Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. L

Alphonse Labbé, 1869-19??, published about Sporozoa in Das Tierreich and was active at least until the late 1920s.

Miss Ludivina Landrito Labe, 19??-, biologist at the National Fisheries Research and Development Institue, the Philippines. Active in the expedition of the DABFAR in 2005. [Vaceuchelus ludiviniae Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

The scaphopod name Cadulus labeyriei Scarabino, 1995 is honouring Dr Laurent Labeyrie, 19??-, CNRS Gif-sur-Yvette, cruise leader of the ESTASE 2 Expedition aboard R. V. "Jean Charcot". (Dr. Métivier, MNHN, Paris, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Antonio José Laborda Navia, 19??-, Univ. of Léon (where he achieved his PhD in 1984), is honoured in the polychaete name Epigamia labordai (San Martín & López, 2002).

Prof. Dr. Jacques Laborel, (7 Oct.) 1934-, coral researcher in Marseille, is honoured in the scleractinian name Dendrophyllia laboreli Zibrowius & Brito, 1984. Laborel began publishing on corals around 1960, but had already in 1958 published (together with Vacelet (q.v.)) on life in a submarine cave.

Prof. Pierre-Jean Labourg, 19??-, Arcachon, is honoured in the monogenean name Diplectanum labourgi Oliver, 1973.

Dr. Joseph Alexandre Laboulbène, (25 Aug.- Agen) 1825-1898 (7 Dec. - Paris), French medical Dr. & Entomologist, describing some sea shore species.

Pierre Laboute, (2 Feb.) 1942-, "the diver at the Centre ORSTOM de Nosy Bé who accompanied Arthur G Humes (q.v.) on many SCUBA dives during the field work at Nosy Bé ...". He has also published on ascidians together with the Monniot couple and is now belonging to IRD, stationed at Nouméa (New Caledonia) since many years [Colobomolgus laboutei Humes & Stock, 1973, Citorclinum laboutei Monniot & Millar, 1988, Etisus laboutei Crosnier 1987, Suberea laboutei Bergquist ,1995, Echinochalina laboutei Hooper & Lévi, 1993, Pteroeides laboutei d'Hondt, 1984, Pteronisis laboutei (Bayer & Stefani, 1987), Noumea laboutei Rudman, 1986, Cirrhilabrus laboutei Randall & Lubbock, 1982, Hydrophis laboutei Rasmussen & Ineich, 2000, Hexagonalia laboutei Galil, 1997, Biemna laboutei Hooper, 1996, Suberea laboutei Bergquist, 1995, Amphicarpa laboutei C. Monniot, 1988]. (Dr. Alain Crosnier, MNHN, Paris kindly provided some of this information).

The gastropod name Oliva lacanientai Greifeneder & Blöcher, 1985 may possibly be a tribute to Evelyn Lacanienta, 19??-, who has published on e.g. Papua New Guinea biology.

Prof. Dr. Félix Joseph Henri de Lacaze-Duthiers, (15 May - Montpezat (Lotet-Garonne)) 1821-1901 (21 July - Les Fons), French physician and zoologist, Professor in Lille and then in Paris (1869), who founded the marine station in Roscoff (in 1871) and the one in Banyules, spending much of his private money on those stations. He also was a pioneer in researching the marine fauna of Algeria and had started his career as an assistant to Henri Milne Edwards (q.v.) after having visited the Baleares together with his friend Jules Haime (q.v.) and there studied the marine fauna. [Lacazea Dragesco, 1960, Poliopsis lacazei Joubin, 1890, Eurypon lacazei (Topsent, 1891), Polysyncraton lacazei (Giard, 1872), Pontocaris lacazei (Gourret), Synoicum lacazei (Pérès, 1957), Strophomenia lacazei Pruvot, 1899, Adelosina duthiersi Schlumberger, 1886, Convoluta lacazi von Graff, 1891, Ischyromene lacazei Racovitza, 1908, Aegaeon lacazei (Gourret, 1887), Dileptus lacazei (Gourret & Roeser, 1886), Holosticha lacazei Maupas, 1888]. He mainly wrote about molluscs and ascidians, partly together with Professor Marie Yves Delage, (13 May - Avignon) 1854-1920 (7 Oct. - Sceaux), in Paris (later at the Univ. of Brussels), who i.a. was a carcinologist, but also developed a method for hatching sea urchin eggs and also a person honouring Lamarck [Chthamalophilus delagei J. Bocquet-Védrine, 1957, Ellipinion delagei (Hérouard, 1896), Mesoglicola delagei Quidor, 1906, Nephasoma delagei (Hérubel, 1903), Diphasia delagei Billard, 1912].

Bernard Germain Etienne de la Ville sur Illon, Comte de Lacépède, (26 Dec. - Agen) 1756-1825 (6 Oct. - d Epinay-sur-Seine), French naturalist (particularly interested in fishes and reptiles) and also musician (composing symphonies and operas); friend & coworker of Buffon (q.v.) and also a close friend of Voltaire and D'Alembert. Had great political influence - because he became one of Napoleons favourites - and used it to develop Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle and Jardin des Plantes. He was however opposed by several naturalist in his way of never missing an opportunity to construct taxon names from so called "barbaric" words, i.e. words, which were not part of classical Greek or Latin or could be derived from names of persons or places. He finished Buffon's Histoire Naturelle [Lophotus lacepepei Giorna, 1809].

Dr. João Batista de Lacerda, (12 July - Campos dos Goytacazes) 1846-1915 (6 Aug. - Rio de Janeiro), Brazil physician and naturalist [Paralaophonte lacerdai Jakobi, 1953]. (André Trombeta kindly provided the information about de Lacerda's citiccenship).

The Dutch malacologist and bryozoologist Adrianus W. Lacourt, (6 June) 1910-1987 (19 Feb.), is honoured in the gastropod names Setia lacourti (Verduin, 1984) and Chrysallida (Partulida) lacourti Nordsieck, 1972. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

Dr. Harry Stephen Ladd, 1899-1982, PhD in geology at Univ. of Iowa in 1925, US geologist, interested i.a. in fossil molluscs. [Cardium laddi Abrard, 1946, Dodecaceria laddi Hartman, 1954, Bikiniastrea laddi Wells, 1954, Barabattoai laddi (Wells, 1954), possibly Bathygobius laddi (Fowler, 1931), likely Minisynchiropus laddi (Schultz, 1960)]

The gastropod name Etidoris ladislavii von Ihering, 1886 is a tribute to Dr. Ladislau de Souza Mello Netto, 1838-1894, "verdienstvollen Leiter und Schöpfer des Brasilianischen Reichsmuseum". Dr. Netto had been trained by the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris and was appointed director of the Rio de Janeiro musem in 1870 by the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II.

The French tunicate specialist Dr. Françoise Lafargue, 19??-, Laboraoire Arago, who has published much on synascidians, is honoured in the tunicate name Diplosoma lafargueae Vazquez, 1993.

Mr. B. Lafferty, 19??-, first drew the attention of the author to Turbinella laffertyi Kilburn, 1975 and Mrs Elsie Lafferty, 19??-, is honoured in Latirus elsiae Kilburn, 1975. They are likely related and from South Africa.

Patrick I. La Follette, 19??-, US malacologist.

Alexandre Lafont, who is honoured in the gastropod name Phyllaplysia lafonti P. Fischer, 1870 published on cephalopods at least between 1869-71 and may possibly (but perhaps not likely) be the same A. Lafont, who is honoured in the bryozoan name Savignyella lafontii (Audouin, 1826). (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information). A namesake was Louis-Alexandre Lafont, 1831-1875, who worked on oyster beds and an Alexandre Lafont was Director of the Laboratoire de Bacteriologie of Mauritius in the beginning of the 20:th century.

Prof. Louis de La Foye, (18 Apr. - Norolles, Calvados, Normandie) 1781-1843 (or 1847?), University of Caen, French amateur botanist, is hidden in the name Lafoea Lamouroux, 1821. He spent some years in exile in Berlin, while young and during an excursion to Switzerland, he introduced his life long friend, Chamisso (q.v.) to botany. After returning to France from Berlin in 1804 - after several years of waiting, he in 31 July 1811 became prof of mathematics at the college of Bayeux, and in December 1821, he became prof. of physics in Alençon.

The gastropod name Anachis lafresnayi (Fischer & Bernardi, 1856) must be a tribute to Nöel Frédéric Armand André, Comte de Lafresnaye, (24 July - Chateau de La Fresnaye, Falaise, Calvados, Normandy) 1783-1861 (14 June), a large collector of insects, birds and much other natural history objects and describing some new species, partly together with d'Orbigny.

Jean-Paul Lagardère, (6 Jan.) 1942-, Centre de Recherche en Ecologie Marine et Aquaculture, CNRS/IFREMER, L'Houmeau, France, is honoured in the copepod name Cerviniella lagarderei Bodin, 1967 and in the decapod name Hippolyte lagarderei D'Udekem d'Acoz, 1995. He has published on Natantia.

Ester Lager, 18??-19?? (was still active as teacher in 1934), a teacher in Djursholm (Stockholm area), published in 1911 a work on Actiniaria (Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Ergebnisse der Hamburger südwest-australischen Forschungsreise 1905).

Prof. Dr. Nils Gustaf Lagerheim, (18 Oct. - Stockholm) 1860-1926 (2 Jan. - Djursholm), Swedish botanist. Became curator at the Natural History Museum in Lisboa, Portugal in 1889, Professor in Cryptogam Systematics at the University of Quito, Ecuador, the same year, but left this appointment for health reasons in 1892 and became curator at the Museum in Tromsö, Norway. Achieved a professorship in botany at the high school in Stockholm in 1895. He was mainly a mycologist and phycologist, but was also one of the founders of pollen analysis,

Dr. Fernando Lahille, (18 Aug. - Rouen) 1861-1940 (30 July), French physician, ichthyologist and tunicate specialist, working partly in Argentina [Didemnum lahillei Hartmeyer, 1909, Cycethra lahillei de Loriol, 1904].

Mr. Frank Fortesque Laidlaw, (1 Feb. - Galashiels) 1876-1963 (11 Dec.), made zoological researches in Malay during the "Skeat" Expedition. He published chiefly on turbellarians during the three first decades of the 20:th century [Scala laidlawi Melvill & Standen, 1903, Laidlawiana Prudhoe, 1985, Laidlawia Herzig, 1905] {Picture / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}.

Is Laila in the opisthobranch genus Laila MacFarland, 1905 (now synonymized with Limacea Müller) possibly a lady's name?

The myxozoan name Myxobolus lairdi Moser & Noble, 1977 is in honour of Prof. Dr. Marshall Laird, 19??-, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.

Robert Lais, 1886-1945, German Malacologist.

The bivalve name Lajonkairia lajonkairii Payraudeau, 1826 must likely be a tribute to the geologist Michel Louis Adolphe Le Roux De Lajonkaire, (11 Apr. - Nord - Dunkerque) 1802-18?? (still living in 1872), "Membre de la Société d’Histoire naturelle de Paris".

The Russian geophysical researcher (also hydrochemist & oceanographer) in the Arctic and Antarctic area, Prof. Alexey Fedorovich Laktionov, 1899-1966, is honoured in the isopod name Tytthocope laktionovi (Gurjanova, 1946). (Prof. A. Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided much of this information).

The decapod name Jasus lalandii (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) , is a tributes to the French collector (employed by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle) Pierre Antoine de la Lande or Delalande, (27 Mar.) 1787-1823 (27 June), and the S Atlantic amberjack name Seriola lalandi (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833) was taken off Brazil by Monsieur de Lalande, which must be the same person, because he worked in the Rio De Janeiro area in 1816 (collecting birds and other natural history objects and between 1818-1821 he and his in the start of the expedition very young nephew Jules Verreaux, (q.v.), was on a collecting expedition to South Africa), so the French astronomer Joseph-Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande, (11 Jul.) 1732-1807 (4 Apr. - presumably from tbc), who in 1760 was appointed professor of astronomy in the Collège de France and 8 years later he also he became director of the Paris Observatory is not the honoured person in any of these names.

Lacking information about the French naturalist de Lalaurencie in the Algal genus name Laurencia Lamouroux, 1813. Lamouroux does not indicate his friend's initials but writes "dédié ce genre á M. de Lalaurencie, ancien officier de marine, inspecteur d'académie dans l'universié impériale, amateur des sciences naturelles, en temoignage de ma sincère amitié", so it is difficult to know who he was, but possibly identical with Jean Baptiste Auguste François Marie Lalaurencie, marquis de Charras, 1780-1857, mentioned as a liutenant.

Lacking information about Lallemand in the red algal name Lophocladia lallemandii (Montagne) F. Schmitz, 1893, but possibly a tribute to François Antoine "Charles" Lallemand, (23 June - Metz) 1774-1839 (9 Mar. - Paris), French soldier (general & baron) and geographer, who emigratet to USA (Texas) after the Napoleon wars (where he and his brother tryed to establish a French colony), but later returned to France and who is remembered in the geographical name the Lallemand Fjord in the western Antarctic. Lallemand was only 10 years older than the author.

Prof. Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet (or sometimes de Drouet) de Lamarck, usually called Chevalier de Lamarck, (1 Aug.) 1744-1828 (18 Dec.), was the 11:th (last) child of a poor count from Picardie (Bazentin-le-Petit) (hence the title Chevalier (= knight) for a poor nobility person) [Cyanea lamarcki Péron & Lesueur, 1809, Aulorrhiza lamarcki (Haeckel, 1869), Cerastoderma lamarcki Reeve, 1844, Hyattella lamarcki Topsent, 1933, Leucosolenia lamarckii Haeckel, 1869, Pomatoceros lamarcki (de Quatrefages, 1866), Gorgonocephalus lamarckii (J. Müller & Troschel, 1842), Gyroidina lamarckiana (d'Orbigny, 1839), Gyroidinoides lamarckiana (d'Orbigny, 1839), Quinqueloculina lamarckiana d'Orbigny, 1826, Olencira lamarckii Leach, 1818, Carinaria lamarcki Péron & Lesueur, 1810, Eunaticina lamarckiana Récluz, 1843, Conus lamarckii L. C. Kiener, 1849, Cypraea lamarcki Gray, 1825, Solen lamarckii G. P. Deshayes, 1839, Petrolisthes lamarckii (Leach, 1820), Mycetophyllia lamarckiana Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848, , Genicanthus lamarck (Lacepède, 1802), Agaricia lamarcki Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851, Erosaria lamarckii (Gray, 1825), Lobophytum lamarcki Tixier-Durivault, 1956]. After the decease of his father in 1760, the 17 years old Lamarck, for the small amount of money, which he had inherited purchased a miserable hack and rode towards the Mediterranean coast in order to enlist himself. After a short military voluntary effort during the end of the 7 years war (against Spain) he eventually in 1865 ended up in the latin blocks of Paris, where he worked as clerk in a bank and as a literary day-labourer ant taking music lessons (playing the violoncello). During his early years in Paris, Lamarck became a friend of the Genevan philosopher Jean Jacques Rosseau, (28 June - Geneva) 1712-1774 (2 July - Ermenonville, France), who influenced the young man a good deal. Experience from the military camping time had aroused his interest in herbs, so five years later, he began studying medicine and natural history, specializing in botany, guided especially by Bernard de Jussieu, (17 Aug. - Lyon) 1699-1777 (6 Nov. - Paris), (one of three famous botanist brothers, uncles of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, (12 Apr. - Lyon) 1778-1836 (17 Sep. - Paris), - he who divided herbs into monocotyledones and dicotyledones [Clanculus jussieui Payraudeau, 1826] (although the two words actually were introduced by the British naturalist John Ray, (29 Nov. - Black Notley, near Braintree, Essex) 1627-1705 (17 Jan. - Black Notley), - after whom the Ray Society is named (1844) - already in 1703). Bernard, however is also known for recognizing the animal nature of several "zoophytes", like Alcyonium, Flustra, Tubularia and Cellepora), but Lamarck was partly also a disciple of Buffon (q.v.), who had been interested in Lamarck because of the practical, though non-Linnaean 3-volume "Flore française", which Lamarck had begun to write already as a soldier in southern France and Lamarck travelled abroad (to the Netherlands, Germany and Hungary) in 1779 with Buffon's son. During 1789 he shortly acted as Daubenton's assistant. Later - when Lamarck was professor of Zoology - Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, (4 Feb. - Geneva) 1778-1841 (9 Sep.), from Geneva (who coined the term "taxonomy"), edited this book for Lamarck, while spending ten years in Paris, where he became a good friend of the three professors at the Muséum National d´Histoire Naturelle in Jardin des Plantes (so renamed in 1790 by Lamarck from Jardin du Roi during the revolution), Lamarck, Cuvier and Geoffroy (see Cuvier and below) [Lepadogaster candollei Risso, 1810]. (His son Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de Candolle, (27 Oct. - Geneva) 1806-1893 (4 Apr.), also became a botanist). With Buffon's blessing, Lamarck became a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1779 and Buffon further helped him to a royal botany appointment in 1781 and Lamarck travelled across Europe as a botanist for a few years. He returned in 1785. Because of lack of more qualified candidates (and because the botany chair was preoccupied by René Desfontaines (q.v)), this botanist and ex-liutenant was in 1793 - almost 50 years old - appointed professor of zoology - a discipline he had no experience in - together with the young clergyman and mineralogist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (see Cuvier) at the Museum of Natural History in Paris during the revolution. He there became pioneering, especielly as a systematician. The well-known "Philosophie zoologique" arrived in 1809, the essential 7 volume "Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres" arrived between 1815-22. His speculations in evolution - of which the ideas about inheritance of adaptations by outer stimuli - the "law of use and disuse" - partly was taken over from Buffon, but the descent ideas his own, understanding that the world is much older than Buffon's suggested 75.000 years - have been ridiculized by contemporary and later biologists, because he failed to present the correct reasons - of course the scientific influence of Cuvier by that time and Lamarck's eccentricity and arid literary style (he was also frank and sometimes brusque in character) also contributed - but those who provided a more plausible evolution theory some 50 years later, naturally owed much inspiration from Lamarck and Buffon. The reason why Lamarck began to think of evolution was that when he (aided by Defrance (q.v.)) studied fossil (tertiary) mollusk shells from the Paris area, he found that several shells seemed to have changed a little from time to time and published descriptions of several of these shells between 1802-06. Lamarck's colleaugue Cuvier had likely high thougts about his older colleauge as an invertebrate zoologist, but evidently thought about Lamarck's evolutionary thinking as madness and in Cuviere's well-known so called Euology over Lamarck, which was pronounced by Lamarck's friend Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1832, when Cuvier had passed away in cholera. Cuvier did all he could to prevent younger scientist to follow in Lamarck's traces, comparing Lamarck to the equvalent of a poet or philosopher, while he indeed was a strict materialist - or rather a vitalist and there is no reason to consider him an atheist or a religios person. (Lamarck for a long time also made dayly meteorological observations, which he i.a. published in "almancs", but after that emperor Napoleon I in 1810, who liked Lamarck very much (perhaps influenced by his adviser Lacepède, who shared Lamarck's view on gradually changing species), had spoken jokefully to him about his weather probabilities, he stopped to publish them). Also Haeckel (q.v.), an admirerer of booth Lamarck and Darwin and founder of the Gastrea Theory, owed much of this theory to Lamarck, who had suggested that the alimentory channel was an invagination product. Charles Darwin may , despite that he never acknowledged any of his "evolutionary" predecessors, as one of the inspirations to his own thoughts about the causes of evolution, rather have inherited some thoughts about inheritance of aquired characters from his grandfather Erasmus Darwin, 1731-1802, who also was inspired by Buffon, but this does not miscredit Lamarck. He was correct in his main ideas, but failed in providing reasonable explanations. However, Lamarck's evolution theory is only a small episode in the rich production, which he achieved. He realized the need of studying living objects as a whole and that all living things were related in one or another way. Because of this, he coined the word biology, broadened this term to it's modern meaning and recognized that all biological tissue was constructed by cells. His most essential contributions arrived after becoming rather old, because of his late start as a zoologist, albeit he became a sorely afflicted man - widower three (perhaps four?) times (married the mother of his first 6 children Marie Rosalie Delaporte, whom he had met in 1777, in september 1792 when she was laying on her death-bed , remarried the 19 years old Charlotte Victoire Reverdy, 1773-1797, in October 1793, who died in the autumn of 1797 after having given birth to his last two children, again remarrying in May 1798 with Julie Mallet (age around 30), who dies childless in August 1819; there are rumors of a 4:th wife, if so likely before Marie Delaporte, but no papers about this has been found) and of his 8 children (Rosalie Josephine, 1778-1837, André Adrien, 1781-1817 (yellow fever during navy service in West India), Antoine, 1786-1860 (was unmarried and deaf and devoted himself to paintng), Charles René, 1787-1805, Aménaïde Cornélie, 1788- 18?? (relief of father with this daughter; lived in 1830, but her year of decease unknown; she was usually not called Cornélie by her family, but Melanie), Guillaume Emmanuel Auguste, 1791-1880, Aristide, 1794-18?? (educated to a miltary career, but evidently later classified as mentally retarded and placed in a "home" - hospital; year of decease unknown; when he was baptised at age 11, his name became Jean Louis instead of Aristide), Eugénie, 1797-1822, - was baptised together with her brother to Julie Josephine Eugénie; died suddenly at the museum, when she likely was assisting her blind father), all getting their names from their godfathers or godmothers (e.g. Guillaume - for his 6:th child - after Lamarck's very good friend Bruguière (q.v.), Antoine after de Jussieu's nephew, etc.), died half of them when rather young. However, his daughters Cornélie and Rosalie & their brother Antoine helped him (as also his friend Latreille (q.v.) did and his former student Audoin (q.v.), now vice librarian at the museum, is reading his lessons for the students, to continue his production during his last 10 years, e.g. to write from Lamarck's dictation of the last volume of Histoire naturelle ..., when he had become sick and blind - having little eyesight during the last 17 years of his life and none at all during his last 10 years. Also 2 (perhaps 3) sons were living at the time of his death, of whom Auguste became a well known road and bridge engineer and was the only of Lamarck's children to get own children - one son and one daughter. Lamarck had been the kind of modest person, who did not use his position for personal interests, and he died in great poverty, so the surviving family could only afford a 5-year grave plot, which soon became obliterated. It may be noted that several of the annelid taxa, which in older literature is ascribed to de Savigny, 1818, in reality should be ascribed to de Lamarck,1818, (possibly ex de Savigny MS, because Lamarck had access to Savigny's manuscript). The annelid work by the Frenchman Marie Jules César Lelorgne de Savigny, (5 Apr. - Provins, dépt. Seine et Marne, E of Paris) 1777-1851 (5 Oct. - Galès in Yvelines), in "Description de l'Égypte ...", which is dated 1809, is namely considered to be published in 1822 by ICZN (Op. 1461). Savigny, who, - like Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (q.v.) - attended Napoleon on his Egypt expedition, wrote about the fauna in the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea and discovered that mouth parts of arthropods were transformed extremiteties. He went to Paris at age 16, finishing his studies there, but being very interested in botany, he simultaniosly worked at the Muséum National d'Histoire naturelle, and Cuvier suggested Napoleon that the 21 year old Savigny should follow him as zoologist to Egypt. Savigny became responsible for the invertebrates, while Geoffroy took care of the vertebrates. Back in Paris, 1802, he started to work on the large collections from Egypt, producing several manuscripts and plates. However, in 1817 his eye sight was disturbed by a nervous disorder and had to stop working for several years, partly spent in Italy, where he used some of the time collecting still more animals. In 1822 he went back to Paris and continued his work at the museum. However, in 1824 his affliction returned in a worse form and he became more or less blind, having terrible optical hallucinations and he moved to "chalet de Gally" in the Versailles Park, owned by his friend M. Alexandre Letellier de Sainteville, and stayed there for the rest of his life [Tethyum savignyi, Trididemnum savignii (Herdman, 1886), Sepia savignyi H. de Blainville, 1827, Mitra savignyi Payraudeau, 1826, Anachis savignyi Moazzo, 1939, Savignyella Levinsen, 1909, Ophiactis savignyi (J. Müller & Troschel, 1842) Ljungman, 1867, Siderastrea savignyana Milne Edwards & Haime, 1850, Microcosmus savignyi Monniot, 1962, Dynamenella savignii (H. Milne Edwards, 1840), Leptochelia savignyi (Krøyer, 1842), Savignyella Levinsen, 1909 Planaxis savignyi Deshayes, 1844, Vexillum savignyi Payraudeau 1826, Diadema savignyi Michelin, 1845, Thais savignyi G. P. Deshayes, 1844, Goniopora savignyi Dana, 1846, Loimia savignyi M'Intosh, 1885] {Picture of Lamarck / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli. A.S. Pckard, 1839-1905, published in 1901: Lamarck, the Founder of Evolution. His life and Work; a work of more than 400 pp.}.

