose Brown, R. C. Mossman, J. H. Harvey Pirie, David W. Wilton (zoologist), William S. Bruce, Antarctic waters [Hyphalaster scotiae Koehler, 1907].

(27 Aug.) 1903-05 "Français" (French three-masted ship of 150 feet, rigged as a barquentine with auxiliary steam engine); Charcot, de Gerlache de Gomeroy, Rallier du Baty, Pléneau (responsible for the engine), Jean Turquet, Gourdon, Antarctic waters. The expedition was aimed to go to Arctic waters, but was delayed after an accident in Le Havre when a sailor was killed. Charcot had thus time to change the route, when he heard that Nordenskjöld's Antarctic was reported missing. Arrived in Buenos Aires Charcot got the news about the rescue of the Antarctic crew and later met them there before going southwards. The ship went on a rock in the Antarctic so the crew had to pump by hand almost the rest of the time before they reached Argentina again and the ship was sold to the Argentinan navy as a supply ship after having returned to South America.

1903-05 "America" (US - named Baldwin-Ziegler Polar expedition); William Ziegler (not an expedition member, but sponsor), Anthony Fiala, unsuccessful attempt to reach the North Pole.

1903-1905 & 1908 "Thor" (Danish), North Sea, Faeroes, Iceland.

1903-06 "Gjöa" (Norwegian); Roald Amundsen, Godfred Hansen, the Arctic American region.

1904 "Albury" (US); Harvard Bahama expedition.

(Oct.) 1904-05 (Mar.), "Albatross" (US); Agassiz (expedition leader) L.M. Garrett, Frederick M. Chamberlain (naturalist), Pacific Ocean. George M. Bowers was sponsor of this trip.

1905 (British); J. Stanley Gardiner, "The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition" to the Indian Ocean.

1905-1908 Roosevelt (US), Peary, Bartlett, expeditions in order to try to reach the north pole.

1906-08 "Danmark" (Danish); Mylius Erichsen, Frits Johansen, East Greenland.

1906-13 "Planet" (German); Lebahn, all the oceans.

1907-09 "Nimrod" (British); Shackleton, Mawson, Eric Marshall (1879-1963) (first physician), Alistair F. Mackay (1878-1914) (second physician), Antarctic waters, attempting to reach the South Pole. Shackleton and the two physicians left for the South Pole, a trip they had thought would take 90 days before they were back again - so their food supply was limited to this time, but it was much tougher and they had to turn around 180 km from their goal and it took 120 days before they were back, barely living. Mackay later succumbed during Stefanson's unhappy "Karluk" expedition starting 1913 (q.v.).

1907-10 "Albatross" (US); the Philippine expedition in the Pacific.

1908 (Swedish) Spitsbergen expedition directed by G. De Geer.

1908-09 "Tjalfe" (Danish); Ad. S. Jensen, West Greenland [Eulalia tjalfiensis Ditlevsen, 1917, Ophiotjalfa Mortensen, 1913, Ophiozonella tjalfiana (Mortensen, 1913), Tjalfiella Mortensen, 1910, Eusirus tjalfiensis Stephensen, 1912].

1908-09 "Roosevelt" (US); Robert Edwin Peary ((6 May) 1856-1920 (20 Feb.)), North Pole.

(23 Aug. - Le Havre) 1908-10 (June) "Pourquoi pas?" (French; the 77.4 meter long, 13.7 meter wide ship of 449 tons was constructed in oak and rigged as a three-masted barque, with a 450 horsepower steam engine); Charcot, Antarctic waters.

1908-10 "Thor" (Danish); Johannes Schmidt, Ostenfeld & Paulsen, Mediterranean [Arnoglossus thori Kyle, 1916, Thoriella Stephensen, 1915, Orchomene thorii Stephensen, 1923, Scottocalanus thori With, 1915].

1910 "Michael Sars" (Norwegian); Murray, Hjort, Gran, Helland-Hansen, Appellöf, E. Koefoid & Th. Iversen, North Atlantic. During the expedition essential findings regarding the vertical distribution of plankton and nekton organisms were discovered. (See document 6 of this pdf file to find information about this ship)

1910-12 "Kainan Maru" (Japanese), Nobu Shirase (1861-1946), Nomura, Antarctic Seas.