Lawrence Morris Lambe, (27 Aug. - Montreal) 1863-1919 (12 Mar. - Ottawa), is most well-known for publishing on Cretaceous vertebrates and dinosaurs from Canada, but he was also an essential author on fossil invertebrates. From 1884 until he died he worked for the Geological Survey of Canada [Phakellia lambei (Topsent,1913), Halichondria lambei Brøndsted, 1933].

The polychaete name Hydroides lambecki Bastida Zavala & Ten Hove, 2003 is honouring the Dutch syrphid (hoverflies) entomologist Huug J.P. Lambeck, 1943?- 8?; recognizing this to be a new species when being assistant to H.A. Ten Hove 1977. (Dr. ten Hove kindly informed about this name).

Dr. Gretchen Lambert, 19??-, US ascidian worker at Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton, is honoured in the ascidian name Corynascidia lambertae Sanamyan & Sanamyan, 2003. She has published the Ascidian News towether with her husband Prof. Em. Dr. Charles C. Lambert, 19??-, for several years

The amphipod name Protohyale lamberti Bousfield & Hendrycks, 2002 is "named in recognition of Philip M. Lambert", 1945-, "Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria.Museum", who is interested in holothuroids and asteroids. Also the lucernarian name Kyopoda lamberti R. Larson, 1988 is honouring this invertebrate curator. Lambert retired in December 2007, but will continue his work as Research Associate at the Museum. [Cucumaria lamberti Levin & Gudimova, 1998, likely the Vancouver Island amphipod Protohyale lamberti Bousfield & Hendrycks, 2002]

The gastropod names Homalocantha lamberti Poirier, 1883 and the precious Conus lamberti Souverbie, 1877 are named for Father Pierre Lambert, 1822-1903 (3 Nov. - Nouméa, "aged 82 years"), (Rev. at Nouméa) as is the genus Lambertia Souverbie, 1869 (now Hypermastus Pilsbry, 1899).

The coral name Astreopora lambertsi Moll & Best, 1984 is in honour of Dr. Austin E. Lamberts, (30 Nov.) 1914-2006 (18 Apr. - Grand Rapids, Michigan), for his contribution to the coral systematics of this genus. After 18 years of practice as a neurosurgeon in Grand Rapids, a tragic fall made him parlty paralyzed in his right hand, so he had to start a second career, this time as a shell collector in Samoa and later coral reef scientist.

The Belgian entomologist and rhombozoan researcher Prof. Auguste Alfred Lucien Gaston Lameere, (12 June - Ixelles) 1862-1942 (5-6 May - Bruxelles), is honoured in the rhombozooan name Dicyemennea lameerei Nouvel, 1932.

Dr. Marcos Rafael Lamothe-Argumedo, (25 Apr) 1932-, Mexican parasitologist. [Theletrum lamothei Pérez-Ponce de León G, León-Règagnon V, Monks, 1998, Caballerorhynchus lamothei Salgado-Maldonaldo, 1977, Heterobothrium lamothei Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, Patagifer lamothei Dronen & Blend, 2008, Rhabdias lamothhei Martínez-Salazar & León-Règagnon, 2006, Choanoscolex lamothei García-Prieto, 1990, Gnathostoma lamothei Bertoni-Ruiz, García-Prieto, Osorio-Sarabia, & León-Règagnon, 2005, Sprostoniella lamothei Perez Ponce de Leon & Mendoza-Gartias, 2000, Magniexcipula lamothei Bravo, 1980, Pseudoleptorhynchoides lamothei Salgado-Maldonado, 1976, Paraheligmonella lamothei Digiani, Carreño, and Durette-Desset, 2008, Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza Franco,. 2008, Lentiella lamothei Haverkost & Gardner, 2008, Semiscolex lamothei Oceguera-Figueroa, 2006, Bivesiculoplana lamothei Pineda & Gonzalez, 1984]

Général Léon de Lamothe, (22 Aug. - Metz) 1849-1936 (13 Nov. - Grenoble), French division general and very interested geologist / palaeontologist / malacologist. [Haliris lamothhei (Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1897), Asthenotoma lamothei (Dautzenberg, 1910), Phacoides lamothei Dautzenberg, Boysidia lamothei Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1912]

Prof. Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux, (3 May - Agen, Dept. de Lot & Garonne) 1779-1825 (26 Mar. - Caen), French biologist. Professor in Caen. He was mainly a botanist (albeit with essential zoological works) and is most recognized for the division of algae into green, brown och red [Pedobesia lamourouxii (J. Agardh)].

Lampreave : (see Moreno Lampreave).

Mrs. Jean Lamprell, 19??-, supported the authors of Dentalium jeanae Lamprell & Healey, 1998 [Tellina (Abranda) jeanae Healy & Lamprell, 1992, possibly Siphonaria (Siphonaria) jeanae Jenkins, 1984], so she is likely the wife of the bivalve & scaphopod expert Dr. Kevin L. Lamprell, 1927-, from Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Co-authors of Lamprell include John Healy (q.v.) and Thora Whitehead (q.v.), both also of Australia. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information).

Édouardo Lamy, (29 Mar.) 1866-1942 (11 Mar.), French malacologist working at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. He was co-editor of Journal de Conchyliologie [Chladinota lamyi Dell, 1990, Acrilloscala lamyi (de Boury, 1909), Gymnobela lamyi Dautzenberg, 1925, Cerithiopsis lamyi Jay & Drivas, 2002] {Picture / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}.

The gastropod name Conus lani Crandall, 1979 is likely in honour of T.C. Lan, 19??-, well-known malacologist of Taipeh, Taiwan.

Dr. Paulo de Cunha Lana, (20 Apr.) 1956-, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, is recognized in Eunice lanai Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998, for his publications on the taxonomy and ecology of polychaetes from Brazil [Terebellides lanai Solis-Weiss, Fauchald & Blankensteyn, 1991, Alomasoma lanai Ditadi, 1992].

The harpacticoid name Tisbe lancii Marcotte, 1974 is a tribute to John R. Lanci, 19??-, "C.S.C., scholar and educator, after whom this species is named and to whom its description is dedicated". The author Brian Marcotte, was at the time of the description at the Clark Univ., Worcester, Massachusetts, but also at the Dalhousie Univ., Halfax, Nova Scotia, so the honoured person must be Prof. Dr. John R. Lanci, (New York area) 19??-, Stonehill College, the Boston area, USA, Professor of Religious Studies.

The nudibranch name Doto lancei Marcus & Marcus, 1967 is a tribute to the US opisthobranch researcher Dr. James (Jim) Robert Lance, (1 July - Salem, Oregon) 1928-2006 (24 Feb. - Lebanon, Oregon - lung cancer), of Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, (retired in 1985) who, after some initial work on copepods, toxins, etc., in 1954 started a career within opistobranch research at Scripps and from his home in Pacific Beach, from which he moved in 2003 to care for his elderly mother [Peltodoris lancei Millen, in Millen & Bertsch, 2000]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last eponym).

William Forster Lanchester, 1875-1953, RSE from 1907, published on "gephyreans" and crustaceans during the first years of the 20:th century and is honoured in the sipunculan name Thysanocardia lanchesteri Stephen & Edmonds, 1972 and likely also in the stomatopod name Gonodactylellus lanchesteri (Manning 1967). He was a graduate of King's College, Cambridge, and later became a demontrator in Zoology at the Univ. College, Dundee. In 1899 he and his friend from King's College Francis Perch Bedford (q.v.) had collected some animals, i.a. crustaceans in Singapore and Malacca.

Dr. Jacob van der Land, 1935-, Dutch zoologist at the National Museum of Natural History - Naturalis, in Leiden. He was scientific coordinator of the CANCAP expeditions and has been working on several taxa, like priapulids, annelids, tardigrades, etc., but from the late 1990s on, he is compiling check-lists for the UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO) [Gofasia vanderlandi Bouchet & Warén, 1993, Eulimella vanderlandi Van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 2000, Archilina vanderlandi (Martens & Curini-Galletti, 1989), Pedicularia vanderlandi Goud & Hoeksema, 2001, Leontocaris vanderlandi Fransen, 2001, Sinulartia vanderlandi van Ofwegen, 2001, Myostenostomum vanderlandi Rogozin, 1992, Oncholaimus vanderlandi Loof, 1973 (fresh water), Haliclona vanderlandi de Weerdt & van Soest, 2001]. (Dr. B. Hoeksema, at the same museum kindly informed that van der Land retired in 2000 and that more information may be found in Zoologische Verhandelingen 334: special volume on the occasion of the retirement. However, van der Land is still working at the museum as a guest researcher).

The Rev. David Landsborough Senior, (11 Aug.) 1779-1854 (12 Sep. - Saltcoats (by cholera)), (formerly named McLandsborough), Scottish clergyman in Saltcoats, Ayrshire; published "A popular history of British Seaweeds". Dredged around Arran & the Cumbraes [Smittina landsborovii (Johnston, 1847), Ectocarpus landsburgii Harvey].

The gymnamoeba name Platyamoeba langae Sawyer, 1975 was named in honour of Mrs. Helen Lang, 19??-, National Marine Fisheries Service, Oxford.

The West African gastropod name Thais langi Clench & Turner, 1948 and the West African fish name Hypleurochilus langi (Fowler, 1923) must likely be tributes to Herbert Lang : (see Bequaert).

Arnold Lang: (see Plehn).

Prof. Dr. Karl Georg Herman Lang, (21 July - Malmö) 1901-1976 (14 Mar.), succeded Nils Odhner (q.v.) as professor of Invertebrate Zoology at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm between 1950-67 and was himself succeded by Karling (q.v.); specialist on harpacticoids and tanaids. He became an elementary school teacher in 1921, but after a while he began university studies in Lund and presented his PhD disserttation there in 1931, staying at his institution until 1939, when he began serving as secondary school teacher, but in 1947 he became assistant to the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm. [Langitanais Sieg, 1976, Karllangia Noodt, 1964, Microdajus langi Greve, 1965, Eucanuella langi Por, 1964, Cerviniella langi Bodin, 1967, Alteutha langi Monk, 1941, Schizopera langi Petkovski, 1954, Mesocletodes langi Smirnov, 1946, Paranannopus langi Wells, 1965, Cerviniopsis langi Soyer, 1969, Phyllopodopsyllus langi Kunz, 1975, Halectinosoma langi Wells, 1967, Syngastes langi Geddes, 1968, Sicameira langi Chandrasekhara Rao, 1972, Paramphiascella langi (Monard, 1936), Siphonolabrum langi Kudinova-Pasternak, 1981, Pagurolangis Gutu, 1996, Tanzanapseudes langi Bacescu 1975]

Dr. Paul Wilhelm Heinrich Langerhans Jr., (25 July - Berlin) 1847-1888 (20 July - Funchal, Madeira), German medical anatomist, who discovered the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. After the doctoral dissertation on his medical discovery (he was a disciple of Virchow (q.v.) and worked in Virchow's laboratory together with Friedrich Albin Hoffmann, (13 Nov. - Ruhrort) 1843-1924 (13 Nov. - Leipzig), who later became his best friend and was called "the white" by Langerhans, becuse of his middle name), he was struck in 1874 by pulmonary tuberculosis. In vain testing health resorts in Europe, he eventually found a climate, which relieved his disease in Funchal (Madeira), where he moved in 1875. (Before a trip to the Middle East in 1870 together with a family of geographers to see the Holy Land and the opening of the Suez Channel, he had got a very large sum of money - 3000 German Gold Marks - from his wealthy maternal grandmother Auguste Keibel, so he was in good economical circumstances). Gradually he opened a surgery there, but his inclination was towards research, so he seems to have worked mainly with zoological studies. His favourite objects were the polychaetes (but he also wrote about i.a. opisthobranchs in 1873 and the anatomy of Branchiostoma in 1876), usually collected around the "Isles of Langerhans", i.e. the Macaronesian islands Canaries and Madeira. E.H. Ehlers (q,v.) served as editor of his scientific works in Germany. He married in 1885 and got a daughter. A kidney infection eventually took his life. An article about him is published by H. Morrison in Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 5 (1937): 259-267 [Langerhansia Czerniavsky, 1881, Myrianida langerhansi (Gidholm, 1967), Demonax langerhansi P. Knight-Jones, 1983, Hyalopomatus langerhansi Ehlers, 1887, Amphiscolops langerhansi (von Graff, 1882), Bathyvermilia langerhansi (Fauvel, 1901), Leaena langerhansi M'Intosh, 1885]. (More & his grave stone at Funchal - kindly photographed by Prof. F. Pleijel).

The cowry name Nesiocypraea langfordi (Kuroda, 1938) is in honour of Daniel B. Langford, 1882-1954, of Yokohama. Likely the scaphopod name Fustiaria langfordi (T. Habe, 1963) was named for the same person.

The gastropod name Haustellum langleitae R. Houart, 1993 must be a tribute to Annie Langleit, 19??-, Belgian malacologist.

Mr. Robert James Lanier, 18??-19??, Superintendent of the Steinhart Aquarium, San Francisco, Shedd Aquarium in Chicago, and foreman of the New York Aquarium and also publishing on aquarium questions, mainly in a book published in 1935 together with Ida May Mellen, (9 Jan.) 1877-1970, aquarist at the New York Aquarium. [Cuspidaria lanieri Strong & Hertlein, 1937]. Between 1942-44 Lanier served as an acting Superintendant of San Francisco Aquarium.

Prof. Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, (15 May - London) 1847-1929 (15 Aug. - London), marine zoologist; one of the founders of the Plymouth Laboratory. He worked i.a. at the British Museum and planned to publish a British counterpart of Bronn's "Tierleben", the "Treatise on Zoology", of which just a few volumes were finished [Maxmuelleria lankesteri (Herdman, 1898), Lankesteria, Clymenura (Cephalata) lankesteri (M'Intosh, 1885), Halecium lankesteri (Bourne, 1890), Lithocystis lankesteri Goodrich, 1950]. His father was the physician and botanist, Prof. Dr. Edwin Lankester, 1814-1874, professor of Natural History in London, who became such a good friend of Richard Owen (q.v.), that his youngest son was given the name Alfred Owen Lankester, (26 Oct.) 1859-1933 (25 Dec.), while Ray likely was from the naturalist John Ray's name, because his father had edited the memorials of that naturalist, when the boy was born. The literary interested can follow Ray Lankester disguised as Sir Roderick Dover in his former disciple H.G. Wells' novel "Marriage" and in Robert Briffault's "Europa", he and his frienship with Karl Marx can be read about. He was himself much influenced by his teacher T.H. Huxley (q.v.) and later also by Weissmann (q.v.) and through his father's contacts with naturalists, he had already as a child met several well-known such gentlemen, e.g. Gosse, Owen, Forbes, Henslow and Darwin.

Afer lansbergisi Delsaerdt, 1993 is honouring Vytautas Lansbergis, (18 Oct. - Kaunas) 1932-, the first Lithuanian president after the fall of the iron courtain

The sponge name Guitarra laplani Boury-Esnault & al., 1993 is dedicated to Joël Laplane, around 1954-, Marseille, "for his creative contribution to the innovation of the guitar making, the equivalent in the music world of the placochela in the spicule world!".

Lapu-Lapu, 1491-1542, Mactan king, who won the battle of Mactan against Ferndinand Magellan and his forces on 27 april 1521 in Punta Engano, Mactan Island, the Philippines, when Magellan was killed.  [Calliobasis lapulapui  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006, Conus lapulapui da Motta & Martin, 1982]. Also the name of grouper fish in the Philippines is honouring Lapu-Lapu's name (G. Poppe kindly provided most of this information).

The crustacean name Gourretia laresi Juan Pablo Blanco Ramhla & Ildefonso Linero Arana, 1994 is in honour of Prof. Luis Beltrán Lares, 19??-, professor of InvertebrateZoology, Institute Oceanografico de Venezuela, Universidad de Oriente, Cumaná, Venezuela, in recognition of his contributions to the study of the Venezuelan crustacean fauna.

Louis Largilliert, (18 Apr. - Ronfleur) 1798-1865 (6 Mar. - Rouen), French naturalist and banker, is honoured in the gastropod names Volutopsius largillierti (Petit, 1851), Conus largillierti Kiener, 1845, Persicula largillierti Kiener, 1834, Cerithidea (Cerithidea) largillierti (Philippi, 1849), Bullata largillierti Kiener, 1834 and the bivalve names Tapes largillierti ( Philippi, 1847) and Mactra largillierti Philippi, 1848.

Dr. Danilo B. Largo, 19??-, Head of the Marine Biology at the University of San Carlo, Cebu, the Philippines, co-principal investigator of the Panglao 2004 Marine Biodiversity Project. [Ancistrobasis largoi  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Larisa in the tanaid name Kudinopasternakia larisae (Gutu, 1989), but possibly a tribute to the Russian zoologist Larisa L. Menshenina, 19??-, Moscow State Univ., who has published on marine animals, especially Hexactinellidae.

The crab name Afropinnotheres larissae (Machkevskiy, 1992) is an honour to the author's wife Larisa, who is not a scientist. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Larkin in the bivalve name Larkinia Reinhart, 1935 larkinii Nelson, 1870, but likely in honour of an US collector or palaeontologist by that name.

About the gastropod name Alcithoe larochei Marwick, 1926, the author say: "The specimen was kindly forwarded by Mr. W. La Roche, of Auckland, so W. La Roche, 18??-19??, must be the honoured person. He also collected tyoe material of other mollusk species in 1922.

The gastropod name Mitra larranagai Carcelles, 1947 and bivalve name Nuculana larranagai Klappenbach & Scarabino, 1968 are honouring the Uruguayan naturalist / politician / religious person Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga, (10 Dec. - Montevideo) 1771-1848 (6 Feb. - Montevideo), who i.a. published on South American Natural History.

Hans Larsen, 19??-, Reykjavik, collected the type material of the gastropod genus name Larsenia Warén, 1989 [Skenea larseni Warén, 1993].

Mia Larsen : (see Løyning).

Stiphodon larson Watson, 1996 was named for Dr. Helen K. Larson, 1949-, ichtyologist and Curator of Fishes, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia, a specialist i.a. of the Gobiidae family. [Sinularia larsonae Verseveldt and Alderslade, 1981, Acentronura (Idiotropiscis) larsonae Dawson, 1984, Sueviota larsonae Winterbottom and Hoese, 1988, Enneapterygius larsonae Fricke, 1994, Lepidotrigla larsoni del Cerro and Lloris, 1997, Acarobythites larsonae Machida, 2000, Larsonella Randall and Senou, 2001].

Dr. Ronald J. Larson, 19??-, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution , North Ft.Pierce, Florida, is a scyphozoan researcher.

Lartetia Bourguignat, 1869 was named after the French paleontologist and archaeologist Prof. Édouard Armand Isidore Hippolyte Lartet (de Sansan), (15 Apr. - Saint Guiraud) 1801-1871 (28 Jan.), who was professor of Paleontology at the natural history museum in Paris. The last part of his name is probably there because he found a human looking ape from the Miocenic period in Sansan in S France and this finding became very well-known and he also proved that man and mammoth had lived during the same time, when he found a mammoth toth and a drawing of a mammoth in the same cave.

Lacking information about Larvaron in the gastropod name Natica larvaroni P. Bernard, 1983.

The isopod name Alloanthura larwoodi Wägele, 1981 may possibly honour the British palaeobryozoologist Gilbert Powell Larwood, 1930-1997 (14 May), Norwich, Norfolk, but perhaps more likely a tribute to H.J.C. Larwood, 1???-19??, Lecturer in Education, Univ. of Liverpool, who published on isopods, tanaidacea and amphipods in the Alexandria area in 1940 and in the Suez Canal area during the 1950s. In 1962, he published on Western Science in India before 1850.

The crab name Neostrengeria lasallei Rodriguez, 1980 is likely not named in honour of a person's name, but for Collegio La Salle de Caracas.

Mr. Charles Francis Laseron, (6 Dec. - Manitowoc, Wisconsin) 1887-1959 (27 June - Concord hospital), Australian US born (English parents of eastern German origin, who returned to England in 1888. but migrated to Sydney in 1891) malacologist and palaeontologist. He i.a. took part in Sir D. Mawson's Antarctic Expedition as collector and later became a geologist at the museum in Sydney. [Pisinna laseroni Ponder & Yoo, 1976, Joculator laseroni Jay & Drivas, 2002, Protoginella laseroni Boyer, 2001 (Laseron had named the genus)].

Lashley : (see the Terra Nova expedition, 1910-).

Prof. Dr. Howard R. Lasker, 19??-, State University of New York at Buffalo, octocoral researcher, PhD in 1978 at Univ. of Chicago.

A. Lassarat, 1???-, director of the "Service de Peche de Cote d'Ivoire" and publishing much in the beginning of his career together with Jean Cadenat (q.v.). During 1996 he was still Director of the Fisheries Service in Abidjan. [Pseudomola lassarati Cadenat, 1959 (fishes)].

Francis Robert Latchford, (Aylmer, Quebec) 1856-1938 (13 Aug. - Toronto), Canadian (Ontario) Malacologist (mainly freshwater), lawyer, judge, etc.

The genus name of Latimeria chalumnae Smith, 1939 was named for its detector, Miss Marjorie Eileen Doris Courtenay-Latimer, (24 Feb. - East London, South Africa) 1907-2004 (17 May), at that time keeper (and only employee) at the East London Museum, South Africa.

Pierre André Latreille, (29 Nov. - Brives, dépt. de la Corrèze) 1762-1833 (6 Feb. - Paris), French entomologist and zoologist (as such mainly interested in crustaceans), who had become an ordained priest (in 1786) and because of this and also because of his presumed aristocratic origin was sentenced to be deported to Cayenne by the revolutionists, but was saved in 1794 by the influence of the young Bory de Saint-Vincent (q.v.). When a physician should inspect the prisoners before they should be shipped he found one man preoccupied with an odd beetle crawling over the dungeon floor. The doctor of course thought that the unfurtunate had passed the limit of sanity and asked why he was occupied with a creature like that when he aught to think of his problems, Latreille answered that it was a very rare insect. The insect was then handed over to Bory de Saint-Vincent by the physician and the young naturalist, who was familiar with the prisoner from his publications, succeded to get him and his cell-mates free, although only Latreille lived through the days of terror and he 1802 named the family Cleridae , in which this beetle Necrobia ruficollis (J.C. Fabricius, 1775) belongs, i.e. an eater of corpses with a red collar, but it certainly saved his life and this beetle is engraved on his grave monument with the text "Latreillii salus". Latreille, who was an illegitimate child of the general baron d'Espagnac, became an orphant and was brougth up by several successive foster parents (first the physician Pierre Laroche in Brive, then a merchant in Brive, then a Paris baron) and thus Latreille ended eventually up in Paris, where he met and became a friend of several naturalists like Bosc, Fabricius and Lamarck - especially the last person became so close, that Latreille considered him as his last foster father. After Latreille had published his "Précis des caractères généraux des Insectes" in 1796, he was employed as assisting naturalist at the Muséum d'Histiore Naturelle, Paris in 1798 through the influence by Lamarck, and he succeded Lamarck at his retirement as professor in 1820. His chair in invertebrate zoology was split up into two professorships in 1830, of which Latreille then occupied the new entomological seat. [Lumbrineris latreilli Audouin & H. Milne Edwards, 1833, Cecrops latreillii Leach, 1816, Apseudes latreillii (H. Milne Edwards, 1828), Orbinia latreillii (Audouin & H. Milne Edwards, 1833), Latreillia Roux, 1830, Cilicaea latreillei Leach, 1818, Bittium latreillii Payraudea, 1826, Macrophthalmus latreillei (Desmarest, 1822), Eurypodius latreillei Guerín, 1828].

Prof. Dr. Max Walker De Laubenfels, 1894-1960, started out in California, describing the sponge fauna there, then transferred to Florida and Bermuda, and switched over to Hawaii, where he became professor of zoology. He ended his career at the University of Oregon. De Laubenfels made a devastating impact on sponge systematics with his 1936 overview of all sponge genera. Presented as a monograph on the sponges of the Florida Keys, he revised almost casually all extant supraspecific taxa, erecting in the process several hundreds of new taxa. These "paper" taxa, i.e. erected by simply reading the descriptions in the previous literature, were mostly insufficiently established to be of use in sponge classification. Nevertheless, his book presented the first comprehensive overview of the genera and families of sponges, and it formed the basis for modern sponge classification. [Delaubenfelsia Dickinson, 1945, Endectyon delaubenfelsi Burton, 1930, Holoplocamia delaubenfelsi Little, 1963, Rhaphidophlus delaubenfelsi Lévi, 1963, Xestospongia delaubenfelsi Riveros, 1951]. (Dr. Rob van Soest kindly provided this information).

Professor Dr. Lucien Laubier, (22 Sep. - Lille) 1936-2008 (15 June), French polychaetologist. Director of the Station Marine d'Endoume, Marseille [Aricidea laubieri Hartley, 1981, Laubierpholoe Pettibone, 1992, Melinnampharete laubieri (Desbruyères, 1978), Ophelia laubieri Bellan & Costa, 1987, Coronarctus laubieri Renaud-Mornant, 1987, Scottocheres laubieri Stock, 1967, Laubieria Soyer, 1966, Tachidiopsis laubieri Dinet, 1974, Carpoapseudes laubieri Bacescu, 1982, Bathystyeloides laubieri Monniot & Monniot, 1974, Laubierina Warén & Bouchet, 1990, Diplectanum laubieri Lambert & Maillard, 1974, Janirella laubieri Chardy, 1974, Siphonodentalium laubieri Bouchet & Warén, 1979, Laubieriellus Maciolek, 1981, Laubieriopsis Petersen, 2000, Calyptogena laubieri Okutani & Métivier, 1986, Pisione laubieri Hartmann-Schröder, 1970].

Dr. Henry Scott-Lauder, (15 June - Rome) 1837-1???, Edinburgh, Assistant-Surgeon of the Royal Navy (later becoming a Surgeon-General), who collected much in Hong Kong Harbour, is honoured in the bacillariophycean name Chaetoceros lauderi Ralfs in Lauder 1864.

The gastropod name Calliostoma laugieri Payraudeau, 1826 must likely be a tribute to Guillaume Michel Jérôme Meiffren Laugier, Baron de Chartrouse, (Arles) 1772-1843 (Arles), "restaurateur des monuments romains de la ville d'Arles" while being mayor of that city, also a naturalist, who i.a. published on birds together with Temminck (q.v.).

About the octocoral name Asterospicularia laurae Utinomi, 1951, tha author explains: "The specific name is chosen in honor of Mrs. Laura M.I. Macfadyen," 19??-, "who first recorded this form".

The gastropod name Melanella laurae (Friele, 1886) must be a tribute to the author's wife Laura Frederikke Arentz Friele, (2 June - Haus, Osterøy, Hordaland) 1836-1915 (21 Jan. - Bergen), whom he had married Oct. 1 1861.

Lacking information about Laura in the gastropod name Murex laurae (E.H. Vokes, 1970) and still another in the polyplacophoran name Mopalia laurae (Berry, 1963). The last name may possibly, however, be a tribute to Laura Hubbs (q.v.), whom the author corresponded with and possibly also Vokes' name may honour L. Hubbs?

The polychaete names Lacydonia laureci Laubier, 1975 is a tribute to Monsieur Alain Laurec, 19??-, Brest, "Polytechnicien, Chercheur, Ecologie et Pêche" & Sphaerodoropsis laureci Desbruyères, 1980 may very likely be a tribute to the same person, mentioned as retired in 2009.

Byrathis laurenae E.L. Markhaseva & Frank D. Ferrari , 2005 was named for Dr. Lauren Mullineaux, 19??-, Woods Hole, where she arrived after being a graduate student at Robert Hessler's laboratory at Scripps during the 1980's, for her contribution to the exploration of the deep oceans. (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Laurusson in the deep sea catshark name Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson, 1922), but likely a tribute to an Icelandic fisherman by that name.

The narcomedusan name Aeginopsis laurentii Brandt, 1835 is likely not named for a person's name, but for Baie de Saint-Laurent.

Laurent in the anomuran name Trizocheles laurentae Forest, 1987 and in the pagurid name Parapagurodes laurentae McLaughlin & Haig, 1973 and in the genus name Laurentgourretia Sakai, 2004 : (see de Saint Laurent).

Laurent in Tibia laurenti Duchamps 1992 : (see Duchateau).

The squat lobster genus name Lauriea , was named for the person who descrided Lauriea gardineri (Laurie, 1926), namely Prof. R. Douglas Laurie, 1874-1953, zoology lecturer at Liverpool University, later zoology Professor at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth between 1922-40.

The recent brachiopod genus Laurinia Zezina, 2005, was established after the study of soft tissues of Fallax neocaledoniensis Laurin, 1997, so the author of that species, Prof. Bernard Laurin, 19??-, geo-biologist at Université de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Dijon, France, is the honoured person.

Prof. Dr. Robert Lauterborn, (23 Oct. - Ludwigshafen) 1869-1952 (11 Sep. - Freiburg), Heidelberg hydrobiologist, phycologist and scientific historian, from 1918 on professor in Karlsruhe. He was a deep friend of environmental and nature conservation. [Caenomorpha lauterborni Kahl, 1927].

The fish name Lycodes lavalei Vladykov & Tremblay, 1936 is likely not named for a person's name, but the authors was working at the Laval University, Québec, Canada.

The gastropod name Alvania lavaleyei Hoenselaar & Goud, 1998 is honouring Dr. Marc S.S. Lavaleye, 19??-, at the Netherlands Institute of Sea Research, Texel, the Netherlands, who is chiefly interested in Pyramidellidae.

Lacking information about Marquis de Lavallée in the gastropod name Marginella lavalleeana d'Orbogny, 1842. Pierre Alphonse Martin Lavallée, 1836-1884, who published "Arboretum Segrezianum. Icones selectae arborum et fruticum in hortis segrezianis collectorum... Paris: 1880-85", is of course to young to be the honoured person.

Dr. Robert J. (Dick) Lavenberg, 19??-, Los Angeles County Natural History Museum, is an ichthyologist.

Prof. Michael Stuart Laverack, (19 Mar. - Croyden, U.K.) 1931-1993 (28 July - Australia), educated at the University of Southampton, became professor of Marine Biology and director of the Gatty Marine Laboratory at the University of St Andrews 1969-85; after that he worked in Melbourne, Australia. His special interest was Crustacea.

Lavigeria Bourguignat, 1888 was named after the French cardinal Charles Martial Allemand Lavigerie, (31 Oct. - Bayonne) 1825-1892 (26 Nov. - Algiers), who was the leader of the catholic mission in Africa.

Miss Annie Elizabeth Law, (Carlisle, England) 1842-1889 (12 Jan. - Watsonville, California, from tbc), Tennessee Malacologist, interested in terrestrial and freshwater species.

Lawadi in species names is not for a persons name, but meaning "shoulder" in the Gooniyandi dialect in NW Australia.

Lacking information about Lawrence in the gastropod name Curtitoma lawrenciana (Dall, 1919) (described in the genus Lora), but possibly a toponym (Gulf of St. Lawrence) rather than an eponym?.

Dr. Helene M. Laws, 19??-, Senior curator at South Austr. Mus., Adelaide, has published on Australian terrestrial gastropod genetics [Primovula helenae Cate, 1973]. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information).

Nassarius lawsonorum Kilburn, 2000 was named for Heath, 19??-, and Bernie Lawson, 19??-, of Durban who provided material.

George Tradescant Lay, (baptized 22 Sep. - Stradbroke, Suffolk, England) 1799-1854 (6 Nov. - Amoy), naturalist on the British Blossom expedition 1825-28 along the North American Pacific coast. After returning home from the expedition, he went to China as a missionary, sent out by the British and Foreign Bible Society. [Hippolyte layi Owen] (Jack J. Gerson's 1972 work "Horatio Nelson Lay and Sino-British Relations, 1854-1864" (Harvard East Asia Monographs-47) refer to his early lifa as obscure. Gerson writes, "In conversation with the present writer, descendants have related the story that his wife never knew any more of his past than that he been on Beechey's voyage and that when she met him (about 1829-1830), he was already able to speak Chinese.") (David Hollombe kindly provided the dates and the reference to Gerson).

The whale name Mesoplodon layardi (Gray, 1865) is named for Edgar Leopold Layard, (23 July - Florence) 1824-1900 (1 Jan. - Budleigh Salterton, Devon), curator of the South African Museum, Cape Town, who in 1865 sent e sketch of the skull to Gray and a few years later the complete skull. He had been studying the Ceylon fauna during 10 years when he was younger together with R. Templeton (q.v.), later (from 1854) living in South Africa, still later collecting in Brazil and then in the Pacific area (being British Consul in Nouméa, New Caledonia) and then also visiting and collecting (especially birds) in Fiji. Vanuatu, Samoa, Tonga, Solomon Islands etc., partly together with his son

Eduard Maximillianovich Layman, 1903-?, is well-known faculty member of some academies in former Soviet Union, a teacher of many noted scientists-ichthyopathologists, the authors of some textbooks and monographs on the diseases of freshwater fishes. He is honoured ion the parasitic nematod name Mawsonascaris laymani (Mozgovoy, 1950) and in the digenean names Unitubulotestis laymani Nikolaeva & Parukhin, 1971, Plectognathotrematoides laymani Parukhin, 1971. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Lázaro in the gastropod name Gibberula lazaroi Contreras, 1992.

Dr. Isaac Lea, (4 Mar. - Wilmington, Delaware) 1792-1886 (8 Dec. - Philadelphia), US malacologist and palaeontologist, a longtime resident of Philadelphia [Crenella leana Dall, 1897, Periploma leanum (Conrad, 1831)].

Dr. William Elford Leach, (2 Feb. - Plymouth) 1791-1836 (25 Aug. - San Sebastiano Curone, not far from Genoa), "a naturalist of most indomitable enthusiasm and very extraordinary acquirements", English zoologist, born in Plymouth; studied medicine (at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London (1808-Nov. 1810) and at Edinburgh, where he achieved his MD in 1812 and had arrived there in the end of 1810 in company with a pet wolf, likely a gift from his elder brother Jonathan; the wolf later followed him to London for some years, but evidently died before the summer of 1819) but became in 1813 employed as "assistant librarian" (most of the emplyees were named librarians, while the title today would have been keeper; he started this duty in Feb. 1814) at the British Museum, after the death of the Museum zoologist Dr. George Shaw the 22nd of July in an age of 61 years. Leach was supported as succeding Shaw, by his friend Alexander MacLeay (q.v.) and was accepted in November. In Edinburgh he had been a classmate of Robert Grant (q.v.), who later became the mentor of Darwin (and likely was an essential root of Darwin's evolutionary theories because Grant later studied in Paris under i.a. Lamarck and took deep impressions of Lamarck's 'transformism', i.e. evolutionary thinking), but nothing is known about their possible relation. During a little less than one decade Leach was working frantically there, and through his good contacts with the staff at the Paris Museum, he built bridges between the French and the British traditions. After a time he became assistant keeper of the natural history department, but in 1820 he resigned from the Museum because of a "brain damage" (nervous breakdown), of which the first symptoms was a vehement dislike of his former companions Gray and Stephens (see below). His young protégé (and from 1840 keeper at the Natural History department of the British Museum) John Edward Gray, 1800-1875, (q.v.) who was a 'work addict' as well, thought that a very contributing cause was Leach's concentration on self sacrificing toyl for the museum [Grayella Carter, 1869, Neoamphitrite grayi (Malmgren, 1866)]. Gray himself therfore filled his spare time after a normal working day with work of other kind! Among other things he was a pioneer within philately and suggested in 1834 a uniform range of letter postage (pre-paid "stamps") like that for newspapers. He also took part of the society reformation debate and is supposed to have written 1,162 articles on various subjects, not only zoology. His father was the surgeon and pharmaceutical chemist Samuel Frederick Gray VI, 1766-1828, who published several books, e.g. a book about British plants (with systematical help from his son) in 1821 and a book about practical chemistry in 1828. In 1826 J.E. Gray married Maria Emma Gray (neé Smith), 1787-1876 (9 Dec.), who was the widow of one of his cousins. She published "Figures of Molluscous Animals" in 5 volumes during 1842-59 [Emma J.E. Gray, in Dieffenbach, 1843]. J.E. Gray already during his teenage years - probably in 1815 - became a friend of Leach through the entomologist James Francis Stephens, (16 Sep. - Shoreham-by-Sea) 1792-1852 (22 Dec.), who from 1818 assisted Leach with the insect collection at the museum and from 1814 had become a friend of Leach (and later became a close friend of Westwood (q.v.)), through their common entomological interests and likely it was Stephens, who introduced young Henslow (q.v.) to Leach, who helped Stephens to learn Henslow more about natural history. Gray often followed them on collecting excursions in the surroundings of Bloomsbury, where all of the British Museum at that time was situated. The Museum was founded in 1753, when the vast collections - not only natural objects, but also manuscripts, coins, jewellery, art and antiquity objects, etc. - and the library of the physician, naturalist and collector Sir (Baronet) Dr. Hans Sloane, (16 Apr. - Killyleagh, County Down, Northern Ireland, but of Scottish origin, because his father was the head of a group of people from Scotland sent over by James I) 1660-1753 (11 Jan. - Chelsea), president of the Royal Society after Sir Isaac Newton, and a friend of Boyle and John Ray, was purchased (for a very small sum compared to its value) by the British State [Solen sloani Gray, 1843, Chauliodus sloani Bloch & Schneider, 1801, Nonionella sloani (d'Orbigny, 1839), Nototodarus sloani (Gray, 1849)]. The collections - of which the natural history objects mainly had been collected in the West Indies during Sloan's voyage there (where he in Jamaica happened to discover the drinking habit of the locals of cocoa mixed with water, which he found to be nauseating, but deviced a means of mixing it with milk and thus invented the Drinking Chocolate) - was kept in the so called Montague House until the beginning of the 1820s, when this - by that time too small - house was demolished and a much bigger one was built in the same place. The Natural History Department later moved to its present building in South Kensington in 1880-83. In 1821 Gray had hoped to be asked to temporarily take over Leach's job. However, the keeper Charles (or rather Karl Dietrich Eberhard) Koenig, (Preussia) 1774-1851 (6 Sep. - London), instead temporarily appointed (from 16:th March 1821) an employee at Longmans Books, George Samouelle, 1790-1846, who in 1819 had published two entomological papers (including descriptions of a few crustacean families) and Samouelle kept working on entomology until he was dismissed from the Museum in 1841. In 1821 John George Children, (18 May - Tunbridge, England) 1777-1852 (1 Jan. - Halstead Place, Kent), was appointed to take over Leach's job [Ipsa childreni (Gray, 1825)]. Three years later, Children - impressed with Gray's zeal and interest in natural history - employed him temporarily to assist in a catalogue of the Reptiles. Gray made himself indispensible, stayed at the museum and advanced 16 years later to the post of Keeper of the Zoological Department. Leach - after leaving the Museum - moved in 1822 (after his parents decease) with his only sister Jane - calling herself Jenny (1880-1859 (1 Dec. - Stoke) to Italy (and she called him William, not Elford, which he usually called himself and seem to have stayed in Italy until 1850, when she returned to England), albeit he during his last years of living felt much better and revived some correspondence with colleagues. Several of his left manuscripts were succesively published by Gray and others. Leach was among the first in Britain to take contacts with French zoologist after the Napoleon era and corresponded with de Blainville (q.v.) and Savigny (q.v.) (& also with Bonelli (q.v.) in Italy), but after his first visit to Paris in late summer 1815 he of course also met Cuvier and de Lamarck, the latter mentioned as "my kind-hearted and excellent friend" and also becoming a friend of other professors there, with the exception of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, who not any more was a friend of Cuvier. In the beginning of 1818 Leach spent a few months again in Paris and met de Ferussac jr. (q.v.) and his friend d'Orbigny (q.v.) and was followed to England by Latreille and Cuvier and his family. [Botrylloides leachii de Savigny, 1816, Phascolosoma leachi (de Blainville, 1827), Bursatella leachii (de Blainville, 1817), Okenia leachii Alder & Hancock, 1854, Leachia Lesueur, 1821, Helice leachii Hess, Linguella elfortiana de Blainville, 1823, Procellaria leachii Temminck, 1820]. Leach also had two brothers reaching adult age, George, 1782-1862 (28 Feb. - Plymouth) and Jonathan (Mar.) 1784-1855 (14 Jan. - Worthing). All four siblings lived unmarried through life, leaving no children. Nothing is known about W.E. Leach's political sympaties, but family and brothers had a liberal political view, so likely also W.E. Leach had. Keith Harrison & Eric Smith 2008. Rifle-green by Nature. A Regency Naturalist and his Family. William Elford Leach. The Ray Society, Vol. 171. 621 pp. is a wonderful biography of W.E. Leach and his family, where much more may be found about him than here. In Britain, many of Leach's taxon names were considered "nonsense names" after his death, but Knight 1901 convincingly argued that many were derived from classical, biblical and oriental sources, the latter likely being inspired by his older colleague at the Museum, the Rev. Thomas Maurice, (Hertford) 1754-1824 (30 Mar. - London (diead at his working place in the British Museum while reading)), a specialist of oriental myths and history, who had studied at the Univ. of Oxford, reputed to have been a lazy, humoristical and genial man, who had begun to study law, but through his friendship with the older literature figure Dr. Samuel Johnson, (18 Sep. - Lichfield, Staffordshire) 1709-1784 (13 Dec. - London), became interested in literature (an occupation he continued with all his life - with the possible short exception for the short period 1784-90, when he was married to a young girl, but after her untimely death he continued with his reading), who likely became a friend and mentor of Leach, but see also Caroline for some of his anagram names. (See also e.g. the genus names Calanus and Jassa).

The gastropod name Alvania leacocki (Watson, 1873) is a tribute to Thomas Leacock, "my friend ... who has done much for the study of the Madeiran land-mollusks". Likely this person was the viticulturist Thomas Slapp Leacock, 18??-1???, living in Madeira during this period.

Dr. Barry S.C. Leadbeater, 19??-, flagellate researcher at the Univ. of Birmingham, U.K. [Chrysochromulina leadbeateri Estep, Davis, Hargraves & Sieburth,1984].

Ph.D. José Henrique Leal, 1952-, Brazilian malacologist, formerly at School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Florida, later director of the Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum, Sanibel Island, Florida and editor of the journal The Nautilus [Tritonoharpa leali Harasewych, Petit & Verhecken, 1992, Dermomurex leali Houart, 1991, likely Muricopsis (Muricopsis) josei Vokes, 1994].

George Reading Leathes, (Rudham, Norfolk) 1778?-1836 (1 Jan. - Shropham, Norfolk), British rector (of Limpenhoe in 1803 and of Wickhampsted in 1804) and botanist [Leathesia S.F. Gray, 1821].

Vladimir Dmitrievich Lebedev, 1915-1975, marine scientist working at the hydrobiological station in Odessa. For the first time he found authentic fossil remains of genus Cobitis [Cobitis lebedevi Vasiljeva E. & Vasiljev V., 1985]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya kindly provided this information).

Jacques Eugène Lebel, 1801-1878, French botanist is honoured in the brown algal name Feldmannia lebelii (Areschoug ex Crouan frat.) G. Hamel, 1939.

The amphipod name Parallorchestes leblondi Bousfield & Hendrycks, 2002: "named in honour of Dr Paul H. Leblond", 1938-, "retired professor of Oceanography, Univ. of Br. Columbia." (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Leblond in the algal genus name Leblondiella Hamel, 1939.

Dr. Marie Victoire Lebour, (20 Aug. - Goodburn, Northumberland) 1876-1971 (2 Oct.), English (with French parents, her father wasa professor of geology) phyto- and zoo-planktologist, working at the laboratory in Plymouth [Gyrodinium lebouriae Herdman, 1924, Protoperidinium marielebouriae (Paulsen, 1930) Balech, 1974, Cercaria lebouri Stunkard, 1932, Neolebouria Gibson, 1976, Stephanostomum lebourae Caballero, 1952, Eualus lebourae Holthuis, 1951].

The Belgian Prof. Dr. Hector Lebrun , 1866-1960, "préparateur au Muséum, chargé d'une mission à Santa-Cruz de Patagonie", later professor in Gent, is likely the person honoured in the asteroid names Lebrunaster E. Perrier, 1891 (considered to be a synonym of Cycethra Bell, 1881) & Pteraster affinis lebruni Perrier, 1891 and in the scaphopod name Laevidentalium lebruni (Mabille & Rochebrune in Rochebrun & Mabille, 1889).

Dr. Jean-Paul Lechapt, 19??-, French polychaete researcher, later at School of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, is honoured in the NE Atlantic polychaete name Phalacrostemma lechapti Kirtley, 1994.

Leche : (see Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde).

The cephalopod name Octopus lechenaultii d'Orbigny, 1826 must be a tribute to Jean Baptiste Louis Claude Théodore Lescheanault de la Tour, (13 Nov.) 1773-1826 (14 Mar.), French botanist and ornithologist, whho i.a. took part in Baudin's expedition around the world. The cephalopod was captured at Java, where Leschenault had to spend 3 years in the end af Baudin's expedition before returning home, due to ill health.

Lacking information about Lecher in the Australian holothuroid name Trachythyone lecheri ?, 19??.

John Leckenby, (Ripon) 1814-1877, Scarborough, British bank manager and malacologist.

George Lecointe, (29 Apr. - Anvers, Belgium) 1869-1929 (27 May - Uccle), took part in the Belgian antarctic expedition 1897-99 with S. Y. "Belgica" as navigating officer and astronomer [Amphiporus lecointei Bürger, 1904] under command of Adrien Victor Joseph de Gerlache de Gomery, (2 Aug. - Hasselt, Belgium) 1866-1934 (4 Dec. - Bruxelles), [Amphiporus gerlachei Bürger, 1904, Heteromysis gerlachei (Bonnier & Perez, 1902), Philarius gerlachei (Nobili, 1905), Cryptocoda gerlachi Leloup, 1938, Luidiaster gerlachei (Ludwig)].

Dr. John Lawrence LeConte, (13 May - New York City) 1825-1883 (15 Nov.), US physician and entomologist (coleopterologist). His father John Eatton Le Conte, (22 Feb. - near Shrewsbury, New Jersey) 1784-1860 (21 Nov.), (who unlike his son spelled his name with a space between Le and Conte) and his cousins the physics professor John Le Conte (4 Dec. - Liberty County, Georgia) 1818-1891 (29 Apr. - Berkeley, California), & the brother of the physics professor, the geology professor Joseph Le Conte, (26 Feb. - Liberty County, Georgia) 1823-1901 (6 July - Yosemite Valley, California), were also naturalists, like another distant cousin S.F. Baird (q.v.) [likely Aega (Aega) lecontii (Dana, 1854)].

Le Danois : (see Danois).

Le Dantec : (see Dantec).

Ledoulxia Bourguignat, 1885 was named for Charles Fortune Louis Alexandre Ledoulx, (21 Aug. - Tunisia) 1844-1898, French consul in Zanzibar.

The French amphipod and cumacean worker Dr. Michel Ledoyer, 1937-, at Station marine d'Endoume, is honoured in the chaetognath name Spadella ledoyeri Casanova, 1986 and in the amphipod names Laetmatophilus ledoyeri Ruffo, 1986, Ampelisca ledoyeri Bellan-Santini & Kaim-Malka, 1977, Quadrimaera micheli Appadoo, Myers & Fagoonee, 2002, Cymadusa ledoyeri Peart, 2004 & Bathyporeia ledoyeri d'Udekem d'Acoz & Mentoui, 2004. He is reputed to be a very "private" person. (Dr. Jean-Georges Harmelin kindly provided the year of birth)

Dr. Harry G. Lee, 1940-, physician specializing in internal medicine by profession and hobby malacologist from Jacksonville, Florida [Macromphalina harryleei Rolan & Rubio, 1998, Nassarius harryleei E.F. Garcia, 2001, Mayaxis leei F.G. Thompson, 1995, Inella harryleei Rolán and Fernández-Garcés, 2008, Monostiolum harryleei E.F. García, 2006, Darrylia harryleei E.F. García, 2006] {Picture/ courtesy of web-master Bill Frank and Dr. Lee himself kindly provided the four last eponyms}.

Henry Lee, 1826-88 (31 Oct. - Brixton), marine zoologist at the Brighton Aquarium, where he in 1872 had succeded John Keast Lord, 1819-1872, (q.v.), a veterinarian and naturalist.

The gastropod name Gyroscala mikeleei E.F. Garcia, 2003 must likely be a tribute to Dr. Michael S.Y. Lee, 19??-, School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Australia, who i.a. has published on nudibranchs.