1910(-14) SY "Terra Nova" (British Dundee whaler, rigged as a barque with auxiliary steam); R.F. Scott, Edward A. Wilson (physician & ornithologist), Edward Nelson, Edward L. Atkinson (1882-1929) (assistent physician), Georg M. Levick (1877-1956) (physician & gymnast), Denis Gascoigne Lillie 1888-1963 (marine biologist), Apsley Cherry-Garrard (24 years old photrographer - payed 1000 pounds to be part of the expedition), Antarctic. (Scott and four other expedition members - among them Dr. Wilson - succumbed during their way back from the South Pole). Thanks to Dr. Atkinson another isolated group of 6 persons were rescued and survived.

1911 "Fram" (Norwegian barquentine rerigged as a schooner and re-engined with a diesel engine), Amundsen, Antarctic. Amundsen reached the South Pole a month before Scott.

1911-12 "Deutschland" (German - originally named "Bjørn"); Richard Vahsel, Wilhelm Filchner ((13 Sep. - München) 1877-1957 (7 May - Zürich)), von Drygalski, Lohmann, Atlantic & Antarctic waters. Was trapped in the ice, but escaped after 9 months.

1911-14 "Aurora" (The Australasian Antarctic Expedition), Sir Douglas Mawson, C.T. Harrison (biologist) and several more persons.

1911-36 "Pourquoi pas?" (French); Charcot, North Atlantic.

1913 "Najade" (Hungarian); Leidenfrost, Adriatic [Isonema najadis Pell, 1938].

1913 "Karluk" (Canadian); Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Bartlett, Alistair F. Mackay (1878-1914) (physician). Arctic expedition, which went seriously wrong when the ship was captured by the ice, but more than half of the crew members and passengers survived and Stefansson together with i.a. the botanist and marine biologist Frits Johansen continued the same year the "Canadidian Arctic Expedition" which lasted until 1918. However, Mackay and some of his friends went away from the others and were never seen again.

1914-15 SY "Endurance"; Shackleton, Alexander Macklin (1890-1967) (physician), James McIlroy (1887-1968) (physician). "Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition". The ship was wrecked and sunk in the Weddell Sea on Nov. 15 1915. The crew (28 persons) used 3 life boats and eventually reached a small island. They used 2 of the life boats as shelter while shackleton and some other crew members tried to reach South Georgia 1300 km further north in the 3:rd boat and succeded, so the crew could be rescued.

1915-16 (Canadian) Fisheries Expedition, Hjort, Canadian waters.

1918-25 "Maud" (Norwegian); Amundsen, Arctic.

1920 (Canadian); Frits Johansen; Hudson and James Bays.

1921 S.S. "Mazatlan" (US) "Gulf of California Expedition by the California Academy of Sciences". F. Baker (mollusca), J.R. Slevin (in charge of the expedition), E.P. Van Duzee, Virgil Owen, I.M. Johnston (botany), Joseph C. Chamberlin.

1921-22 SY "Quest" (British; the ship's name was originally "Foca I") Shackleton, Frank Worsley, Antarctic.

1921-36 "Dana" & "Dana II" (Danish); Johannes Schmidt, G. Hansen, North Atlantic, Pacific Ocean off the Panama Channel, circumnavigation in 1928-30 (other participants then were Helge Thomsen, Anton Bruun, E. Steemann Nielsen, Poul Jespersen (first year), Å Vedel Tåning (2:nd year), N.C. Andersen (ship physician during the first part of the trip), and at the beginning also Schmidts old friends Ove Poulsen and J.N. Nielsen) [Dananemertes Friedrich, 1957, Ophiacantha (Ophiotreta) danae Mortensen, 1933, Funchalia danae Burkenroad, 1940, Danaella Stephensen, 1925, Taningia danae Joubin, 1931, Chauliodus danae Regan & Trewavas, 1929, Valbyteuthis danae Joubin, 1931, Heptapus danai Joubin, 1929, Thysanoteuthis danae (Joubin, 1933), Octopoteuthis danae Joubin, 1931, Idioteuthis danae (Joubin, 1933), Drechselia danae Joubin, 1931, Planctoteuthis danae (Joubin, 1931)].