W.L. Lee, who together with the author collected the type of the polyplacophoran Callistochiton leei Ferreira, 1979 (Dr. Harry G. Lee kindly provided the information about his namesake), may likely be identical with Prof. Dr. Welton L. Lee, 19??-, of Oakland, California (PhD at Stanford Univ. in 1965), who is working on Californian Demospongiae. A person by the rare name Welton Lee was born 26 June 1923, but he is possibly too old, to be this poriferan worker, although Welton L. Lee evidently worked at the Hopkins Marine Station already in 1963.

Prof. Dr. John J. Lee, 19??-, (PhD in New York in 1960), Granuloreticulosa specialist at the City Univ. of New York, is honoured in the myxozoan name Myxidium leei Diamant, Lom & Dykova, 1994.

The gastropod names Opalia leeana (Verrill, 1883), Pteropurpura leeana (Dall, 1890) and the bivalve name Vesicomya leeana (Dall, 1889) are likely honouring Prof. Leslie Alexander Lee, (24 Sep. - Woodstock, Vermont) 1852-1908 (20 May - Portland, Maine), a naturalist from Bowdoin College, who e.g. was onboard the Albatross during the summer of 1885 and led the scientific operations onboard during the departure from the Atlantic to the Pacific during 1887-88.

Prof. Dr. Gordon Frank Leedale, 1932-, plankton algae researcher at the Botanical Dept. ot the Univ. of Leeds, thus a younger colleague of Prof. Irene Manton (q.v.) and later himself becoming professor. (Prof. Geoff Moore, University Marine Biological Station Millport, kindly supplied Prof. Leedale's correct institution).

Elmer G. Leehman, 19??-, Hawaii, is honoured in the gastropod name Conus leehmani da Motta & Röckel , 1979.

The gastropod name Chauvetia lefebvrei Maravigna, 1840 may possibly honour the French entomologist Alexandre Louis Lefèbvre de Cérisy, (14 Nov. - Paris) 1798-1867 (2 Dec. - Bouchevillers), or possibly Charlemagne Théophile Lefebvre, (5 Mar. - Loire-atlantiqcue, Nantes) 1811-1860, who was a member of a scientific commission regarding a "Voyage en Abyssinie exécuté pendant les années 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843".

Lacking information about Lefever(e) in the nematode name Campylaimus lefeverei Gerlach, 1956.

The copepod name Acartia lefevreae Bradford, 1976 is likely a tribute to Geneviève Le Fèvre-Lehoërff, 19??-, who published about this genus.

Lacking information about Lefevre in the holothuroid name Aslia lefevrei (Barrois, 1882) and in the gastropod name Pascula lefevreiana C. E. Tapparone-Canefri, 1880. Possibly - but not likely - a tribute to George Lefevre, who published on budding in Perophora together with W.K. Brooks (q.v.) and on US fresh water bivalves? He is likely identical to George Lefevre Sr., 1869-1923, who was Prof. of Zoology at the Univ. of Missouri and who got a son, Dr. George Lefevre Jr., 1917-90, who also became a biologist. Much more likely it is a tribute to a French or Belgian citicen by that name and at least the gastropod name may likely be a tribute to the Belgian Comte Théophile Lefèvre, 18??-1???, who was interested in malacology. A person named André Lefèvre, 1834-1904, published about parks and gardens in Paris in 1867 and Edouard Lefèvre, 1839-1894, was a French botanist.

Vexillum (Costellaria) leforti Turner & Salisbury, 1999 is named for Mr. Jean Paul Lefort, (15 May - Bayonne, France) 1948-, since 1970 living in Maeva, Huahine Island, French Polynesia. He is manager of the Maeva-Faie school and passionate collector of seashells and has brought many unknown and new mitriform gastropods to the attention of researchers [Erosaria cernica leforti (Senders & Martin, 1987)]. (Dr. Hans Turner, Casa La Conchiglia, Rovia, Switzerland, kindly provided this information).

The sponge name Lefroyella Thomson, 1877 is not in honour of the Irish naturalist Helena Trench alias Helena Lefroy, 1820-1908, but of the ex-soldier Sir John Henry Lefroy, (28 Jan. - Ashe, Hampshire, England) 1817-1890 (11 Apr. - Lewarne, Cornwall), who published "Magnetical and meteorological observations at Lake Athabasca and Fort Simpson and at Fort Confidence, in Great Bear Lake" in London in 1855 and between 1871-77 was the Governor of Bermudas (and published on plants from the island), from where the sponge was described, and before retirring in 1882 for a short while a popular administrator of Tasmania.

The chaetognath name Paraspadella legazpichessi (Alvariño, 1981) is likely not named directly for a person's name, but possibly from the Philippine city Legazpi possibly combined with the US researcher James R. Chess, 19??-, who i.a. has published on Chaetognatha.

René Legendre, 1880-1954, French zoologist [Campylaspis legendrei Fage,1951, Hysterothylaceum legendrei (Dollfus, 1933), Holorchis legendrei Dollfus, 1946].

Louis Raoul Urbain Théophole Maurice Léger, 1866-1901, French protozoologist [Parathelohania legeri (Hesse, 1904), Chloromyxum legeri Tourraine, 1931 (fresh water species), Coccidiascus legeri Chatton 1913, Duboscquia legeri Perez, 1908, Unikaryon legeri (Dollfus, 1912), Protrichomonas legeri (Alexeieff, 1910)]. A namesake is the French Grenoble zoologist Prof. Louis Léger, 1843-1923.

Lacking information about Legge in the copepod name Hemicyclops leggei ((Thompson & Scott, 1903). Possibly it may be Colonel William Vincent Legge, (2 Sep. - Cullenswood, Van Diemen's Land) 1841-1918 (25 Mar. - Cullenswood), a soldier (educated in Britain, France and Germany) and ornithologist, who i.a. published on birds from Ceylon (where he served between 1869-77).

The isopod name Jaeropsis legrandi Juchault, 1962 is a tribute to Jean-Jacques Legrand, 19??-, who published on isopods during the decades after WW2 until the 1980s.

The Australian mollusk name Fossarina legrandi Petterd, 1879 must be a tribute to William Legrand, 1820-1902, Australian Malacologist.

The flatworm names Lehardyia Karling, 1983 and Karkinorhynchus lehardyi Schilke, 1970 must both be tributes to Jean-Pierre L'Hardy, 1931?-, Université du Maine, Le Mans, who published on flat worms during the 1960s and afterwards.

Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg, 1840) Kützing, 1843 must be named for the German physician and botanist Prof. Dr. Johann Georg Christian Lehmann, (25 Feb. - Haselau near Uetersen, Holstein) 1792-1860 (12 Feb.). A namesake was Karl (Carl) Friedrich Lehmann, (27 Nov.) 1850-1903 (23 Nov. - drowning when crossing Río Timbique - whether an accident or a murder is unknown), who was the German consul in Popayán, Colombia, making frequent collecting trips for botany to Ecuador between 1876-81.

Prof. Dr. Valerius (Valentin) Leiblein, 1799 (or 1805?)-1869 (7 Apr.), German botanist, who was Professor of Natural History at the University of Würzburg and director of the Botanical Garden there [Leibleinia Gomont] (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly supplied much of this information).

Prof. Dr. Joseph Leidy, (9 Sep.) 1823-1891 (30 Apr.), U.S. physician and naturalist born in and living in Philadelphia, working on marine invertebrates, particularly polychaetes, at the coasts of Rhode Island and New Jersey. Also palaeontology was one of his interests (but not religion). He was president of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia during the 8 last years of his life and published more than 800 scientific papers [Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865, Edwardsia leidyi Verrill A. E., 1898]. {another Picture}.

William Harold Leigh-Sharpe, 1881-1950, Lecturer in Biology, St Mary's Hospital Medical School, London, published on (British) commensal and parasitic copepods, as well as the Siboga report on such creatures. He was also a composer of classical music for pianoforte and piano [the digenean name Hemipera sharpei Jones, 1933]. (Dr. D. Damkaer - who together with O. Merrington published a biography in J. of Crustacean Biology 25(3) 2005 - kindly provided the year of decease) .

Alexander Henry Leim, 1897-1960, Canadian ichthyologist (published posthumously in 1966 Fishes of the Atlantic Coast) [Leimia Willey, 1923].

Dr. Andreas Leistikow, 19??-, Department of Animal Morphology, University of Bielefeld, Germany, is an isopod specialist.

Dr. Auguste François Le Jolis, (Cherbourg) 1823-1904 (Cherbourg), French merchant, naturalist and botanist [Fosliella lejolisii (Rosanoff) Howe, Stilopsis lejolisi (Thuret) Kuckuck ex G. Hamel, Ochthebius lejolisii Mulsant & Rey, 1861, Lejolisia Bornet, 1859]. (Prof. Geoff Moore kindly provided one of the eponyms - that of the water beetle from supralittoral hypersaline pools, Ochthebius).

Lacking information about Lelap in the sponge generic name Lelapia J.E. Gray, 1867.

Pierre Le Loeuff, (12 Oct.) 1938-, Nantes, biological oceanographic researcher at the French ORSTOM (now renamed IRD), working along the west African coast. He is honoured in the crab name Pinnotheres leloueuffi Crosnier, 1969, the ostracod name Rutiderma leloeuffi Kornicker, 1975, the stomatopod name Eurysquilla leloeuffi Manning, 1977, the scaphopod name Cadulus (Dischides) leloeuffi Nicklès, 1979, the terebrid name Hastula leloeuffi Bouchet, 1982 and in the bivalve name Lucina leloeuffi von Cosel, 1989. The Callianassoidea species Gourretia leloeuffintesi Sakai, 2006 was originally named Gourretia minor by Le Loeff and Intès (q.v.) in 1974, so the new name is a tribute to both researchers. (Dr. Alain Crosnier, at the MNHN, Paris, kindly provided all this information).

Eugène Leloup, 1902-19??, Belgian polyplacophoran and aculiferan expert, who published at least between 1933-81, is honoured in the polyplacophoran name Leptochiton leloupi Kaas, 1979. He also published several papers on hydroids between 1932-1974 and is honoured in the hydroid name Zygophylax leloupi Ramil & Vervoort, 1992. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

Mr. F. Le Maitre, 19??-, South African shell collector [Fusivoluta lematrei Poppe, 1992].

Dr. Rafael Lemaitre, (18 Jan.) 1952-, Colombian callianassid researcher at the Smithsonian Institution, who collected the types of Neocallichirus lemaitrei Manning, 1993 [Alainopaguroides lemaitrei McLaughlin, 1997].

Richard Lemaitre, 19??-, of Somerset West, S. Africa, provided the holotype of Trivia lematrei Liltved, 1986.

The flatworm name Multipeniata lemani (Forel & Du Plessis, 1874) was likely not named for a person's name but was found in Lac Léman.

Dr. Henning Mourier Lemche, (11 Aug. - København) 1904-1977 (4 Aug.), Danish opisthobranch researcher. His mother was a descendent of Lorenz Spengler (q.v.). After obtaining a Cand. mag. degree in Natural History at the university of København in 1927, he became an assistent to the Zool. Institute of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College of København next year. There he remained until his retirement in 1974, but from 1958-74 he was also head of the department of Molluscs at the Zoological Museum, where he remained active also after the retirement. During the first years as assistent, he taught general zoology and studied mainly entomology and his thesis in 1937 dealt with insects. Since 1948 he was a commissioner to the ICZN. He was a gifted illustrator and made hundreds of drawings and water paintings of the animals he studied. During the last period of his life he learned SCUBA diving in order to be able to better study the animals he only had been able to catch with a dredge earlier [Cylichna lemchei Bouchet & Warén, 1976, Doto lemchei Ortea & Urgorri, 1978, Paraedwardsia lemchei Carlgren, 1956].

Dr. Ernst Johann Lemmermann, (27 May - Bremen) 1867-1915 (11 May - Bremen), German algae and bryophyte worker and "Seminarlehrer" in his home town, who also published a paper on marine fungi (in Bremen) [Achnanthes lemmermannii Hustedt, 1931].

Lemos Castro : (See Castro).

Thomas James Lempriere, (11 Jan. - Hamburg) 1796-1852 (6 Jan. - Tasmania), who emigrated to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) in 1822, where he became a merchant, later a public official, is honoured in the skate name Okamejei lemprieri (Richardson, 1845). Lepriere collected i.a. fish and other natural history objects, which were sent to naturalists in England and he himself published on natural history subjects, beeing a regular diarist. From a tide gauge, which he cut into rock, near Port Arthur in Tasmania and his diaries can be seen that the sea there has risen ca13.5 cm since the 1840s. He also painted portraits and landscapes, was an interested meteorologist and spoke several languages fluently, thus a kind of a "Renaissance man".

Conus lenavati Da Motta, 1982 & D. Röckel, 1982 is named for Mr. Phairot Lenavat, 19??-, who firstly recognized it as a new species. Lenavat has published on cone shells.

Robert J. Edler von Lendlmayr, Reichsritter von Lendenfeld, (10 Feb. - Graz) 1858-1913 (3 July - Prague), Austrian spongiologist and cnidariologist (also known as an alpinist, together with his wife Anna climbing the New Zealand mountain tops in 1883), who for a time during the 1880s worked in Australia [Lendenfeldia Bergquist, 1980, Strepsichordaia lendenfeldi Bergquist, Ayling & Wilkinson, 1988].

Lenny in the Gastropod name Amaea lennyi E.F. Garcia, 2003 : (see Lenny Brown).

The marine gastropod Phenacovolva (Subsimnia) lenoreae Cardin & Walls, 1980 was named after Lenore Jannette Cardin, 19??-, daughter of the senior author. (Curator Henk K. Mienis, Tel Aviv Univ., kindly provided this information).

Sébastien René Lenormand, (Condé) 1796-1871, French lawyer and algae researcher in Caen [Phymatolithon lenormandii (Aresch.) Adey., Haraldia lenormandi (Derbès & Soliér) Feldmann, Acrochaetium lenormandii (Suhrr ex Kützing) Nägeli].

The siphonophore genus Lensia Totton, 1932 is honouring the Dutch zoologist Albertine Dorothea Lens, (12 May- Utrecht) 1881-1970 (2 Aug. - Harmelen, municipality of Woerden), who together with Thea van Riemsdijk (Theodora Adrienne Anne van Riemsdijk, Mrs Richmond, 1885- 19??), in 1908 published on the Siphonophores from the Siboga Expedition. Lens studied biology at the University of Utrecht and was an assistant at the Zoological Laboratory under Prof. Hubrecht (q.v.) from 1908-1910. After that became teacher of biology at secondary schools in Groningen, Utrecht, Hilversum and the Hague, but her principal job remained at the municipal secondary school (H.B.S.) for girls at Utrecht. She was officially absent because of illness for the period 19.01.1943 - 01.12.1944 at which date she retired prematurely as a teacher because of ill health. She lived in Utrecht, after retirement in De Bilt (prov. of Utrecht, the Netherlands) and later on moved to Harmelen. As far as we have been able to find out she never married. (The information about Lens was kindly achieved from Prof. Willem Vervoort, Leiden, who asked his colleague Prof. Holthuis about this researcher, and Prof Holthuis kindly digged out the information above).

The decapod name Galathea lenzi Rathbun, 1907 is not in honour of Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz, (12 Feb. - Dorpat (Tartu)) 1804-1865 (10 Feb. - Roma, Italy), ocean scientist, or Harald Othmar Lenz, (27 Feb. - Schnepfenthal) 1798-1870 (13 Jan. - Schnepfenthal), natural historian and teacher, but another Prof. Dr. Heinrich Lenz, (Lübeck) 1846-1913 (Lübeck), Naturkundemuseum Lübeck, who published on "Ergebnisse enem Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland)" in "Zool. Jahrb." in 1902 and tcontinued to publish about i.a. crustaceans, e.g. posthumously together with K. Strunk in 1914. He had already for several decades made investigations of the fauna in Lübeck and Travemünde Bays and also described several species from abroad.

Leo : (see Krapp-Schickel).

The gastropod name Conus leobrerai da Motta & Martin, 1982 is a tribute to either Fely Moreno Leobrera, (Zamboanga, the Philippines) 19??-, or her husband Carlos Baldon Leobrera, (Legaspi, Albay, the Philippines)) 19??-, a Philippine couple, much interested in malacology.

The gastropod name Murexiella leonae D' Attilio & Myers, 1985 is named for Leona Bellin, 19??-, wife of Phillip Bellin (q.v.), who first collected specimens of the species from Okinawa.

The diatom name Achnanthes leonardi Witkowski & Lange-Bertalot, 2000 is dedicated to the late Docent Dr. Leonard Bohdziewicz, (23 Oct.) 1921-1997 (14 May), organizer and first director of the Institute of Oceanography, Univ. of Gdansk and a good friend of Witkowski.

Dr. Jesús Ángel de León-Gonzáles, 1961-, Laboratorio de Biosistemática, Facultad de Ciencias Bioloógicas, UANL, San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico, has published several publications on different polychaete families from Mexico [Marphysa angeli Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998, Hydroides deleoni Bastida-Zavala & ten Hove 2003].

The nemertean name Tetrastemma leonillae (Oxner, 1908) is in honour of Dr. Oxner's mother Leonilla neé Nowak, 18??-1936. (Dr. Jacqueline Carpine-Lancre, Monaco, kindly provided this information).

Sacculina leopoldi Boschma, 1931 is named for prince Léopold of Belgium, (3 Nov. - Brussels) 1901-1983 (25 Sep.), who became king Léopold III in 1934, but abdicated in 1951.

Dr. Ivan Ivanovich Lepechin, (10 Sep. - St. Petersburg) 1740-1802 (6 Apr. - St. Petersburg), Russian physician and naturalist who had studied in Strasbourg and travelled through the Ural Mountains and western Siberia, is honoured in the cumacean name Diastylis lepechini Zimmer,1926 and in the amphipod name Lepechinella Stebbing, 1908. Also the botanical name Lepechinia Willd. is a tribute to him.

Paralepetopsis lepichoni Warén & Bouchet, 2001 was named for the Plate Tectonics researcher Prof. Dr. Xavier Le Pichon, (18 June) 1937-, leader of the expedition that retrieved the specimen and Président du comité scientifique at IFREMER, member of the Académie des Sciences and Professor at Collège de France.

The red algal name Caloglossa leprieurii (Montagne) J. Agardh must be a tribute to the French navy pharmacist and botanical collector François Mathias René Leprieur, 1799-1869, who was stationed in Senegambia, but also visited Madagascar and then lived in French Guiana.

Josif Lepsi, 1895-1966, Roumanian protistologist

Admiral Le Querré, 18??-19??, "commandant de la division navale de Brest" [Lequerrea Chatton & Harant, 1924]. Also the street Rue Amiral Le Querré in Brest must be named for him.

Norman Wallace Lermond, (27 July - Knox County, Maine) 1861-1944 (Spring - Thomaston, Maine), US accountant and naturalist, mainly Malacologist and Botanist. Fonded Knox Arboretum, later donated to the Knox Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Lacking information about Lerner in the Bahamas copepod name Peltidium lerneri D.C. Geddes, 1968, but possibly not a direct tribute to a person's name, but to the Lerner Marine Laboratory, Bimini, Bermudas.

Dr. René Primevère Lesson, (20 Mar. - Rochefort) 1794-1849 (28 Apr. - Rochefort), French naval physician and zoologist, who i.a. participated in the Pacific expedition 1822-25 with "La Coquille" and described the zoological findings [Lessonia Eydoux & Souleyet, 1852, Palio lessoni (d'Orbigny, 1837), Amphistegina lessoni d'Orbigny, 1826, Dentalium lessoni Deshayes 1825, Crepidula lessoni (Broderip, 1834), Siphonaria lessoni de Blainville, 1824, Sepioteuthis lessoniana de Férussac, 1830 in R. P. Lesson, Tropidocyathus lessonii (Michelin, 1842), Synclavella lessoni Caullery, 1900]. His younger brother, the naval pharmacist Dr. Pierre Adolphe Lesson, 1805-1888, took part as surgeon and naturalist in the looking for the destiny of La Pérouse's expedition during 1826-29 with R/V Astrolabe.

Dr. Michele Lessona, (20 Sep. - Venaria Reale) 1823-1894 (20 July - Torino), Italian zoologist, physician and author.

Prof. Dr. Robert John Graham Lester, (28 Nov. - Walsall, England) 1941-, Brisbane fish andmarine animals parasitologist, first working in the North Sea area, then for several years in Canada, before arriving to Queensland in 1977. [Ctenascarophis lesteri Crites, Overstreet & Maung, 1993, Stylochus (Imogine) lesteri Jennings & Newman, 1996, Pterobothrium lesteri Campbell & Beveridge, 1996, Indodidymozoon lesteri Anderson & Cribb, 1994, Colobomatus lesteri West, 1992, Sinuolinea lesteri Moser, Kent & Dennis, 1989, Bacciger lesteri Bray, 1982].

Charles-Alexandre Lesueur (sometimes spelled le Sueur) (1 Jan. - Le Havre) 1778-1846 (12 Dec. - Sainte-Adresse), took part of Captain Nicolas Baudin's (q.v.) French expedition to Australia in 1800-04 (where Bory de Saint-Vincent (q.v.) was chief Naturalist but left the expedition already at Mauritius) as cannon assistant (but was appointed artist after the first stop at Mauritius, where several official artists stayed) [Limacina lesueuri (d'Orbigny, 1836), Pleurobranchus lesueurii Blainville, 1825, Atlanta lesueuri Souleyet, 1852, Firola lesueuri D'Orbigny, 1836, Acanthochitona sueurii H. De Blainville, 1825, Lesueuria Milne Edwards, 1841, Lesueurigobius sueuri (Risso, 1810), Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (d'Orbigny, 1842, in de Férussac & d'Orbigny)] See also. He and the physician on board "Le Geographe", François Péron, (22 Aug. - Cérilly) 1775-1810 (14 Dec. - Cérilly (tuberculosis)), became very close friends. Péron had taken part in the Prussian wars, where he was wounded and after a long captivity lost his right eye, but became free when Prussia and France exchanged prisoners and began studying medicine and natural history [Scalpellum peronii (J.E. Gray, 1825), Ibacus peronii Leach, 1815, Xantho peronii Milne Edwards, 1834, Venus peronii Lamarck, 1818, Vermetus peronii Rousseau in Chenu, 1844, Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817, Cymbulea peroni Lamarck, 1819, Nemipterus peronii (Valenciennes, 1830), Cryptoplax peroni Rochebrune, Peronidia Dall, 1900, Peronia (Peronia) peronii (Cuvier, 1804), Pleurobranchus peronii Cuvier, 1804, Lissodelphis peronii (Lacépéde, 1804), Scutellastra peronii (de Blainville, 1825)]. Together they interested themselves in the medusae which they found. The result of their work was published in 1807 by Péron. After the return to France, they also worked on European species. A few small articles were published in 1809-10, but their main work, a manuscript of more than 400 pages by Péron and 96 plates by Lesueur is still unpublished [Phyllorhiza peronlesueuri Goy 1990]. The Baudin venture is reputed to have been horrible and most participants, were - like Péron - broken down and died when rather young (see Baudin, who like Péron died from tuberculosis). Péron and Baudin were not the best friends, partly because the commander for his own profit sold as much as he could of what was onboard the ships, including scientific equipment when they arrived at new ports. Péron had also a very different political view than Baudin, who was a royalist, while Péron had been enrolled in the revolution army, so he, Lesueur and the young expedition artist Nicolas-Martin Petit, (June) 1777-1804 (21 Oct. - Paris, after hurting his knee, which went gangrenous), developed a lasting friendship. Possibly also the physician had inherited his tuberculosis from the commander? Lesueur took the death of his friend very hard and was for a time adrift both personally and intellectually. Gradually, however, he became regarded as a zoologist and an admiring colleague, the fabulously wealthy Scottish / US geologist William MacLure, (27 Oct.) 1763-1840 (23 Mar.), (one of the founders - and long-time president - of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia - where MacLure lived) persuaded Lesueur to work in USA, being a paid member of MacLure's expedition to the Caribbean and North America. Lesueur thus ended up in Philadelphia in 1816, became a member of the Academy and a close friend of the entomologist, malacologist, crustaceologist and business manager for the New Harmony community Thomas Say, (27 June) 1787-1834 (10 Oct. - New Harmony) (a former apothecary in his native city Philadelphia, who by the age of 25 gave up this career {another portrait}). He was a quaker and a great-nephew of William Bartram (q.v.), who encouraged him to interest himself in natural history [Dyspanopeus sayi (Smith, 1869), Lanceola sayana Bovallius, 1885, Portunus sayi (Gibbes, 1850), Calliostoma sayanum Dall, 1889, Diodora sayi (Dall, 1899), Oliva sayana Ravenel, 1834, Sayella Dall, 1885, Propeamussium sayanum (Dall, 1886), Porcellana sayana (Leach, 1820)]. Lesueur soon (in 1826) followed Say to an Utopian pre-communistic society experiment, the so called "New Harmony Settlement" on the Wabash river in Indiana. This community had also been founded by MacLure together with Robert Owen, but they had a disagreement in 1828 and Owen remained there, while MacLure went to Mexico and stayed there. There Lesueur later met another naturalist, who in 1802 had immigrated into USA, Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, (22 Oct.) 1783-1840 (18 Sep. - Philadelphia), who was born in Turkey by a French father and a German mother. Rafinesque thought of settling among the New Harmonists, but changed his mind after a short stay. About the "gullible genius" Rafinesque has been said "No more remarkable figure has appeared in the annals of science". He was a Jack-of-all-trades, a very great traveller and polyglot, who from time to time partly lived in Italy (mainly Sicilia - he lived in Palermo between 1805-15) also after he had settled in USA. (Usually he used his fathers family name only, but during the Italian-French war, he found it wise to add his mothers name as well). Succesively he also grow very eccentric, with a taste for everything which was new and untested and became somewhat corpulent, but his taste concerned not only food: one small example is that many of all the taxon names that he proposed are altogether fictive and not possible to derive etymologically, but they evidenty tasted delicious on his tongue and eventually he may have passed the insanity border and was considered a bit crazy. He once had a love affair with a Sicilian girl, but she left him when he lost his fortune and remarried a "Mr Pinzarroni" and his young son - named Charles Linnaeus - had died in infancy, while his daughter Emilia became a stage singer and lost the contact with her father [Diaphus rafinesquei (Cocco, 1838)]. After the death of Say, Lesueur eventually went home in 1837, settled - after some years in Paris - in Le Havre, where he was instrumental in founding the Natural History Museum, which still is honouring his name.

The gastropod name Odostomia lesuroiti Penas & Rolan, 1999 is likely not in honour of a person's name, but of the French R/V Le Suroit.

The gastropod name Mathilda letei Smriglio, Prkiae, di Guilio & Mariottini, 2007 is in honour of Mr. Neven Leten, 19??-, from Split who collected specimens. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Letourneuxia Bourguignat, 1866 and Letourneuxiana Bourguignat, 1880 were named after Aristide Horace Letourneux, (21 Feb. - Rennes) 1820-1890 (Alger), conseiller in Alger, who published on botany and entomology [likely Cladiella letourneuxi Tixier-Durivault, 1944].

The scaphopod name Dentalim letsonae Sharp & Pilsbry in Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897 must be a tribute to Dr. h.c. Elizabeth Jennie Letson Bryan, (9 Apr. - Griffin's Mills, Eire Co., New York) 1874-1919 (28 Feb. - Honolulu), US conchologist.

The polychaete name Parachonia letterstedti Kinberg, 1867 is in honour of Jakob Letterstedt (neé Lallerstedt), (15 Dec. - Vallerstad, Östergötland) 1796-1862 (18 Mar. - Paris), Swedish donor of money to scientific expeditions, etc., a son of a farmer, who had made a fortune on milling of cereals in the Cape Colony.

The octocoral name Kophobelemnon leucharti Cecchini, 1917, may possibly - despite the spelling - be a tribute to Leuckart (q.v.)?

Prof. Dr. Karl Georg Friedrich Rudolf Leuckart, (7 Oct. - Helmstedt) 1822-1898 (6 Feb. - Leipzig), German zoologist. In 1855 he was appointed professor in Giessen, later (1869) in Leipzig; worked with taxa within several phyla, but mainly following the foot-steps of his uncle, Prof. Friedrich Siegmund Leuckart, (28 Aug.? - Helmstedt) 1764-1843 (26 Sep. - Freiburg im Breisgau), who was professor in Freiburg. F.S. Leuckart was a specialist on parasite worms [Calliobothrium leuckartii van Beneden, 1850]. Rudolf gathered lots of students around himself and in this way he directed zoological science - not only in Germany - towards the morphological direction, because he had a reputation of beeing helpful, good-hearted, a bit eccentrical and good-natured humorous. He denied the existence of taxons founded on negative character states and the taxon Coelenterata was established by him in 1847 [Leuckartiara Hartlaub, 1913, Podon leuckartii G.O. Sars, 1862, Protohydra leuckarti Greeff, 1870, Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus, 1857), Sphaeronella leuckartii Salensky, 1868, Arachnomysis leuckartii Chun, 1887, Protodrilus leuckartii Hatschek, 1882, Chromadorita leuckarti (de Man, 1876), Sabelliphilus leuckarti Kossmann, 1877, Forskalia leuckarti Bedot, 1893, Aegires leuckarti Vérany, 1853]. Rudolf was in his youth, together with Prof. Heinrich Frey, (15 June - Frankfurt am Main) 1822-1890 (17 Jan. - Zürich), (later on Dr. Frey became professor of medicin in Zürich), favourite disciples of the professor in Göttingen Dr. Rudolf Wagner, (30 June - Bayreuth) 1805-1864 (13 May - Göttingen), and Frey and Leuckart wrote initially some articles together. Wagner himself had studied medicin in Würzburg and after that worked under Cuvier in Paris. Eventually he succeded Blumenbach as professor in Göttingen. Because of his theory about the human spirit as a kind of etherical matter, leaving the dying body and then in some way dividing and taking place in unborn children he easily found an academic enemy in professor Vogt (q.v.).

M. Augustin Leufroy, 17??-18??, friend of Michaud, the author of Pleurotoma leufroyi Michaud, 1828. Augustin Leufroy published on palaeomalacology.

Ivan Levakin, 1975-, St Petersburg parasitologist interested in helminth parasites of marine mollusks.

Dr. Kaarlo Mainio Levander, (1 Nov. - Lovisa) 1867-1943 (7 Dec. - Helsinki), Finnish biologist, J.A. Palmén's assistent, professor of Zoology 1910-35 in Helsinki; specialist of small water living animals, especially plankton [Echinoderes levanderi Karling, 1954, Caenomorpha levanderi Kahl, 1927].

The French cryptogamist and physician Dr. Joseph-Henri Léveillé, (28 May - Crux-la-Ville) 1796-1870 (3 Feb.), is honoured in the brown algal names Mesogloia leveillei Meneghini and Liebmannia leveillei J. Agardh.

The copepod name Acartia levequei Grice, 1964 is likely a tribute to the French Dr. Christian Lévêque, 19??-, who i.a. has published on African aquatic ecosystems.

Prof. Dr. Claude Lévi, (20 Dec. - Paris) 1922-, introduced the use of reproductive characters for the higher classification of Demosponges. He was employed until 1990 (when he retired) as curator and head of marine invertebrates of the Paris Museum. In his retirement he is now working on the sponge fauna of New Caledonia [Acarnus claudei Van Soest et al., 1991, Acarnus levii Vacelet, 1960, Diacarnus levii Kelly-Borges & Vacelet, 1995, Levinella Borojevic & Boury-Esnault, 1986, Levinellidae Borojevic & Boury-Esnault, 1986, Microciona levii Sarà & Siribelli, 1960, Paresperella levii Uriz, 1989, Tethya levii Sarà, 1988, Lekanesphaera levii (Argano & Ponticelli, 1981), Seguenzia levii B.A. Marshall, 1991, Fissidentalium levii Scarabino, 1995, Homologenus levii Guinot & Richer de Forges, 1995, Pterynotus levii R. Houart, 1988, Remanella levii Dragesco, 1960]. (Dr. Rob van Soest kindly provided part of this information and Dr. Métivier kindly corrected an earlier wrong birth date).

The polychaete name Synelmis levinae Salazar-Vallejo, 2003 is named for Dr. Lisa Ann Levin, (Los Angeles) 19??-, Scripps, California, for her many publications on ecology of polychaetes. (She has published far more than 100 papers - often on annelids, but also on other organisms, e.g. Xenophyophora - since the beginning of the 1980:s (achieved her PhD at Scripps in 1982)). [Desmotersia levinae Neira & Decraemer, 2008, Vema levinae Warén, in Warén & Gofas, 1996]. The gastropod name Cornisepta levinae McLean & Geiger, 1998 may likely honour the same person. (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information)

Dr. Norman Dion Levine, (12 Nov. - Boston) 1912-1999 (15 July - Urbana, Illinois), Protozoologist at the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois.

The amphipod names Locustogammarus levingsi Bousfield, 1979 and Pacifoculodes levingsi Bousfield & Chevrier, 1996 are named for Dr. Colin D. Levings, (23 May) 1942-, who is a benthic ecologist with Dept of Fisheries and Oceans in Vancouver. (Curator Philip Lambert, Royal British Columbia Museum, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Georg Marius Reinald Levinsen, (23 Jan. - Hørsholm) 1850-1914 (9 Aug. - København), Danish marine zoologist with wide invertebrate interests, albeit mainly remembered for an essential work on cheilostomatous bryozoans published in 1909. He married a cousin in 1885, but became a widower in 1908. The couple had a son Frithiof, 1887-1918. [Pendonemertes levinseni Brinkmann, 1917, Levinsenia Mesnil, 1897, Escharella levinseni Hayward, 1994, Hemiurus levinseni Odhner, 1905, Levinseniella Stiles & Hassall, in Ward, 1901, Travisiopsis levinseni Southern, 1910, Cephalodiscus levinseni Harmer, 1905, Zygophylax levinseni (Saemundsson, 1911), Melinnacheres levinseni (M'Intosh, 1885)].

The English philosopher and critic of literature and theatre George Henry Lewes, (18 Apr. - London) 1817-1878 (28 Nov. - London), published "Sea-side studies at Ilfracombe, Tenby, the Scilly Isles, & Jersey" in Edinburgh in 1858.

John William Lewin, 1770-1819 (27 Aug.), a famous Australian (Paramatta, New South Wales) painter born in England (arriving to Australia in January 1800), who specialized in landscapes, insects, birds and botanic descriptions [Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)]. According to Dr. Wainstain's (see provider note, below) Australian sources, John William Lewin was the son of William Lewin, 1747-1795 (autumn), fellow of the Linnean Society, and author of "The Birds of Great Britain ", London, 1789-94. They lived in Darenth, Kent, and at Hoxton, London. Stamps from CISKEI 13/04/83, SIERRA LEONE 22/02/99 and TANZANIA in 1994 are dedicated to this shark species. Possibly the Australian fish Dinolestes lewini as well is honouring the same person? (Dr Claude Wainstain, France, stamp collector, interested in the Judaica topic, kindly provided all this information, adding that as far as he knows, however this Lewin family does not seem to have any Jewish family roots).

Prof. Dr. Ralph Arnold Lewin, (30 Apr. - London) 1921-2008 (30 Nov. - La Jolla), English / US phycologist, who had studied at the Univ. of Cambridge, but crossed the Atlantic during the years after WW2, spending i.a. 5 years in Nova Scotia, then 4 years at Woods Hole, but active at Scripps from 1960. He was also an Esperantist and poet and lived together with Lanna Cheng (q.v.).

Dr. Chanan Lewinsohn, (Berlin, Germany) 1926-1983 (25 May - Tel Aviv, Israel), He emigrated to Palestine in 1938, where he finished the Agricultural School of the Youth Village Ben-Shemen. From 1944 until 1953 he worked first as a technician and later as an assistant at the Biological-Pedagogical Institute in Tel Aviv (a forerunner of the Tel Aviv University). From 1947 until 1959 he served also as a zoology teacher at the Teacher Seminar of the Kibbutz Movement in Tel Aviv. In 1953 he was appointed assistant at the Department of Zoology of the just founded Tel Aviv University. Later on he decided to enroll also as a student at the same institute. He finished his B.Sc. in the field of life sciences in 1962, which was followed by M.Sc. studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (163/64). During his studies he worked more-and-more in the field of marine biology in general and Crustacea Decapoda in particular. He participated in expeditions to the coasts of Sinai (1956/57), was one of the organizers of the Israel South Red Sea Expeditions to the Dahlak Archipelago (1962 and 1965) and carried out important dredging operations in the Gulf of Aqaba (1967/69). On 21 May 1969 he defended his Ph.D.-thesis: Die Anomuren des Roten Meeres (Crustacea Decapoda: Paguridea, Galatheidea, Hippidea) at the Rijksuniversiteit in Leiden, the Netherlands. Chanan Lewinsohn published numerous articles on Crustacea and was the (co)author of 13 new taxa. The following four species have been named so far after him: Scyllarus lewinsohni Holthuis, 1967, Quadrella lewinsohni Galil, 1986, Polypaguropsis lewinsohni McLaughlin & Haig, 1988 and Hemipagurus lewinsohni Asakura, 2001. (Curator Henk K. Mienis, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem & Tel Aviv Univ., kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Lewis in the actiniarian name Epiactis lewisii Carlgren, 1940 from the Sakhalin area.

Captain Meriwether Lewis, (18 Aug. - Albermarle County, Virginia) 1774-1809 (12 Oct. - near Nashville), of the American Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806. Specimens of moonsnails, now Euspira lewisii (Gould, 1847) were collected from the mouth of the Columbia River. Meriwether Lewis was a private secretary to American President, Thomas Jefferson, and was picked lead the expedition from Philadelphia to the Pacific. (Dr. Rick Harbo, Canada, kindly provided this information).

The gastropod name Solariella lewisae Willett, 1946 from Spiridon Bay, Kodiak, Alaska, must be named for the collectors Mr. & Mrs. F. Lewis, 1???-,.

Harold "Hal" Lewis, 1927-1998, US graphic designer and shell collector (also describing some species), born and living in Philadelphia, who specialized in Ranellidae [Distorsio (Distorsionella) lewisi Beu, 1978, Sassia lewisi Harasewych & Petuch, 1980].

John Robert Lewis, 1924-, British rocky shore ecologist.

The diatom name Caloneis lewisii Patrick, is likely in honour of one of the following algae workers: the US algal worker Francis West Lewis, 1825-1902, the Prof. (of Geology at Univ. College of Wales, Aberystwyth) Herbert Price Lewis, 1895?-1947 (22 Jan. - Borth, Cardiganshire, in his 52:nd year) or Prof. Dr. (at the Univ. of Virginia) Ivey Foreman Lewis, (31 Aug. - Raleigh, North Carolina) 1882-1964 (16 Mar.) and the first and last of these gentlemen must be the most likely persons.

The Callianassid name Callianassa lewtonae Ngoc-Ho, 1994 must likely be a tribute to the Australian isopod worker Helen M. Lewton, 19??-, Museum of Victoria, Melbourne.

Leydig: (see Gegenbaur).

Prof. Jean-Pierre L'Hardy, 1931?-, published on Kalyptorhynchia , i.a. from Roscoff during the 1960s and has kept publishing some papers during the 1980s and 1990s and during later years he has been responsible for a laboratory "Biologie des Organismes et Biodiversité", Université du Maine, Le Mans, France [Karkinorhynchus lhardyi Schilke, 1970]. (His former colleague at Le Mans Prof. Jacques Lhonore kindly provided the date, but was not quite sure about the exact year).

Lhotelleria Bourguignat, 1876 was named after Mons. P. Juba de Lhôtellerie, 18??-1???, French shell collector.

Li Shi-Zhen, 1518-1593, Chinese naturalist.

The isopod name Tole libbeyi (Ortmann, 1901) is a tribute to the Princeton physical oceanographer Prof. Dr. William A. Libbey III, (27 Mar. - Jersey City, New Jersey) 1855-1927 (6 Sep. - Princeton), who e.g. took part in the Albatross cruise the summer 1885. (He also won a silver medal in the Men's shooting during the Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912).

Dr. Martin Heinrich Carl Lichtenstein, (10 Jan. - Hamburg) 1780-1857 (2 Sep. - died after a duel fought at sea off Kiel, between Korsör and Kiel), German physician, explorer and naturalist, who in 1844 published descriptions of animals collected around Australia. He worked at the Zoological Institute in Berlin before W. Peters (q.v.) and then Schulze (q.v.) took over. [Physogyra lichtensteini (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851), Ancistroteuthis lichtensteinii (de Férussac, 1835, in de Férussac & d'Orbigny), the coral name Physogyra lichtensteini (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851), the cephalopod name Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini A. de Férussac & d'Orbigny, 1839]. His father Prof. Dr. Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein, (25 Aug.) 1753-1816 (17 Feb.), was a doctor of theology and philosophy, professor of oriental languages, very interested in natural history and was together with Röding (q.v.) contracted by Bolten's family to produce sales catalogues of Bolten's collections, and produced such a catalouge of mammals and birds in 1893, a second of minerals and shells in 1894 and third of insects in 1896 (see webpage, from which the very rare minerals and shells catalogue is reachable). M.H.C. Lichtenstein's brother August Gerhard Gottfried Lichtenstein, 1780-1851, produced an index of plant genera and his uncle? Dr. Georg Rudolph Lichtenstein, 1745-1807, was a physician and had a large herbarium.

George W. Lichtenthaler, 18??-1893, US Malacologist.

The gastropod name Setia lidyae Verduin, 1988 is in honour of Mrs. Lydia A. Van Roosmalen-De Caes, 19??-, Zeist (Holland), who during many years cooperated so pleasantly in producing the "Correspondentieblad van de Nederlandse Malacologische Vereniging". (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

The polychaete name Malmgreniella liei Pettibone, 1993 is a tribute to the collector Prof. Dr. Ulf Lie, 193?-, Norwegian (Bergen) marine ecologist, who for many years was working in USA and found this species in Puget Sound.

Prof. Dr. Ingvald Kristian Lieberkind, (23 June - København) 1897-1972 (17 Feb.), Danish zoologist, who i.a. worked on echinoderms [Teredo lieberkindi Roch, 1931]. For a few years he was married to Elise Wesenberg-Lund (q.v.), but later remarried. He also wrote some books for children about nature and took part in radio and television programs about nature.

The sponge name Hymedesmia lieberkuhni Burton, 1930 and the ciliate name Pseudoprorodon lieberkuehni Bütschli, 1889 are likely honouring the German researcher, the medical Prof. Dr. Nathanael Lieberkühn, (8 July - Barby an der Elbe) 1821-1887 (14 Aug. - Marburg), who published on gregarines in 1855 and on ciliates in 1856. Some of his collections are in the Marburg Museum, because after studies in Berlin (i.a. as a disciple of J. Müller (q.v.)), he in 1867 became professor of Anatomy in Marburg.

The Austrian Dr. Karl Friedrich Liebetruth, 1799-1887, is honoured in the green algal name Cladophora liebetruthii Grunow in Piccone, 1884 and in the diatom name Nitzschia liebetruthii Rabenhorst Liebetruth collected i.a. algae at the Canarie Islands and other Macaronesian islands.

Prof. Frederik Michael (Federico Miguel) Liebmann, (10 Oct.) 1813-1856 (29 Oct.), Danish botanist, who i.a. published on algae. He had studied in Copenhagen, but was not finished with his studies before travelling to Cuba and Mexico on a collecting trip between 1840-45, but had also been in Germany and Norway on studying tours before he went to Latin America. When back again, he was appointed professor of Botany at the Univ. of Copenhagen. [Strepsithalia liebmanniae Miranda, 1928, Liebmannia J. Agardh, 1842].

Lacking information about Liechtenstein in the fish name Corcyrogobius liechtensteini (Kolombatović, 1891), but possibly only an odd spelling of Lichtenstein (see that entry).

The collector of i.a. algae, i.a. in the Adriatic Sea, the Austrian Baron Franz (or Ferdinand?) B. von (or de) Liechtenstern, 1833-1901, is honoured in the hydroid name Halopteris liechtensternii (Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890) and also in the algal names Hecatonema liechtensternii Batters and Myrionema lichtensternii Hauck, 1877.

Élizé Liénard de la Mivoie, 18??-1876 (13 Aug. - Cabourg), who in 1877 published a catalogue of the mollusc fauna of the Mauritius and the Seychelles, is honoured in the gastropod names Ancilla lienardi (Bernardi, 1858), Conus lienardi Bernardi & Crosse, 1861, Cypraea cicercula lienardi F. P. Jousseaume, 1874 and Pterynotus lienardi H. Crosse, 1873. He had shered his interst for shells with his father François, who belonged to a family of original French settlers in Mauritius and built up large collections, but died in 1861 in his 79:th year, and also his wife shared this interest.

Ole Johan Lie-Pettersen, 1870-1940, Norwegian zoologist, who published on marine rotiferans in 1905 (and limnic rotiferans in 1910), but else mainly was an entomologist [Notholca liepetterseni Godske Björklund, 1972] (Dr. T. Brattegard kindly provided the dates).

The monogenean name Caballeria liewi Lim, 1995, is not in honour of Jeff Liew, 19??, working on a Pacific atoll development project or Hock Chark Liew, 19??-, who has published on leatherback turtles, but of a Mr. K.S. Liew, 19??-, who seems to have helped in collecting and staining the specimens and later i.a. have published together with Lim. He is also honoured in the monogenean name Neopolystoma liewi du Preez, 2000.

Prof. Sol Felty Light, (5 May - Elm Mills, Kansas) 1886-1947 (21 June), US marine biologist from the Univ. of California, well known for his "Light's Manual", started collecting in Moss Beach from 1916 and arranged courses there from 1919. Among his students were Olga Hartman (q.v.), Ralph Smith (q.v.), Paul Illg (q.v.), Cadet Hand (q.v.), Joel Hedgpeth (q.v.). (see also Mildred Wilson) [Lobophytum lighti Moser, 1919, Halecium lighti Hargitt, 1924, Prionospio (Minuspio) lighti Maciolek, 1985].

Conus lightbourni Petuch, 1986 and two other gastropod names Pterynotus lightbourni M. G. Harasewych & Jensen, 1979, Fusinus lightbourni Snyder, 1984 were named for Mr. John (Jack) R.H. Lightbourne, 192?-, a Bermuda banker, who collected specimens [likely also the stomatopod name Neogonodactylus lightbourni (Manning & Hart 1981)]. He also inherited the collection (of microshells) of his friend Guest (q.v.).

Joanne Lightfoot, 1930-1992 (or 1993?), US amateur conchologist [Caecum lightfootae Pizzini, Nofroni & Oliverio, 1994]. There was also an earlier English conchologist by the name of Rev. John Lightfoot, (9 Dec. - Newent, Glos.) 1735-1788 (21 Feb. - Uxbridge, Middlesex), chaplain and librarian of M. Bentinck (see Portland). (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided the information about John Lightfoot).

Lacking information about Lil? in the actinian name Nectothela lilae Verrill, A. E., 1928.

Lacking information about Lilian in the mollusc name Angaria lilianae Monsecour & Monsecour, 2000.

Liliana : (see Forneris).

Prof. Dr. Vilhelm (Wilhelm) Liljeborg, (6 Oct. - Helsingborg) 1816-1908 (24 July), Swedish zoologist; began his career in Lund as a disciple of Sven Nilsson and after the death of his friend von Düben in 1845, he was appointed as lecturer in zoology at the Lund university, but in 1854, he was appointed as the first possessor of the "clean" zoology chair in Uppsala (the well-known predecessor Linnaeus had a medical chair, which was left to his son Carl von Linné, jr. and after the death of the son, Linnaeus' disciple Peter Thunberg (q.v.) - who was a zoologist as well as a botanist - was appointed professor. After him the botanist Göran Wahlenberg occupied this medical chair until he died in 1851). In 1864-65 Lilljeborg also was vice chancellor of the university. Until a few years before his death he kept researching, although he retired as professor in 1882. He was a kind-hearted man, who was much loved by his students. However, his private examinations usually started with rather difficult questions. If the student cold'nt answer correctly, Lilljeborg usually gave some hints and clues, until he could approve and such an examination almost always ended up happily. He worked primarily on crustaceans and vertebrates. His name was changed to William Lilljeborg (with double l) around 1860, when he visited USA for a while [Liljeborgia Bate, 1862, Spirontocaris liljeborgii (Danielssen, 1859), Philomedes lilljeborgi (G.O. Sars, 1866), Micrenophrys lilljeborgii (Collett, 1875), Tanaissus lilljeborgi (Stebbing, 1891), Syscenus lilljeborgii (Bovallius, 1885), Leucothoe lilljeborgii Boeck, 1861, Asterocheres lilljeborgi Boeck, 1859, Mesochra lilljeborgi Boeck, 1865, Anonyx lilljeborgi Boeck, 1871, Pseudotanais lilljeborgi G.O. Sars, 1882, Nephasoma lilljeborgii (Danielssen & Koren, 1881), Micrenophrys lilljeborgii (Collett, 1875), likely also the diatom Planothidium lilljeborgei (Grunow, 1881)].