1922 "Amboina" (Dutch/Danish); Mortensen, Kei Island area.

1924 "Saint George" (British); Cyril Crossland (zoologist), Evelyn Cheesman (entomologist), C.L. Collenette (entomologist), Cynthia Longfield (entomologist); Galapagos island, Cocos Island. (Expedition from the Cambridge University).

1925-27 "Meteor" (German); Hentschel, Merz (died during the expedition), Wattenberg, Wüst, Boehnecke & Spiess, Atlantic [Lensia meteori (Leloup, 1934), Podocoryne meteoris Thiel, 1938, Coeloplana (Benthoplana) meteoris Thiel, 1968].

1925- "Discovery" (British); Atlantic & Antarctic waters.

1926-45 "Effie M. Morrissey" (Canadian schooner); Robert A. Bartlett, 20 Arctic expeditions

1927 (Canadian); Hudson Straight; Frits Johansen.

1928 "Godthaab" (Danish); Riis-Carstensen, Kramp, P.M. Hansen, W Greenland

1928 "Krasin" (Russian); N of Spitsbergen.

1928-30 "City of New York", "Eleanor Bolling", James Clark Ross" & "C.A. Larsen" (US); Byrd, P.A. Siple, Antarctic waters.

1929- "Carnegie" (US); Atlantic & Pacific

1929-30 "Willibrord Snellius" (Dutch); P.M. van Riel, Indonesian waters [Ulmaris snelliusi Stiasny, 1935].

1930- "Discovery II" (British); Atlantic & Indo-Pacific.

1931- "Atlantis" (US); North Atlantic.

1931-34 "Godthaab" & "Gustav Holm" (Danish); L. Koch, Thorson, H. Madsen, Søgaard Andersen, Christian X's Land, Scoresby Sound - Danmarkshavn.

1931-62 "Velero 1 - Velero IV" (US); Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions. (see Allan Hancock).

1932 "Zaca" (2-masted diesel scooner) (US); Templeton Crocker, Pacific Mexico & S California. (Crocker, who was the owner of Zaca organized two later expeditions in 1936 and -38 under the scientific direction of William Beebe).

1933 "Caroline" (US); Caribbean.

1933-34 "Mabahiss" (British / Egyptian); Robert Beresford Seymour Sewell, Thomas Townley Macan, 1910-85 (12 Jan. - Cumbria), Kenneth N. MacKenzie, (Oban, Scotland) 1897-1951, Hussein Faouzi, (Cairo) 1990-88 (Cairo), Dr. Abdel Fattah Mohamed, Ahmed Badr, (9 Dec.) 1909-53 (Oct.) (first officer), Ahmed Sarwat (2:nd officer), Mahmoud Muktar (2:nd engineer), Edward Morcos (3:rd engineer), the "John Murray Expedition" to Red Sea & Indian Ocean [Aristeus mabahisse Ramadan, 1938].

1933- "President Th. Tessier" (French); North Atlantic.

1933-41 "Velero II" (US); Pacific [Veleronia Holthuis, 1951].

1934 & -35 "Thor" (Danish); Trolle, Gjessing, Steemann Nielsen, Bertelsen, Spitsbergen - Iceland, Faeroes -Iceland - SE Greenland [Ilyarachna thori Wulff, 1962, Cheirocratella thori Stephensen, 1940, Euborlasia thori Friedrich, 1958, Arctonemertes thori Friedrich, 1957].

1935 "Sadko" (Russian); between Franz Joseph Land & Severnaya Zemlja into the central Arctic.

1935 "G. Sedov" (Russian); Arctic Basin.

1933-38 "Zaca" (US - a two masted 118-ft scooner aquired 1945 and owned by the Tasmanian actor Erroll Flynn, but during the 1930s used for collections by the Stanford Univ. with the first owner Crocker as the funding leader; during WWII she had been used as a patrol ship along the coast); different scientists took part in different expeditions, e.g. Bolin was on board in 1938, when the goal was Mexico and Cockerell and his wife was on board in 1933 at the first tour to Fiji. W. Beebe published a book about his time on the Zaca. The expeditions during the 1930s were led by the owner Charles Templeton Crocker. Her use as a collecting expedition ship continued shortly, when in 1946, beside the new owner and skipper Flynn also Carl. L. & Laura Hubbs, Flynn's father (see Flynn) and a few more persons were on board as collectors in the Pacific, south of California. The ship was then used by Orson Welles and Ritha Hayworth in 1947 for filming "The Lady from Shanghai", but later Flynn took her to the Mediterranean as a kind of home and party ship, so the last scientific use of her was the 1946 cruise.