Lacking information about Lillian(a) in the gastropod names Anachis (Anachis) lillianae Whitney, 1978 &, Terebra lillianae Whitney, 1976. Possibly (but perhaps not likely), however, a tribute to Mrs. Lillian Dyer Thompson, 18??-19??, Cambridge, Massachusetts, who collected in Digby, Nova Scotia, during the first half of the 20:th century.

Patrick Lilloux, 19??-, of Mahina, Tahiti provided specimens of Favartia lillouxi Myers & Hertz, 1999.

The crab name Viridotheres lillyae (Manning, 1993) is named for the author's wife, the watercolorist Lilly King Manning, (Miami) 19??-, who also is honoured in the crab genus name Lillyanella Manning & Holthuis, 1981, the stomatopod name Platysquilloides lillyae (Manning, 1977), the crab name Santeella lillyae Blow & Manning, 1996, the porcelain crab name Porcellana lillyae Lemaitre & Campos, 2000 and together with her husband Ray (see Manning), is honoured in the genus name Raylilia Galil, 2001 and in the species name Sergia manningorum Froglia and Gramitto, 2000.

Chlamys liltvedi Wagner, 1984 was named for Dr. William Rune Liltved, (25 June) 1960-, cowry researcher and assistant at the mollusc department of the South African Museum (Cape Town) [Trivia liltvedi Gofas, 1984, Melibe liltvedi Gosliner, 1987, Clavatula liltvedi (Kilburn, 1985), Coralliophila liltvedi S. Kosuke, 1985, the octocoral, Litophyton liltvedi Verseveldt & Williams, 1988], while Trivia virginiae Liltved, 1986 was named for the author's mother Virginia Oosthuizen-Liltved, (25 Sep.) 1933-. Liltved is also studying indigenous southern African geophyte plants and is completing an eleven year study on the orchids of this region.

The gastropod name Adelactaeon lilyae van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998 is in honour of Mrs. Lily de Klein-Steenbergen, 19??-, "who always supports the first author by collecting shells and shellgrit wherever she goes".

Conrad Limbaugh, (28 June - Chicago, Illinois) 1924-1960 (20 Mar. - Fort Miou River, France (diving accident)), diving officer at Scripps, is one of the honoured persons in the nudibranch name Cadlina limbaughorum Lance, 1962 ("The specific name limbaughi was chosen to honor the late Conrad Limbaugh who was the first to collect this and many others subtidal species of opisthobranchia, and Mrs. Nan Limbaugh, whose interest in this group has resulted in the acquisition of previously unknown bathymetric distributions for many forms."). The spelling limbaughi was later corrected to limbaughorum by Behrens 1982. He is also honoured in the fish names Holacanthus limbaughi Baldwin, 1963 & Chromis limbaughi Greenfield & Woods, 1980. (Dr. Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California kindly corrected this information and Peter Brueggeman, Director, the library of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, kindly added one of the fish names).

The ciliate name Urostyla limboonkengi Wang & Nie, 1932 must be in honour of Dr. Lim Boon Keng, (18 Oct. - Penang, Malaysia) 1869-1957 (1 Jan.), a well-known Chinese medical Dr. in Singapore, who had great interest also in natural history.

Conus limpusi D. Röckel & W. Korn, 1990 was named for Mr. Alan Limpus, 19??-, shell collector, active in the Great Barrier Reef area [Livonia limpusi Bail, 1999]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last eponym).

The crab name Macropodia linaresi Forest & Zariquiey Alvarez, 1964, the copepod genus name Linaresia de Zulueta, 1908 and in the sponge name Sphinctrella linaresi Ferrer-Hernandez, 1914 are in honour of Prof. Dr. Augusto José Jenaro Gonzaléz de Linares, (29 Oct. - Valle de Cabuérniga, Cantabria) 1845-1904 (1 May - Santander), Spanish marine biologist, who worked i.a. helped by his assistant Dr. José Rioja Martin, (Madrid) 1866-1945, in i.a. Madrid, in Galicia and eventually in Santander, at the first Spanish marine biological station, where he was succeded as director when he died by Rioja Martin.

Johann Heinrich Linck sr., (Leipzig) 1674-1734, German pharmacist in Leipzig (owner of the drug store "zum Goldenen Löwen"), who in 1733 published the first book about sea stars, "De Stellis Marinis Liber Singvlaris ..." [Urasterias linckii (J. Müller & Troschel, 1842), Linkia Nardo, 1834, Protoreaster lincki (de Blainville)]. His son by exactly the same name, J.H. Linck jr., 1734-1807, followed in his father's footsteps, took over the Golden Lion and shared his father's interest in natural history and published on fishes.

Dr. Roger Lincoln, 1942-, at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is working on the taxonomy of peracarid crustaceans (amphipods and isopods) and tantulocarids.

Lacking information about Linda in the tanaid name Atlantapseudes lindae Meyer & Heard, 1989, but another tanaidacean name Zaraza linda Gutu, 2006 is explained "From the Espaniol lindo, "beautiful", "nice", so possibly, although not likely, from the same meaning of the word. More likely a tribute to a persons name, e.g. Linda H. Pequegnat (q.v.), or some other Linda.

Lacking information about Linda in the diatom name Gomphonemopsis lindae Witkowski, Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot in Metzeltin & Witkowski, 1996.

Linda (in names authored by Petuch) : (see Petuch).

Prof. Dr. Johan Harald Josua Lindahl, (1 Jan. - Kungsbacka) 1844-1912 (19 Apr. - Chicago), Swedish-U.S. zoologist and geologist, educated in Lund, participated 1869-70 in the English Porcupine expedition and 1871 in the Swedish Greenland expedition. PhD in 1874. In 1878, he became the first professor of natural history at Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois. [Ombellula lindahlii Kölliker, 1875, Epizoanthus lindahli Carlgren, 1913, Octineon lindahli Fowler H. G., 1894].

Prof. Dr. David R. Lindberg, 1948-, malacologist and Professor of Integrative Biology; Acting Director, Museum of Paleontology, UC Berkeley, USA [Iothia lindbergi McLean, 1985].

The Russian ichthyologist Georgii Ustinovich Lindberg, (3 May) 1894-1976, is honoured in the amphipod name Amphithoe lindbergi Gurjanova, 1938 [Lepidozona lindbergi Jakovleva, 1952, Mycale lindbergi Koltun, 1958, Bathyraja lindbergi Ishiyama & Ishihara, 1977].

Dr. Knut Charles Lindberg, 1892-1962, Swedish physician, educated at Sorbonne and in England. As physician, he was during long periods active in Allahabad in India, where he started to investigate Dracunculosis, a sickness caused by Guinea worms. These worms have a larval stage in copepods of the genus Cyclops and through this connection he became a cyclopoid copepodologist., especially interested in cave fauna, travelling much and investigated the fauna of caves in Hellas, Turkey, Portugal, Iran and not least Afghanistan. He died in a car accident between Lund and Malmö in S Sweden (Obituary in Crustaceana 6 (1964) : 233-234) [Mesochra lindbergi Petkovski, 1964].

Dr. David Hunt Linder, (24 Sep. - Brookline, Massachusetts) 1899-1946 (10 Nov., by heart attack), fungiologist. PhD at Harvard in 1926. [Trichocladium linderi Crane & Shearer, 19??].

Lacking information about Lindholm in the Japanese polyplacophoran name Stenoplax lindholmii Von Schrenck, 1862. The Russian Malacologist Wilhelm A. Lindholm, 1874-1935, was not born when this species got its name, so possibly an earlier Russian naturalist / collector also had this name?

Prof. Dr. Anders Arne Lindroth, (17 Nov. - Lund) 1910-1985 (13 May), Swedish zoologist and fisheries biologist, PhD in 1939 [Euclymene lindrothi Eliason, 1962]. His older brother Prof. Dr. Carl Hildebrand Lindroth, (8 Sep. - Lund) 1905-1979 (23 Feb.), PhD in Uppsala 1932 was a renowned coleopterologist and island zoogeographer at Lund University and his younger brother Prof. Dr. Sten Hjalmar Lindroth, (28 Dec - Lund) 1914-1980 (1 Sep. - Uppsala), was active as an science historian in Uppsala, specialiced on natural sciences. Their father Prof. Dr. Hjalmar Axel Lindroth, (6 Feb. - Stockholm) 1878-1947 (11 Sep,), was professor of Nordic Languages in Göteborg.(Christian Otto, Umeå, kindly provided the year of decease of A.L.)

Dr. George Edmund Lindsay, (Pomona, Los Angeles County) 1916-2002, PhD in botany at Stanford Univ. in 1956, director of San Diego Mus. of Nat. Hist. between 1956-63, after that Executive Director of the California Academy of Sciences [Mitra lindsayi Berry, 1960].

Lacking information about Lindsay in the Pacific (New Zealand area) fish name Paracanthostracion lindsayi (Phillips 1932).

Professor Dr. Gustaf Lindström, (27 Aug. - Visby) 1829-1901 (16 June), Swedish invertebrate palaeontologist from the island of Gotland [Ampharete lindstroemi Malmgren, 1867 sensu Hessle, 1917].

Dr. Ildefonzo (Mikel) Liñero-Arana, 19??-, polychaetologist from Venezuela, who has contributed with many publications on several polychaete families from his home country [Eunice mikeli Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998].

Prof. Dr. Heinrich Friedrich Link, (2 Feb. - Hildesheim) 1767-1851 (1 Jan. - Berlin), German naturalist and physician, disciple of i.a. Blumenbach (q.v.) in Göttingen, who worked on molluscs, but mainly was a botanist, professor in Rostock, then Breslau and from 1815 until he died in Berlin. He traveled much in mainly Europe and learned many languages, even Arabic and Sanskrit. [Nucula linki Dall, 1916].

Link : (see also Seward Johnson).

The nematode name Diplopeltoides linkei Jensen, 1991 is named for Dr. P. Linke, 19??-, "co-worker in the SBF-313 team", thus certainly a tribute to Dr. Peter Linke, 19??-, Forschungszentrum für Marine Geowissenschaften, Kiel.

The diatom name Planothidium linkei (Hustedt, 1939) Lange-Bertalot may possibly be a tribute to the Berlin botanist August Linke, 18??-1???, (fl. 1853-57), but more likely a tribute to a more modern botanist or collector.

The Russian hydroid specialist Alexandr Kelsijevitch Linko, (18 Aug. - Kargopol) 1872-1912 (4 Sep. - Petrograd (by kidneys disease)) worked on hydroids and plankton in the arctic region [Plumularia linkoi Naumov, 1960].

Prof. Dr. Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linné), (23 May - Röshult, Småland) 1707-1778 (10 Jan. - Uppsala), renowned Swedish naturalist [Ascaltis caroli Haeckel, 1872, Eunaticina linnaeana Récluz, 1843, possibly Ommastrephes caroli Furtado, 1887, possibly Neorossia caroli (Joubin, 1902)]. His father, the Rev. Nils Ingemarsson, 1674-1748, took the name Linné (lat. Linnaeus) after the farm name Linnagård (Linden farm), which got its name from a triple trunked Linden tree (lime) (Tilia - in Swedish named lind or locally linn, certainly a specimen of T. cordata P. Miller, 1768, because the only other Swedish species T. platyphyllos Scopoli, 1772 only grows along the coast of Bohuslän in Sweden) at the family farm, else likely his son's name would have been Nilsson, but the son Karl was ennobled in 1762, after which the family name was changed from Linné (Linnaeus) to von Linné. (The Linné family had several daughters, but only one son, by the same name as his father (20 Jan.) 1741-83 (1 Nov.), beside a younger son, who died in early age. The younger Linné succeded his father in 1776, but was not at all as brilliant and remained a bachelor; however some of his sisters married and got children - see e.g. Tullberg, Linné's grand-grandson). Of course the most well-known living thing named after him is the twinflower Linnea. He is the type specimen of Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 - an only partially marine species. Six years after his death, his manuscripts and collections were purchased by (from 1814 Sir) James Edward Smith, (2 Dec.) 1759-1828 (17 Mar.), and transported to London. Smith, in 1785-86 also took the lead in initiating the Linnean Society of London (formally established in February 1788), a breakaway of the "Society for promoting Natural History", which had been founded in October 1782. Smith married Pleasance Reeve, 1773-1877, who after his death continued his correspondence and edited his memoires. He had planned the new society together with the Rev. Dr. Samuel Goodenough (q.v.) and the entomologist (beetle student) Thomas Marsham, 1747 / 1748-1819, (who was married and had two daughters and was i.a. a good friend of Kirby (below), else not much is known about his personal life, other than being Secretary to the West India Dock Company for many years). Smith was the son of a wealthy silk-merchant from Norwich and had been interested in botany since childhood. Other original fellows of the Linnean Society were e.g. Thomas Pennant (q.v. - under Travis), William Kirby, (19 Sep. - Witnesham) 1759-1850 (4 July - Barham), entomologist, Dr. William Thomson, (Worcester) 1761-1806 (Sicily), anatomist at Oxford (where he met and became a life-long friend and mentor of the English mineralologist James Smithson, (Paris) 1765-1829 (27 June - Genoa), (an illegitimate son of the English landowner Sir Hugh Smithson, 4:th Baronet of Stanwick and Elizabeth Hungerford Keate, the widow of John Macie of Weston, so originally he was called Jacques Louis Macie and was matriculated as Jacobus Ludovicus Macie at the Univ. of Oxford and was elected a FRS in 1887 at age 22 under the name James Lewis Macie but changed his family name to his fathers family name in 1802, two years after his mother's decease, the bequeather of a large fortune to USA, a country he never visited (but spent long periods outside Britain, especially in France and other European countries), which led to the foundation in 1846 of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.), later mineral collector in Italy after moving to Naples in 1790 (where he changed his first name William to Guiglielmo), Richard Anthony Salisbury, (2 May - Leeds) 1761-1829 (born Markham, but in 1785 an elderly lady, to whom he had become a friend, left him a fortune if he changed his name this way, which he did; he had a short marriage to Caroline Stainforth in 1796 and got a daughter Eleanor the following year; he was not not a good representative of the Linnean Society, because he violently opposed the Linnean system and he also had read a manuscript of the Linnean Society librarian Robert Brown (q.v.), memorized much of it and managed to publish (but under the name of his friend, the horticulturist Joseph Knight, (7 Oct.) 1778-1855 (20 July)) about the names he remembered from Brown's proof in 1809 before Brown did it the following year, to the shock of former friends like Dr. Goodenough), Dr. William Younge, 1762-1838, Sheffield physician (a former university student together with J.E. Smith and son of Dr. Thomas Young(e), 1721-1784, also he physician in Sheffield), Dr. Francis Buchanan(-Hamilton), (15 Feb. - Badowie, Callander, Perthshire) 1762-1829 (15 June), physician and botanist (had studied botany under T.C. Hope's (see below) father John, who was botany professor in Edinburgh) , who served in the merchant navy, then in India until 1815, when he returned to Scotland, Dr. Jonathan S. Stokes, 1755-1831 (30 Apr. - Chesterfield), physician at Kidderminster (elected in 1790 as one of the 16 inaugural associates of the Linnean Society of London), Dr. Thomas Charles Hope, (21 July - Edinburgh) 1766-1844 (13 June), Chemistry Professor at Glasgow, who discovered the chemical element Strontium, named from Strontian, the small Scottish town where it first was found. Also J.T. Swainson (q.v.) was an original fellow of the society. Several of these men had been members of a Natural History Society initiated by Smith, while a medical student in Edinburgh. The Linnean Society of London is the oldest (see however below) Natural History Society still existing and it's journal "Transactions of the Linnean Society of London" (now named "Biological Journal of the Linnean Society"), founded 1791, is the oldest existing scientific journal. (The Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, which in 1812 absorbed the Natural History Society of Edinburgh - also instigated by J.E. Smith and a few of his student friends - and in this meaning partly is a society of this type was started in 1771 and is thus actually 17 years older than the Linnean Society). (His first name is often spelled Carl today, but the original spelling was Karl. The C instead of K is certainly from the Latin name form Carolus. K was part of the Latin alfabeth from the start and often used before the letter A, but soon became obsolete and in later Latin texts almost always exchanged with a C, so modern Carl's - and several other persons with C in their names have this spelling thanks to this Roman spelling reform).

Dr. Earle Garfield Linsley, (19 June - Wetmore, Colorado) 1882-1969 (24 Jan. - Walnut Creek), retired 13 June 1947, honorary associate in Astronomy, Bernice P. Bishop Museum & Planetarium (Hawaii) [Rhyssoplax linsleyi Burghardt, 1973, Anamixis linsleyi J.L. Barnard, 1955, Chiton linsleyi Burghardt, 1973]. He was Director of the Chabot Obs. 1923-1947 and is of course not identical with Dr. Earle Gorton Linsley, 1910-2000 (8 Mar.), of UC Berkeley, who has published on taxonomy of North American Bees and systematic zoology (together with Mayr and Usinger). (Candyse V. Jenkins, Chabot Space & Science Center, Oakland, CA, kindly supplied the information about the older Linsley).

Otto Friedrich Bernhard von Linstow, 1842-1916 (Göttingen), German helminthologist and physician. [Linstowia Zschokke, 1898, Linstowiella Szidat, 1933]. A geology professor named Dr. Otto von Linstow, (23 Apr. - Ratzeburg) 1872-1929 (15 Oct. - Berlin-Grunewald, becme a victim of an assault, murderer unknown), may possibly have been his son.

Prof. Dr. Edwin Linton, (14 Mar. - East Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) 1855-1939 (4-5 June - Philadelphia, by problems with a fractured femur from an accident half a year earlier, when he was attacked by a rabid dog, succeded to avoid a bite, but fell), PhD at Yale College in 1890, U.S. parasitologist / helminthologist, who i.a. took part in some of the cruises with the Albatross and in the beginning of his career had assisted Verrill (q.v.). [Oncobothrium lintoni Mola, 1934, Rhadinorhynchus lintoni Cable & Linderoth, 1963, Calliobothrium lintoni Euzet, 1954, Mixonybelinia edwinlintoni (Dollfus, 1960), Trigonocotyle lintoni Guiart, 1935].

The French physician and naturalist Dr. Jacques Liouville, (5 Dec. - Paris) 1879-1960 (15 June - Rabat), published on fishes and cetaceans during the three first decades of the 20:th century (and took part in the second French Antarctic Expedition with Pourqoui pas? [Liouvillea Chevreux, 1911, Halecium liouvillei Schneider, 1898, Synsiphonium liouvilli Hallez, 1911, Cucumaria liouvillei Vaney, 1914].

Lipke : (se Holthuis).

Lacking information about Lippe in the fish name Chaetodipterus lippei Steindachner, 1895, if not a tribute to von der Lippe Parelius, (q.v. - under Parelius).

The polychaete name Ophryotrocha lipscombae Lu & Fauchald, 2000 must be a tribute to Prof. Dr. Diana Leigh Lipscomb, 19??-, PhD at Univ. of Maryland in 1982, protoctist researcher at George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Lacking information about Lisa in the large mantis shrimp name Lysiosquillina lisa Ahyong and Randall 2001.

Lisbeth in the actinian name Epiactis lisbethae Fautin D. G. and Chia F., 1986 : (see Francis).

Dr. h.c. Carl Emil Lischke, (30 Dec. - Stettin) 1813-1886 (14 Jan. - Elberfeld), German Lord Mayor, hobby naturalist and malacologist, born in Stettin, studied law at Berlin Univ. and became in 1840 assistant judge in Stettin. In 1847 he was sent to US to take the position of Attaché to Royal Prussian Legacy in Washington. He died close to Bonn (where he in 1868 received an honorary doctorship from the University for his scientific efforts), friend of Troschel (q.v.) and several other malacologists. He published on Japanese marine molluscs, of which he builded up a large collection, and named the exceptionally beatiful Trochus alwinae for his wife, later becoming the type species for Lischkeia Fischer, 1879. In 1873 he sold his collection and large malacological library to his friend, tha pharmacist in Duisburg, Carl Heinrich Wilhelm Theodor Löbbecke, (4 Mar. - Hückeswagen) 1821-1901 (18 Jan. - Düsseldorf), who at this time moved to Düsseldorf and started a malacological museum there [Simnia loebbeckeana (Weinkauff, 1881), Pterynotus loebbeckei Kobelt, 1879]. Löbbecke owned one of the largest malacological collections in Germany. [Pecten lischkei Dunker, 1850, Purpura lischkei Küster, 1858, Solen lischkeanus Dunker, 1865, Conus lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1873, Columbella lischkei E.A. Smith, 1879, Buccinum lischkeanum Löbbeke, 1881, Yoldia lischkei E.A. Smith, 1885, Pinna lischkeana Clessin, 1891, Clathurella lischkeana Pilsbry, 1904, Anomia lischkei Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1907, Cancellaria lischkei Yokoyama, 1922, Lima lischkei Lamy, 1930, Microfusus lischkei Kuroda, in Makiyama, 1934, Herpetopoma lischkei Pilsbry, 1904, Dolium lischkeanum Küster]. (Dr. R. Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided some of this information and Lodewijk van Duuren kindly provided information about Löbbecke).

Lisete : (see C.P. Fernandez).

Lisette in a copepod name : (see von Vaupel Klein).

Dr. Martin Lister, (Radclive, close to Buckingham) 1638-1712 (2 Feb. - Epsom), English physician and naturalist; considered fossils of molluscs to be "inorganic imitations, reproduced in stone", but became a pioneer within illustrated shell books, because his "Historia Conchyliorum", published between 1685 and 1692, contained over a thousand engraved plates of mollusc shells, engraved by his daughter Susanna and wife Anna. [Strombus listeri Gray, 1852, Diodora listeri (d'Orbigny, 1842), Tellina listeri Röding, 1798, Periglypta listeri (Gray, 1838), Erronea listeri (Gray, 1824), possibly Astreopora listeri Bernard, 1896, possibly Acropora listeri (Brook, 1893)]. A later namesake is Joseph Jackson Lister, 1857-1927, a wine merchant from Leytonstone, who studied foraminiferans and also collected plants during travels in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific region. The latter Lister was a nephew of Lord Dr. Joseph Lister, 1:rst (& last) Baron Lister, 1827-1912, who introduced Pasteur's antiseptic methods in British hospitals and a grandson of Joseph Jackson Lister, 1786-1869, British amateur opticist and physicist, who introduced achromatic lenses for the microscopes of his time (& published i.a. on tunicates, e.g. describing the genus Perophora in 1834, thus later being honoured in the name Perophora listeri Forbes, in Forbes & Hanley, 1848).

Litke : (see Mertens).

The octopod parasiting dicymeid Dicyemennea littlei Hochberg & Short, 1970 is in honour of Dr. Frank J. Little, 19??-, Jr., Florida State Univ., Talahassee, who examined octopods and collected dicyemid material on board the USNS Eltania during Cruises 6 and 7 in subantarctic waters. Little published on sponges from off Florida during the 1960s and 1970s and about Dicyemids as least until 1983. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Tim Littlewood, 1961-, British researcher on parasitism in Platyhelminthes.

The shrimp name Paranchistus liui X. Li, A.J. Bruce & R.B. Manning, 2004 is in honour of Prof. J.Y. Liu, carcinologist of the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. This must likely be Prof. Dr. Liu Riu-Yu, 19??-, who has worked much on prawns and mantis shrimps.

Prof. Dr. N. A. Livanov, 1876-1974, Russian platyhelminth (turbellarian) worker.

Dr. Bruce Livett, (Aug. - Melbourne) 1943-, Australian Conus toxin specialist.

The diatom name Delphineis livingstonii Prasad, 1986 is in honour of Dr. Robert J. Livingston, 19??-, Florida State Univ., who achieved his PhD at Univ. of Miami in 1970.

The nudibranch Nembrotha livingstonei Allan, 1933 was named after A.A. Livingstone, who first collected it. Likely this must be Arthur A. Livingstone, 18??-19??, the Australian Museum, Sydney, who published on asteroids and mainly bryozoans from the Australasian Antarctic Expedition in Sydney in 1932 and 1928.

Lizzi in the hydroid name Lizzia Forbes, 1846 (type species L. blondina Forbes) was named for a "blond Elizabeth", but who? Possibly T.H. Huxley's eldest sister, who was called Lizzie by her brother, to whom she was very important. He was the second youngest among 8 siblings. The young Huxley admired and became a close friend of Edward Forbes already before Huxley's adventure with HMS Rattlesnake in 1846-50, so he and Huxley's sister had likely met and they aught to have been of about the same age, but speaking against this is that T.H. Huxley and his siblings likely all had dark hair.

Dr. Axel Vilhelm Ljungman, (1 Sep. - Ljung, Bohuslän) 1841-1901 (27 Oct.), zoologist in Uppsala (PhD there in 1872), assistant professor (docent) there 1871-84; specialist on ophiuroids and holothurians, who changed direction during the last 2 decades of his professional life and became a member of the Swedish parlament (where he was a moderatly conservative - belonging to 'Lantmannapartiet' (the agricultural workers party) - very active propagator for i.a. better communications and a spokesman for fisheries), and worked on fisheries biology and bureaucracy during a short period of rather rich herring fisheries along the northern part of the Swedish west coast; during 1884-95 he edited the popular journal "Bohuslänsk fiskeritidskrift". [Malmgreniella ljungmani (Malmgren, 1867), Ophiura ljungmani (Lyman, 1878) Meissner, 1901]. His conscientiousness was not always shared by his colleague among fisheries officials Gerard Olof Justin von Yhlen, (13 Sep. - Ållonö, Östra Stenby, Östergötland) 1819-1909 (7 July - Lysekil), who rarely hesitated about impending tasks [Labioleanira yhleni (Malmgren,1867)]. Their different temperaments sometimes resulted in reciprocal words of abuse like "von Lügen" (Lügen in German = lies) and "Ljugman" (= lie-man - while the Swedish word ljung means heather, but his name evidently is derivated from his place of birth or perhaps rather any of his parental forefathers, because it was the name also of his father and grandfather). Von Yhlen had also studied in Uppsala (until 1846, when he went home to become a farmer) and is said to be the person who designed the Swedish student's cap; after several years of indetermination about the shape and colour of it, he suddenly appeared on a meeting with a cap he himself had manufactured and threw it on a table with the words "så'n skall den se ut" (like this it shall look like) and his suggestion became accepted. Von Yhlen was vital for the introduction of purse seine and trawl fishing along the Swedish west coast and had already in May 1872 used a trawl, but not until engined boats were more widely used around 30 years later, trawling became a. more common fishing method. Ljungman was - like von Yhlen - unmarried, and lived during most of his active life at the island of Tjörn (in the south part of Bohuslän), not far from where he was born, because his parents had lived there. Unlike e.g. von Yhlen (who took part in O. Thorell's expedition to Spitsbergen with Aeolus in1861) he did not take part of any of the marine expeditions, which were popular during his time, with the exception of the summer months 1865, which he spent dredging along the northern part of Bohuslän. From 1900 he was quarantine officer at Känsö (an island outside Gothenburg), an occupation von Yhlen also had held (after having finished his duties as inspector of fisheries in 1885, but moved after finishing his duties at Känsö to the small town Lysekil in Bohuslän). Their different temperaments were so well-known during their life time, that an Englishman living in Lysekil, who had taken care of two siblings of young sea gulls named them Ljungman and von Yhlen after having seen them fight over a fish.

The Spanish malacologist Eva María Llera González, 19??-, Universidad de Oviedo, is honoured in the gastropod names Stiliger llerai Ortea, 1981 and Flabellina llerae Ortea, 1989. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided the correct name).

Prof. Dr. Jack Llewellyn, (Abercam, close to Newport, Wales) 1917-2004 (9 Oct. - Birmingham), is honoured in the monogenean name Squalotrema llewellyni Kearn & Green, 1983. He began his studies on monogeneans for Dr. Gwen Rees (q.v.) at the Univ. of Wales in 1938. After WWII he i.a. worked as a part-time teacher at the Univ. of Nottingham, but was later appointed to a lectureship at the Univ. of Birmingham. A namesake is the herpetologist Dr. Leighton Conway Llewellyn, 19??-, who has published on the distribution of Australian fresh water fishes (1983) and the family Piscicolidae in the British Museum of Natural History (1966). (Prof. Jean-Lou Justine, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, kindly provided a copy from a biographical note in Systematic Parasitology (1999) 42: 159-160)

Edward Lloyd (or Llhuid or Lhwyd), (Loppington, Shropshire) 1660-1709 (30 June - Oxford, by pleurisy), naturalist from Caermarthenshire, Wales, who, when 17 years old became a student of Jesus College, Oxford and later (in 1690) was appointed keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (one of the the first University museums in the world, recenthy built - 1678-83 to house gifts from the collector Elias Ashmole, 1617-1692), is honoured in the sea star genus Luidia Forbes, 1839, this name form from the latinized form E. Luidius, which he used when publishing "Praelictio de stellis marinis Oceani Britannici, etc." Oxonii in 1703. He was an illegitimate son of a not well-off gentry father by the same name, who experimented with agriculture and industry, making him standing in contact with the modern science of his days. As a museum keeper Lloyd traveled much in Britain, Bretagne and Ireland, helped financially by his friend Isaac Newton.

Mr. William Alford Lloyd, 1815-1880 (13 July), found Cerianthus lloydii Gosse, 1859 in Menai Strait, three years before Gosse described it. He had started as a bookbinder employed by William Brown's bookshop in London, but in the summer of 1863 he became a friend of Richard Owen (q.v.) (and was also a very good friend of P.H. Gosse (q.v.)) and started also to sell parlour aquariums, became a wealthy Welsh trader and director of the Crystal Palace Aquarium. Later Anton Dohrn (q.v. under Greeff) entrusted the design of the new aquarium in Naples (which opened in 1874) to him, because he had invented a successful way of sending well aerated water via pumps to all corners of an aquarium system and had recently also helped to construct a very large aquarium system in Hamburg. (See also).

Dr. Salvatore Lo Bianco, (10 June) 1860-1910 (9 Apr.), Italian zoologist, working at the collecting and preserving department of the marine station in Naples, reputed to have a phenomenal knowledge of the marine fauna, partly because he had entered the service of the station already when he was 14 years old. [Prodajus lobiancoi Bonnier, 1903, Pontella lobiancoi (Canu, 1888), Acanthocotyle lobianchi Monticelli, 1888, Lobiancopora Pergens, 1889, Anseropoda lobiancoi (Ludwig, 1897), Biancolina Della Valle, 1893, Lineus lobianki Bürger, 1892, Cycloleberis lobiancoi (G.W. Müller, 1894), Callistocythere lobiancoi (G.W. Müller, 1894), Parerythrops lobiancoi W. Tattersall, 1905, Biancolina Della Valle, 1893].

Scissurella lobini Burnay & Rolan 1990 is named for Dr. Wolfram Lobin, (12 June - Bad Münder am Deister, Niedersachsen) 1951-, Botanic Gardens, Bonn, Germany, author of several works on natural history of Cape Verde Islands.

Lobo : (see Orensanz).

Étienne Alexandre Arnould Locard, (8 Dec. - Lyon) 1841-1904 (28 Oct. - Lyon), French engineer, geologist and malacologist, who worked on marine invertebrate in Lyon and in 1897 published on the shell bearing molluscs from expeditions with the "Travailleur" and the "Talisman" and otherwise published a lot on mollosks. He was a disciple of Bourguignat (q.v.) and head of the "Nouvelle Ecole" after Bourguignat. [Arnouldia Bourguignat, 1890, Thericium locardi F. Nordsieck, 1974 ]. (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided much of this information)

Mr. Ian Loch, 19??-, collection manager of malacological collections of the Australian Museum, who has published much on mollusks at least from 1974 on [Dentalium lochi Lamprell & Healey, 1998, Dosinia lochi Healy & Lamprell, 1992, Murexsul ianlochi R. Houart, 1987, Cumia janlochi (Parth, 1991), Epitonium lochi Gittenberger & Goud, 2000, Nassarius lochi Kool, 1996, Chromodoris lochi Rudman, 1982, Durckheimia lochi Ahyong & Brown, 2003].

William Neale Lockington, (Rugby, Warwickshire) 1840-1902 (Worthing, Sussex), who was the eldest son of William and Hannah Lockington, became curator of fishes, reptiles, crustaceans and "radiates" at the Californian Academy of Sciences between 1875-81. From the mid-1870's he lived at Oakland, San Francisco and during the 1880's, in Pennsylvania. He then returned to England. [Synalphaeus lockingtoni Couthiére] (Ref.: Cartledge, Slater, Lockington Family History by Mary T. McLaughlin - who kindly provided most of this information).

The bivalve name Lima locklini McGinty, 1955 must be a tribute to Mr. Charles R. Locklin, 18??-1969 (Pinellas, Florida), of Pontiac, Michigan, who made malacological field work and was among donors of mollusks paratypes to US National Museum in 1957 and had earlier collected pliocene mollusca from North St Petersburg area, Florida, where the family evidently had a house. His wife, Marion Castor Locklin, 19??-19??, had worked in Philadelphia as Assistant to Dr. Pilsbry (q.v.), who named Clenchina robusta marionae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1953 after her. Portrait of the couple. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Dr. Alfred Richard Loeblich Jr., (15 Aug. - Birmingham, Alabama) 1914-1994 (9 Sep.), U.S. biologist, mainly working with foraminiferans [Stainforthia loeblichi Feyling-Hanssen, 1954]. His son Dr. Alfred R. Loeblich III, (2 Mar. - New Orleans) 1941-, is in a similar business. Loeblich Jr. published most often together with his wife (marriage in 1939) Dr. Helen Niña Tappan Loeblich, (12 Oct. - Norman, Oklahoma) 1917-2004 (18 Aug. - California), on foraminiferans. At least some fossil taxon names are in her honour.

The ostracod name Finmarchinella logani (Brady & Crosskey, 1871) may likely be a tribute to Sir William Edmond Logan, (20 Apr. - Montreal) 1798-1875 (22 June - Castle Malgwyn, Pembrokeshire, Wales), knighted in 1856, who retired in 1869 and moved back from Canada to the British Isles, where this bachelor had studied (and also worked) when younger, and i.a. had published on geology.

Dr. Jan Cornelis Christiaan Loman, (19 Feb. - Deventer) 1856-1929 (14 June - Amsterdam), Dutch zoologist, who studied the Siboga pantopods and was very influentive on Redeke (q.v.).

Hans Lohmander, (30 May) 1896-1961 (1-2 Jan.), Swedish (field) zoologist (mainly a specialist on millipeds), working at the Museum of Natural History, Göteborg (Gothenburg) [Petrobius lohmanderi Agrell, 1944 (a synonym of P. brevistylis Carpenter, 1913)].

Prof. Dr. Hans Lohmann, 1863-1934, doctoral thesis 1889 in Kiel dealt with halacarids. In 1893 he wrote a report about plankton from the German Plankton expedition; he discovered the existence of nanoplankton and became later on professor of zoology in Hamburg and director of the Zoological Museum in Hamburg [Lohmannella Trouessart, 1901, Lohmanniella Leegaard, 1915].

Lscking information about Lohr in the gastropod name Conus lohri R. N. Kilburn, 1972. Another species, the bivalve Pecten (Patinopecten) lohri Hertlein, 19 was named for Dr. Ferdinand von Löhr, topographer (a former medical student at Giessen), who accompanied Mr. W.M. Gabb on an expedition (during 1867) into Lower California. Likely he must be identical with Dr. Ferdinand Karl (Carl) Joseph von Löhr (Loehr), 1817-1876, who achieved his MD at the Univ. of Giessen in 1838, and later emigrated to USA, called "politischer Publizist" and "Freireligiöser Auswanderer in die USA".

Lois : (see Lois Pitt).

Lacking information about Loiselier in the gastropod name Clathromangelia loiselieri Oberling, 1970.

The actinian name Stylobates loisetteae Fautin D. G., 1987 and the scleractinian name Acropora loisetteae Wallace, 1994 are both in honour of Mrs. Loisette M. Marsh, (q.v.), former Curator of Marine Invertebrates at Western Australian Museum.

Lacking information about Lokan in the scleractinian name Acropora lokani Wallace, 1994.

Natalia Borisovna Lomakina, 1905-1972, Russian specialist on Euphausiacea and Cumacea.

Likely the honoured person in the calanoid name Calocalanus lomonosovi Shmeleva, 1975 may be the Russian poet, linguistic reformer and Natural Scientist Prof. Mikhail Vasiljevich Lomonosov, (19 Nov. - Kholmogory) 1711-1765 (15 Apr.), who beside his chemical work and establishing a university in Moscow (bearing his name today) also i.a. published a paper on Teredo. He was the son of a fisherman in the White Sea area, helping his father in this business during the end of the 1720s, but went to Moscow in the beginning of 1731 to study, after that studying for a short period in St. Petersburg, then in Marburg and Freiburg in Germany and marrying there to a Russian girl, Elizaveta-Kristina, returning to St. Petersburg in 1741-42 working on his dissertation, after briefly having traveled around in Europe in 1740. In 1745 he becomes professor of chemistry in St. Petersburg, He also reorganized the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg and today the Moscow State University is bearing his name.

Charlene D. Long, 19??-, Museum of. Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, studied Bahamian polychaetes ecologically and is honoured in the Dysponetus looking deep living polychaete Pleijelius longae Salazar-Vallejo & Orensanz, 2006. A namesake, Michael Long, 1899-1980 (Mar.), Dingle, Ireland, collected mollusks in the Dingle Bay area, Ireland, finding several rare speceies of which a few were new to Ireland.

Xenophora longleyi Bartsch, 1931 was named for Dr. William Harding Longley, (27 Oct. - Nova Scotia) 1881-1937 (10 Mar.), executive officer of the Marine Biological Lab. of the Carnegie Inst. at the Tortugas. Beside his ichthyological work, Longley also was an underwater photography pioneer.

The gastropod name Vitularia longmani T. Iredale, 1929 must be a tribute to Heber Albert Longman, (24 June - Heytesbury, Wiltshire, England) 1880-1954 (16 Feb. - Chelmer), zoologist and palaeontologist (a former newspaper publisher), who served as director of the Queensland Museum 1917-45. He moved to Australia in 1902 for health reasons.

Splendrillia longobottomi Wells, 1990 was named for Mr. Alan F. Longobottom, 19??-, a tireless collector of a diversity of different animals and minerals, who helped the author in the Western Australian Museum and also is honoured in some other terrestrial animal names.

Lacking information about Longstaff in the polychaete name Autolytus longstaffi Ehlers, 1912 and in the gastropod name Trophon longstaffi Smith, 1907. Possibly a tribute to Dr. George Blundell Longstaff, (12 Feb. - Wandsworth) 1849-1921 (7 May), British physician and lepidopterologist, but also interested in collecting other insects and a variety of natural history objects from all the different parts of the planet he visited, but at least the polychaete name may possibly more likely be a tribute to the British industrialist Lt. Col. Llewellyn W. Longstaff, 18??-19??, Wimbledon, Surrey, the first and most generous supporter of Captain Scott's National Antarctic Expedition or his eldest son Dr. Tom George Longstaff, (15 Jan.) 1875-1964 (26 June - Achiltibule, Scotland), a physician, who took part in some expeditions to i.a. Spitsbergen and Greenland.

William Lonsdale, (9 Sep. - Bath) 1794-1871 (11 Nov. - Bristol), British coral palaeontologist.

Loochoo in the polyplacophoran name Liolophura loochooana Broderip & Sowerby, 1828 is likely not a person's name but referring to the species type locality, which is "Loochoo Islands" (or Luchu Islands), i.e. the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch between Japan and Taiwan and include Okinawa Islands, Miyako Islands, Ishigaki Island and several more islands, i.e. the islands, where humans grow oldest in the world (i.e. where several more persons reach an age of 100 years, than elsewhere on this planet), thanks to their sound diet and that they never gorge theirselves with food, but rather waits half an hour or more to finish a meal if the plate is too well filled.

The nematologist Dr. Pieter Aart Albertua Loof, 1925-, Wageningen, the Netherlands, is honoured in very many non marine nematode species names and in the marine nematode names Synonema loofi Jensen, 1989 and Syringolaimus loofi Gourbault & Vincx, 1985. Dr. Loof is the man to the right in this picture fom 1972.

Dr. Victor L'vovich (Lyon) Loosanoff, (3 Oct. - Kiev) 1899-1987 (15 June), born in Ukraine, escaped death thanks to a friend during the revolution (he had served during 4 years as an artillery officer in the Royal Russian Army) and fled with his wife Tamara (who survived him) through Siberia, China, Japan ending up in western USA in 1922, where he for a few years, while learning English, worked i.a. as a commercial fisherman before beginning to study at the Univ. of Washington in 1924, later working on molluscs, mainly oysters, often together with the equally transposed countryman Paul Galtsoff (q.v.). Loosanoff earned his PhD at Yale in 1936 under Wesley R. Coe (q.v.). [Chalinula loosanoffi (Hartman,1958)]. He spent most of his career at the Milford Laboratory at Long Island Sound (where the 49-foot R/V Victor Loosanoff is used in his honour), retired in 1965, but remained active as a researcher until he died and had a habit of calling almost all female persons - students and colleagues - in his surrounding "sweetie", depending on the fact that he had problems of remembering personal names, so it even happened that he addressed his wife by "sweetie".

Dr. Fredrik (Fritz) Elisa Loosjes, (13 Aug. - Hilversum) 1913-1994 (25 July), Dutch malacologist specialized in Clausiliidae [Loosjesiella Neubert & Groh 1998] {Picture / courtesy of R. Giannuzzi-Savelli}.

Prof. Dr. Arthur Looss, (16 May - Chemnitz) 1861-1923 (4 May - Giessen), German helminthologist. He studied in in his home town and in Poland and received his PhD in 1885 at the Univ. of Leipzig, after which R. Leuckart (q.v.) sent him to Egypt to study the transmission of bilharzia, but after being accidentaly infected by a parasitic nematode, which he studied in detail and described, he remained in Egypt as an affectionate professor. [Hapalotrema loossii Price, 1934, Phyllodistomum loossii Sinitzin, 1905 (Prof. A. Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly added the last eponym)].

Prof. Dr. Hugo de Souza Lopes, (5 Jan. - Rio de Janeiro) 1909-1991 (11 May, by double sided pneumonia), Brasilian malacologist and dipterologist [Cancilla lopesi Matthews & Coelho, 1969, Ischnochiton lopesi Kaas, 1974].

The Cape Verde fish name Atherina lopeziana Rossignol & Blache, 1961 is likely not named for a person's name, bot for the type locality, Point Clairette, north of Cape Lopez, Gabon.

The polychaete name Aricidea (Acmira) lopezi Berkeley & Berkeley, 1956, may likely be named for a place, Lopez Sound in San Juan Channel, rather than for a person's name.

The fish names Scorpaena loppei Cadenat, 1943 and Ijimaia loppei Roule, 1922 must likely be tributes to Dr. Etienne Loppé, (12 Oct. - Embrun) 1883-1954 (11 Sep. - La Rochelle), Chief Curator at the Lafaille Museum (Museum of Natural History), La Rochelle, working there from 1919.

Pleurotoma loprestiana Calcara, 1841 was named for Giacomo Lo Presti, 18??-1???, dear friend of the Sicilian author.

The gastropod name Turbonilla lordi (E.A. Smith, 1880) and the bivalve name Psephidia lordi (Baird, 1863) are likely honouring the British veterinary surgeon and naturalist John Keast Lord, (Cornwall) 1818-1872 (9 Dec. - Brighton), who worked in Vancouver Island and British Columbia after having served with the British army in the Crimea. He sometimes used the pseudonyme "the Wanderer" when he published.

Lacking information about Lorella in the gastropod name Odostomia lorellae Micali, 1987.

The gastropod name Conus spurius lorenzianus Dillwyn, 1817 may likelely be a tribute to Lorenz Spengler (q.v.), rather than to Lorenz Oken (q.v.).

The diatom name Nitzschia lorenziana Grunow in Cleve & Grunow may likely be a tribute to Prof. Josef Roman Lorenz, Ritter von Liburnao, (26 Nov. - Linz) 1825-1911 (13 Nov. - Wien), algal researcher, actve as professor in Salzburg and Fiume, before moving to Wien.

The gastropod name Scissurella lorenzi Geiger, 2006 is in honour of Felix Lorenz jr., 19??-, who collected the type material. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information)

Prof. Dr. Sievert Lorenzen, (Berlin) 1938-, German nematodologist at the Zoologisches Institut, Kiel [Chromadora lorenzeni Jensen, 1980, Desmolorenzenia Freudenhammer, 1975, Metepsilonema lorenzeni Decraemer & Gourbault, 1998, Theristus (Penzancia) lorenzeni Pastor-de-Ward, 1985].

Elacatinus lori P.L. Colin, 2002 was named for Lori Jane Bell Colin, 19??-, (Research Biologist at Coral Reef Research Foundation, Palau) in recognition of her contributions to the biology of coral reef fishes. (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Charles Louis Perceval de Loriol, (24 July - Genève) 1828-1908 (23 Dec. - Coligny, Switzerland), Swiss palaeontologist and stratigrapher, who worked during 40 years at the MNHN, Genève and became a cofounder of the Société Paléontologique Suisse. [Odostomia lorioli Hornung & Mermod, 1924, Paralophaster lorioli (Koehler, 1907), Archaster lorioli Sukarno & Jangoux, 1977]. (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided much of this information)

Lacking information about E.L. Lorois , 1???-1862? (H. Crosse published an obituary in Journal de Conchyliologie 11(4): 409-410 in 1862, so likely not identical with Edouard Louis Lorois, 1792-1863, of Morbihan, Bretagne, a building constructor and sub-prefect for the 100 days regime), in the gastropod names Conus loroisii L. C. Kiener, 1847 and Harpulina loroisi (Valenciennes, 1863).

Dr. William Buckham Lorrain, 1???-1857, Glasgow Malacologist, mainly working on non marine material.

Lorrain : (see also A.L. Smith).

The isopod name Saduriella losadai Holthuis, 1964 is in honour of Don Luis Losada Lago, 19??-, of Villagarcia, "in recognition of his energetic and continuous support of and profound interest in our exploration of the Ria de Arosa".

The numismatist, Mr. Clifton Wintringham Loscombe, 1784-1853, found the first specimen(s) of Limaria loscombi G.B. Sowerby I, 1823 outside Exmouth. He was a friend of Leach (q.v.) and also published on observations of harbour seals at Bristol and on British Hill Fortresses (Gentleman's Magazine 1840). After his marriage in 1807, he and his wife Maria Frances for a while lived in the West Indies (island of St. Christopher).

Lacking information about Lothe in the cephalopod name Benthoctopus lothei (Chun, 1913).

The Indo-Pacific (likely originally found at Réunion) snapping shrimp name Alpheus lottini Guérin, 1829 must be a tribute to Victor Charles Lottin, (26 Oct. - Paris) 1795-1858, hydrographer during the circumnavigation with "La Coquille" in 1822-25.

Mr. William Loughrin, 1???-18?? (seemed to have lived during 1862), a coast-guardsman of Polperro, who collected marine animals for scientists and of course a friend of other more or less local naturalists, like Couch (q.v.), Peach (q.v.) and Matthias Dunn, 1788-1869 (10 Sep.), an inspector of mines in the Newcastle upon Tyne area, who also had a large interest in natural history. [Atylus loughrini (Bate, 1862) (a synonym of A. swammerdamii Milne Edwards)].

Lacking information about Louis in the gastropod name Nassarius louisi Pallary, 1912.

The Caribbean gastropod name Daphnella louisae de Jong & Coomans, 1988 is in honour of Dr. Louise J. Westermann-van der Steen, 1938-,.

The gastropod name Turbonilla louiseae A.H. Clarke, 1954 is in honour of the author's (Arthur Haddleton Clarke jr., 1926-,) wife Louise R. Clarke, 19??-1973 (Canada), who also was interested in malacology.

Lacking information about Lourdes in the gastropod name Favartia lourdesae Gibson-Smith & Gibson-Smith, 1983.

The polychaete name Exogone lourei Berkeley & Berkeley, 1938 is likely not honouring a person's name, but was found at Loure Creek, Nuchatlitz Inlet, on the West coast of Vancouver Island.

The copepod name Scutellidium loureiroi Jakobi, 1954 must honour a person from Brazil? named T. Loureiro, 19??-, with whom Hans Jakobi co-published at least one paper (in 1956).

The zoologist Edward R. Lovell, 19??-, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, must be the honoured person in the scleractinian name Acropora (Acropora) lovelli Veron & Wallace, 1984.