1937-40 "Sedov" (Russian); Arctic Basin.

1937 "M.S. Stranger" (Balboa, Calif., US); Alaska & north of Bering Sound; Capt. F.E. Lewis (owner and commander of this 230 foot Swedish built diesel sloop), W. Williams (collector), crew of mainly young sea scouts, like in the preceeding expeditions to Central America, the Galapagos Islands in 1935 and Hawaii, Bora Bora, Samoa, Fiji, Tonga, Christmas Island, Cook Island, Hope Island and Penryhn Islands, etc. in 1936.

1938-40 "Atlantis" (US); Atlantic coast & Caribbean

1941 "Askoy" (US); R.C. Murphy; Panama, Colombia, Equador.

1945-46 "Atlantide" (Danish); Bruun, J. Knudsen, Wolff, F.C. Fraser, Kraemmer, Tropical W Africa.

1947-48 "Albatross" (Swedish); Hans Pettersson, Kullenberg, Phleger, Olausson, Nybelin, Krafft, circumnavigation [likely Crassiplana albatrossi Hyman, 1955].

1949- "Vitiaz" (Russian); several expeditions in the Pacific, mainly the northern part [Vitjaziana Birstein & Vinogradiv, 1955].

1950 "Charcot"; (French); Antarctic.

(15 Oct.) 1950-52 (29 June) the former British Sloop, 80 m long and 11 m wide, H.M.S. Leith renamed "Galathea" (Danish); Bruun, Steemann-Nielsen, B. Hansen, Wolff, Gislén, ZoBell, Morita, H. Mielche (drawing artist), Svend Greve, circumnavigation [Galathowenia Kirkegaard, 1959, Thoracostoma (Synonchoides) galatheae Wieser, 1956, Torbenwolffia galatheae Zenkevitch, 1966, Leviapseudes galatheae (Wolff, 1956), Jugamphicteis galatheae Holthe, 2000].

1950s &1960s M.V. "Challenger" (Australia)

1951-52 "Calypso" (French); Cousteau; Red Sea.

1953-81 "Vema" (US); cruises each year in many parts of the oceans.

1955- "Anton Dohrn" (German); North Atlantic.

1957- "Vitiaz", "Mikhail Lomonosov", "Ob", "Ametiste" (USSR); all oceans [Nephasoma vitjazi (Murina,1964), Sipunculus lomonossovi Murina, 1968, Metaceradocoides vitjazi Birstein & Vinogradova, 1960, Apseudes vitjazi Kudinova-Pasternak, 1970, Cryptocope vitjazi Kudinova-Pasternak, 1982, Leptochiton vitjazi Sirenko, 1977, Vitjazema Zenkevitch, 1958, Pteroctopus witjazi Akimushkin, 1963].

1961-62 "Calypso" (French); Cousteau; South America

(Nov.-Dec.) 1969 "Thalassa" (French); de Saint Laurent; western Mediterranean.

1970 "Thalassa" (French); de Saint Laurent; Biscay.

(Nov.-Dec.) 1971 "Jean Charcot" (French; the "Biaçores" expedition); Forest, de Saint Laurent; around the Azores

1975 "Norbi" expedition with R/V "Jean Jarcot" (French/Scandinavian); E. Dahl; Norwegian & Greenland Seas [Austroniscus norbi Svavarsson, 1982].

1976 "Vauban" (French; trawler; known as MUSORSTOM 1); Forest, de Saint Laurent; Philippines.

1982 "Marion Dufresne" (French); de Saint Laurent; around Réunion.

1980 & 1985 "Coriolis" (French: known as MUSORSTOM 2 & 3); Forest, de Saint Laurent; Philippines.

Some years after WW II the expedition ships became so many, that it is hard to count all expeditions from nations like USA, France, USSR, Germany, Norway, Australia, etc.