Prof. Dr. Sven Ludvig Lovén, (6 Jan.) 1809-1895 (3 Sep.), Swedish marine zoologist from Stockholm [Lovenia Desor, 1847, Lovenella Hincks, 1868, Asteronyx loveni J. Müller & Troschel, 1842, Pholadomya loveni Jeffreys,1882, Doris loveni Alder & Hancock, 1845, Cryptocelides loveni Bergendal, 1890, Buprorus loveni Thorell, 1859, Aega loveni Bovallius, 1886, Mimonectes loveni Bovallius, 1885, Lanceola loveni Bovallius, 1885, Gonothyraea loveni (Allman, 1859), Edwardsiella loveni (Carlgren, 1893), Ceratocephale loveni Malmgren, 1867, Lysilla loveni Malmgen, 1866, Rhodine loveni Malmgren, 1865, Adalaria loveni (Alder & Hancock, 1862), Armina loveni (Bergh, 1861), Panacca loveni (Jeffreys, 1881), Maera loveni (Bruzelius, 1859), Sarsia loveni (M. Sars, 1846), Melaenis loveni Malmgren, 1865, Edwardsiella loveni (Carlgren, 1892), Podospongia loveni Du Bocage, 1869, Mycale loveni (Esper, 1887), Macoma loveni Jensen, 1905, Ophiocnida loveni (Ljungman, 1866) Lyman, 1875, Antedon loveni Bell,1884, Podospongia loveni du Bocage, 1864, Potamonautes loveni Colosi, 1924, Macoma loveni (A.S. Jensen, 1905), Lepoderma loveni (Nierstrasz, 1902), Pteria loveni (Dunker, 1872), Ophiura loveni (Lyman, 1872), Arenicola loveni (Kinberg, 1866), Conus loveni Krauss, 1848, Philine loveni Malm, 1858, Urechinus loveni (A. Agassiz, 1898), Anthocrinus loveni Miller, 1853, Caprella loveni Boeck, 1870 (now synonymized with C. septentrionalis), Caribbaster loveni  (Cotteau, 1875), Trisalenia loveni (Cotteau, 1888) (fossil sea urchin), Tryplasma loveni (Milne Edwards & Haime) (fossil coral), Taxocrinus loveni Wachsmuth & Springer, 1880 (fossil crinoid, now synonymized with Meristocrinus interbrachiatus (Angelin, 1878)), Centropleura loveni Angelin, 1851 (trilibite); also a few non marine specis are honouring his name]. After his dissertation in Lund in 1829, he studied in Berlin in 1830-31 for Ehrenberg (q.v.) and Rudolphi (q.v.). After this, he started working with "lower" animal life along the Swedish west coast (mainly molluscs and sea urchins) and also along Norway and in the Arctic area (an expedition in 1836-37 during 17 months included the Hammerfest area and Spitsbergen). Earlier he had written an ornithological paper, but evidently influenced by his Berlin teachers, the Swedish anatomist Anders Retzius (q.v.), who he had met in Berlin and his friend Bengt Fries (q.v.), he changed his research direction, albeit another reason may have been that his relation to his colleague in Lund, the vertebrate zoologist Sven Nilsson, 1787-1883, from 1830 were not as friendly as it had been [Hyale nilssonii Rathke, 1843, Menigratopsis svennilssoni Dahl, 1945, Chaetoparia nilssoni Malmgren, 1867]. As director (from 1841) of the Invertebrate Section of the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, Lovén was the foremost initializer of the establishing of the Kristineberg Marine Zoological Station in 1877, at a locality he himself had visited for the first time in 1839 (see Bengt Fries). During 1877 the Kristineberg Station for the first time also had access to really good dredging equipment, inherited from the expeditions in the Kattegatt and the Skagerack during 5 weeks of the first part of that summer with the Swedish gunboat "Gunhild". Several animals are named for Lovén. His botanical colleague in Lund, J. Agardh (q.v.) also named an algae Myriocladia lovenii, but not for Sven, however, but for his a little less well-known cousin Prof. Nils Henric Lovén, (29 Dec.) 1801-77 (24 Apr.), who before becoming Professor of medicine in Lund, in 1823 published "Monogr. Dolichop. Suec." in Lund together with the entomologist C.F. Fallen (q.v.), who had been inspired to study entomology by Linnaeus' disciple Thunberg (q.v.). Sven Lovén married in 1941 to Sigrid Mathilda Ekström, 1820-1901, resulting in several children and later grandchildren, among whom his namsake Sven Edvard Lovén, 1875-1948, published about the West Indian Tainan Culture in 1935.

Mr. Herbert Nelson Lowe, 1880-1936, of Long Beach, California, conchologist (published together with Pilsbry (q.v.)) [Volvulella lowei Strong & Hertlein, 1937, Lepidochitona lowei H. A. Pilsbry, 1918, Mopalia lowei H. A. Pilsbry, 1918, Epitonium lowei (Dall, 1906), Tripterotyphis lowei (Pilsbry, 1931), Chlamys lowei (Hertlein, 1935), Cytharomorula lowei R. B. Watson, 1897]. Also Cyclostremiscus lowei (Hanna & Strong, 1938) was named for him.

Rev. Richard Thomas Lowe, (4 Dec. - Derbyshire) 1802-1874 (13 Apr. - off Scilly Islands, when the ship he traveled on towards Madeira, was wrecked), British writer, ichthyologist and malacologist, publishing i.a. about Madeiran fauna and flora, because he served as priest in Madeira from 1832. [Octolasmis lowei Darwin, Omosudis lowei Günther, 1887, Berthella lowei Watson, 1897].

T.P. Lowe, "who did much of the groundwork for this study of the Antarctic Stylasterina", (and published together with Boschma (q.v.) is honoured in the cnidarian name Inferiolabiata lowei (Cairns, 1983). Likely he may be identical with a Smithsonian technician, named T. Peter Lowe, 19??-, who was on board R/V Anton Bruun, i.a. collecting corals and worked also on contents of Selenium and Tellurium in marine organisms and later published a book about life in Antarctic waters.

Lacking information about Lowekeyes in the coral name Flabellum lowekeyesi Squires & Ralph, 1965, but the name sounds unlikely for a person's name, more likely perhaps from a type locality, like perhaps the Lower Keys of the Florida Keys?

The US geologist Shephard W. Lowman, 1899-1967, is likely the person honoured in the foraminiferan name Brizalina lowmani (Phleger & Parker, 1951).

Dr. James (Jim) K. Lowry, 1942-, amphipod researcher, Sydney, Australia [Oxinasphaera lowryi N.L. Bruce, 1997, Azygocypridina lowryi Kornicker 1985, Biancolina lowryi Ortiz & Lalana, 1996, Paracalliope lowryi J.L. Barnard & Drummond, 1992, Sphenocarcinus lowryi Richer de Forges, 1992, Shoemakerella lowryi Gable & Lazo-Wasem, 1990, Glyphocrangon lowryi Kensley, Tranter & Griffin, 1987, Parawaldeckia lowryi Myers, 1985].

The octocoral name Sinularia loyai Verseveldt & Benayahu, 1983 is in honour of Prof. Dr. Yossi Loya, (23 May - Plovdiv, Bulgaria) 1942-, Department of Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel, as a token of gratitude for his fruitful cooperation with Dr. Y. Benayahu.

The Spanish ichthyologist Dr. Luis Lozano Rey, (11 July - Madrid) 1879-1958 (12 Sep.), is honoured in the fish name Pomatoschistus lozanoi (de Buen,1923).

Lozano in the gastropod name Ercolania lozanoi Ortea, 1981 : (see Cabo).

Vojen Ložek, (26 July) 1925-, Czech Malacologist and geologist.

Dr. Pierre Lozouet, 19??-, from Museum Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, collected material of Siphonochelus lozoueti Houart, 1991 [Pyreneola lozoueti Drivas & Jay, 1997, Mangelia lozoueti Tucker & Le Renard, 1993, Joculator lozoueti Jay & Drivas, 2002].

John Lubbock : (see Wollaston)

The ichthyologist Dr. Hugh Roger Lubbock, (3 Oct.) 1951-1981 (by a car accident in Rio de Janeiro), educated in Eton College and PhD from Canterbury Univ., collected Ecsenius lubbocki Spinger, 1988 [likely Chromis lubbocki Edwards, 1986, likely Cirrhilabrus lubbocki Randall & Carpenter, 1980, likely Corcyrogobius lubbocki Miller, 1988, likely Pectinochromis lubbocki (Edwards & Randall, 1983), likely Stegastes lubbocki Allen & Smith, 1992, likely Symphurus lubbocki Munroe, 1990].

Lacking information about Lubet, 19??-, in the flatworm name Sphaerobothrium lubeti Euzet, 1959. Possibly Prof. Pierre Lubet, 1925?-2003 (22 Feb., in his 78:th year), Caen, who has published on scallop culture. There is also a diatom species Navicula (Cocconeiopsis) lubetii König, 1959, perhaps honouring the same person?

Lubicz-Niezabitowski : (see Niezabitowski).

Bursa lucaensis Parth, 1991 is named after Luca Parth, 19??-, the son of the author, although formed exactly in the way recommended for names formed from geographical names and not from persons (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Codium lucasii Setchell in Lucas, 1935 must be named for Arthur Henry Shakespeare Lucas, (7 May - Stratford-on-Avon) 1853-1936 (10 June - Melbourne, Australia), not for I.A.N. Lucas, 19??-, British? algal worker or J.A.W. Lucas, 19??-, a student of Biology and collector of i.a. marine animals (at least during the years after WW2), which went to the Leiden Museum, and seems to have ended up as a Diptera entomologist. A.H.S. Lucas was very sick as a child, but grew up and began studying medicine. However, when his father died, he jumped off from his studies and became a teacher in order to be able to support the family. After marrying, he and his wife went on a honeymoon trip to Naples, from where they embarked a steam ship to Australia in 1883, where he served as a teacher in Melbourne, where he stayed for the rest of wis life, with the exception of some years in Tasmania. As a naturalist, his first love was algae, but every kind of life forms were interesting to him.

Dr. Pierre Hippolyte Lucas, (17 Jan. - Paris) 1814-1899 (5 July - Paris), French entomologist and arachnologist, who lost one of his eyes during school time and after studying science in Lyon (where he became MD). He described some crustaceans together with H. Milne-Edwards (q.v.). He i.a. collected along the shores of Algeria between 1839-42. [Brachynotus lucasi H. Milne Edwards, 18??, Hymenopenaeus lucasii (Bate, 1881), Hadropenaeus lucasii (Bate, 1881), Palicus lucasii, possibly Enophrys lucasi (Jordan & Gilbert, 1898), possibly Periclimenes lucasi Chace 1937].

Prof. John Lucas, 19??-, of James Cook University, Townsville, worked on the systematics of Hymenosomatidae (false spider crabs), but is no longer working actively on carcinology.

The bivalve name Lyonsia lucasana Bartsch & Rehder, 1939 is likely not named directly in honour of a person's name, but likely from the locality Cape San Lucas, Lower California..

The copepod Eudactylopus lucayosi Geddes, 1969 was described from Bahamas, so the name must refer to the old name Lucayas of the Bahamas Islands, not a person's name.

The polyplacophoran namme Chiton luchuana Is. Taki, 1962 is not in honour of a persons name, but was found at Great Luchu (Okinawa or Nawa Island), so it is a toponym.

Dr. Brian Luckhurst, (24 Mar.) 1947-, Bermuda Fisheries Division, is honoured in the astacid name Eunephrops luckhursti (Manning, 1997).

Lacking information about Lucy in the South American ophiuroid name Amphioplus lucyae Tommasi, 1971, but possibly a colleague of the author, Dr. Luiz Roberto Tommasi from São Paulo.

Dr. Nelly Hooper Ludbrook, (14 Jume) 1907-1995 (9 May), President of the Royal Society of South Australia [Amoria (Amoria) damonii ludbrookae Bail & Limpus, 1996, Botelloides ludbrookae Ponder, 1985, Gadila ludbrookae (Cotton & Godfrey, 1940)]. As far as the compiler has found out she studied and published on the scaphopods taken during the "John Murray Expedition" (1933-34) in the NW Indian Ocean, so there is likely a misunderstanding that they were studied by a person named Neils Ludbrook and who was honoured in the scaphopod name Striocadulus ludbrooki Scarabino, 1995, so this name may likely emanate from the misunderstanding that N.H. Ludbrook was a male person.

Ludivina : (see Labe).

Ludmilla in the bivalve name Scissuladrana ludmillae Petuch, 1987 : (see Strickland).

Prof. Dr. Hubert Jacob Ludwig, (22 Mar. - Trier) 1852-1913 (17 Nov. - Bonn), German Echinoderm researcher, who had studied under Leuckart (q.v.) in Leipzig, working in the Mediterranean area, first active in Göttingen, from 1878 (when he married) in Bremen and from 1881 in Giessen. He was one of few during his time, who wanted also women to study and employed countess Maria von Linden, 1869-1936, the first woman to study at the Univ. of Bonn, as Assistant in his laboratory and she later became a Titular-Professor. [Ludwigia Reiffen, 1901, Penilpidia ludwigi (von Marenzeller, 1893), Cheiraster ludwigi Fisher, 1913, Ludwigothuria Deichmann, 1958, Entocolax ludwigi Voigt, 1888, Dorigona ludwigi Koehler, 1909].

Luehe : (see Lühe).

Lacking information about Mr. Luetjohann in the dalyelloid name Axoila luetjohanni (Ax, 1952), but he evidently took samples via diving. One possible person this could have been is a Dr. Dieter Lütjohann, 19??-, who seems to possibly have been active in the Kiel area during that time, later pharmacologist in Bonn.

Luidius : (see Edward Lloyd).

The nematode name Monhystera luisae Bresslau & Stekhoven, in Stekhoven, 1935 must likely be a tribute to Louise Bresslau-Hoff, (29 May - Strassburg) 1882-1966 (São Paulo), German poet and author and the wife of the first author. She likely may have spelled her name Luisa or Luise after 1933 when the family was forced to leave Germany for Brazil, by the nazi regime.

The polyplacophoran name Leptochiton lukini Sirenko, 1990, is likely a tribute to Dr. V.I. Lukin, 19??-, who is collector of some malacological samples from e.g. the Kuril Islands during the 1980s and also is collector of mollusks during the 1970s.

Tatiana G. Lukina, 19??-, Russian foraminiferologist in St Petersburg.

Lt. Col. Frederick Corbin Lukis, (24 Feb.) 1788-1871 (15 Nov.), British polymath, malacologist and archaeologist from St. Peter Port, Guernsey, who collected around the Channel Islands . His father had been a successful wine merchant, so the family was rather rich. He and his wife got 6 sons (2 of them died in their teens) and 3 daughters. His daughter Louisa Elizabeth Collings, 1818-1887, who married and lived in Sark, was a botanist occupied by lichens and his cousin Colonel Joshua Gosselin, (6 Nov. - Guersey) 1739-1813 (27 May - Bengeo, Herts.), was a naturalist. However, Jeffreys must have referred not to the father, but to his eldest son, Dr. Frederick Collings Lukis, 1814-1863 (died from a lung decease he had suffered from during some years after just having become 48 years old, possibly tbc), who became a surgeon, and was like his father very interested in natural history and helped his father also in his archeological work, because Jeffreys 1863, when treating Abra tenuis, says "... the late Dr. Lukis, who favoured me with a description and a sketch in October 1859 ..." [Brachystomia lukisi Jeffreys, 1859]. The younger Dr. Lukis was a very good friend of Jeffreys and was said to be the best conchologist of the Channel Islands during this time. Jeffreys, however, continued his correspondence with the family through F.C. Lukis sr., until the old man died.

The fungus name Lulworthia Sutherland, 1916 is not in honour of a person's name, but was found growing on living thalli of Fucus vesiculosus at Lulworth on the coast of Dorset, U.K.

The diatom name Pinnularia lundii Hustedt, 1954 must honour either Dr. Everett Eugene Lund, 1907-2000, US parasitologist, Dr. John Walter Guerrier Lund, 1912- (finished working in 2005, but still living in 2006), British phycologist, or the Danish worker Prof. Søren Lund, 1905-1974, all of them researching on algae, most likelely one of the last two of them may be the honourd person.

Prof. William Lundbeck, (16 Oct. - Aalborg) 1863-1941 (18 May - Kongens Lyngby), Danish ex-watchmaker, later entomologist (specialist on flies) and spongiologist (described the material from the Ingolf Expedition - his first sponge study is from 1902) [Cornulum lundbecki Dendy, 1922, Hamacantha lundbecki Topsent, 1904, Hymedesmia lundbecki Dendy, 1924, Hymenancora lundbecki Hentschel, 1912, Lissodendoryx lundbecki Topsent, 1913, Plocamia lundbecki Breitfuss, 1912, Antho lundbecki (Breitfuss, 1897)]. (Dr. Rob van Soest kindly provided part of this information).

Dr. Kennet Lundin, 1964-, Swedish plathelminthologist, working in Göteborg (Gothenburg). PhD in 1999. Institution, he has continued at the Göteborg Natural History Museum with ultrastructural studies also on other taxa, e.g. molluscs, sipunculans etc.

The diatom name Cosmioneis lundstroemii (Cleve in Cleve & Grunow)D.G. Mann in Round & al., 1990 must be a tribute to either of the Swedish botanists, Prof. Axel Nicolaus Lundström, (23 Mar. - Piteå) 1847-1905 (30 Dec. - Uppsala) living in Ludvika or Carl Erik Lundström, (6 Aug.) 1882-1970 (21 June).

Tomas Lundälv, (26 Nov.) 1944-, Swedish zoologist born in the Göteborg region, who was a pioneer in stereophotogrammetrical SCUBA studies of horisontal rock surfaces (and also constructing a variety instruments for SCUBA studies) during the early 1970s when working at the Kristineberg Marine Research Station. After that he has worked at the Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, where he mainly has been responsible for ROV investigations.

The crab name Pilodius luomi Serène, 1971 is in honour of the Vietnamese researcher Nguyen Van Luom, 19??-, who co-authored some papers with Serène during the late 1950s.

Crisilla luquei Templado & Rolan, 1993 was named for Prof. Dr. Ángel Antonio Luque del Villar, 19??-, Madrid, first secretary of Sociedad Espanola de Malacologia [Trapania luquei Ortea, 1989, Conus luquei Rolán & Trovão, 1990].

Professor Dr. Alexander Ferdinand Luther, (17 Feb. - Helsinki) 1877-1970, Finnish zoologist; specialist on free-living platyhelmints. He was a pupil of Palmén (q.v.), but spent the years 1902-03 at Ludwig von Graff's (q.v.) laboratory in Graz, Austria - the center of turbellarian research at that time, where he mainly was guided by von Graff's assistent and collaborator Ludwig Böhmig (q.v.). After his PhD in 1904, during 1905-07 Luther spent his time in Heidelberg, where Gegenbaur's successor Prof. Dr. Max Fürbringer, (30 Jan. - Wittenberg) 1846-1920 (6 Mar. - Heidelberg) was his teacher. After WWII, Tvärminne, where Luther worked, became the center of turbellarian research, after that Luther in 1936 restarted platyhelminth research after having worked on other things for several years. A. Luther was actually a distant relative of the protestantic reformer Martin Luther (10 Nov. - Eisleben) 1483-1546 (18 Feb. - Eisleben), likely through the reformer's youngest (of his six children) daughter Margarethe 1534-1570, because all still living relatives of the reformer emanates from her. [Coronhelmis lutheri Ax, 1951, Paraproporis lutheri (Westblad,1946), Cylindrostoma lutheri (Westblad, 1955), Gnathostomaria lutheri Ax, 1956, Turbanella lutheri Remane, 1952, Byrsophlebs lutheri (Marcus, 1952), Myozona lutheri Papi, 1953, Proxenetes lutheri Den Hartog, 1966, Lutheriella Den Hartog, 1966, Lutheria N. von Hofsten, 1907, Alexlutheria Karling, 1956, Plicastoma lutheri (Böhmig 1914), Meidiama lutheri Marcus, 1946, Pelophila lutheri (Westblad, 1946), Karlingia lutheri (Marcus, 1948), Yagua lutheri Marcus, 1950, Nasonoviella lutheri (Nasonov, 1917), Olisthanella lutheri Sekera, 1906, Sphagnella lutheri Sekera, 1912, Phaenocora lutheri Gilbert, 1937, Castrada lutheri Kepne & al., 1939 Rhynchomesostoma lutheri Papi, 19??, Castradella lutheri Papi, 1959, Macrostomum lutheri Beklemischev, 1927].

Prof. Dr. Richard A. Lutz, 1949-, PhD Univ. of Maine in 1975, working at Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, Canada on marine ecology and biology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, is honoured in the polychaete name Amathys lutzi Desbruyères & Laubier, 1996 (from hydrothermal vents, Mid-Atlantic Ridge).

The Gulf of Mexico stomatopod name Tectasquilla lutzae Adkison & Hopkins, 1984, may likely be a tribute to Linda B. Lutz, 19??-, who has published on marine invertebrates from the Gulf of Mexico.

The medusa name Phyllorhiza luzoni Mayer, 1915 is likely not named for a person, but for Luzon Island, the largest island among the Philippines.

Prof. Dr. André Michel Lwoff, (8 May - Ainay-le-Chateau, Allier) 1902-1994 (30 Sep.), French protistologist and microbiologist of Russian / Polish descent. MD in 1927, Doctor of Sciences in 1932. In 1965 he received the physiology Nobel prize (together with Jacques Monod and François Jacob) for discovering messenger-RNA, ribosomes and research into genetic control of enzyme activity. Earlier he had received the Legion of Honour for taking part of the resistance movement during World War II. He has described several marine protoctists, often together with his teacher and later collaborator Chatton (q.v.), but he also worked together with others, e.g. his wife (since Dec. 1925) Marguerite Lwoff-Bourdaleix, 1905-1979, who between 1929-32 also published together with Chatton. Chatton had met the young Lwoff already in 1921 at Roscoff, becoming friends and collaborators and were during the first collaboration years known as the "master" and the "pupil". After having left the protoctist studies during his youth, he mainly worked on bacteria and virus, but during the end of his life, he again became interested in protoctists and got some time for an early hobby oil painting, because his mother had been an artist.

The gastropod name Turbonilla lyalli Dall & Bartsch, 1907 is in honour of Dr. David Lyall , (1 June - Auchenblae, Kincardineshire, Scotland) 1817-1895 (2 Mar. - Cheltenham, England), Surgeon, Royal Navy. He was from 1858 a member of the Land Boundary Commision. a survey of the boundary line between British Columbia and the United States possessions, from the Gulf of Georgia to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. From this exploration Dr. Lyall brought home a large herbarium; honored by the algae Prionitis lyallii Harvey. He is also honoured in several other herbal names, because he had served in the Royal Navy as physician from 1839 until retirement in 1873 and had sailed and collected plants for his friend Sir Joseph Hooker (q.v.) (Rick Harbo, Fisheries Biologist, Nanaimo, B.C. kindly provided this information)

Lacking information about Lübben (or perhaps Luebben) in the flatworm name Orbiculorhynchus luebbeni Uwe Noldt, 1989, but possibly a tribute to Dr. Heinrich Lübben, 1883-1931, german zoologist and teacher at a school for girls, who proposed the establishment of a public aquarium for North Sea ocean life, resulting in the Bremerhaven Aquarium, which was opened in Aug. 1913 and received animals brought home by the large trawler fleet.

Hans Julius Lübbert (10 Aug. - Hamburg) 1870-1951 (22 Nov. - Hamburg), German fisheries director (closely associated with W. Herwig (q.v.) during Herwig's last decade of his life), is honoured in the W African guitar fish name Rhynchobatus luebberti Ehrenbaum, 1915.

Richard Lydekker, (25 July - Harpenden, Hertfordshire) 1849-1915 (16 Apr. - Harpenden), at the BMNH, published i.a. on (marine) vertebrates. Between 1874-82, he had served at the Geological Survey of India, but then returned to England, where he afterwards stayed, except for 1893, when he studied fossils in Argentina.

The copepod name Zausopsis luederitzi (Kunz, 1963), the polychaete name Pterampharete luderitzi Augener, 1918 and the nemertean name Zygonemertes luederitzi Wijnhoff, 1916 may possibly have connection with the town Lüderitz in Namibia instead of a person. The bay area around the later built town was aquired by a merchant, Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz, (16 July - Bremen) 1834-1886 (30 Oct. - drowned in the Oranje River estuary during an exploring expedition), in 1883, but he did not - as he had expected - find metals and other precious things (like drinking water) in the area, so he was forced to sell it to the "German Colonial Society", but two decades later diamonds were found in the area and the town named after him began a fast grow during a few decades.

Lacking information about Lydia in the cirripedian name Weltnerium lydiae (Tarasov & Zevina, 1957).

Dr. Maximilian Friedrich Ludwig Lühe, (30 Apr. - Augustenburg, island of Alsen, Schleswig) 1870-1916 (3 May - Lida, Lithuania, by typhus, contracted when working as physician during the war), physician and zoologist, mainly helminthologist) working in Königsberg, a member of the National Liberal Party, is honoured in the digenean name Hemiurus luehei Odhner, 1905.

Theodore (Ted) Lyman III, (23 Aug. - Waltham, Massachusetts) 1833-1897 (9 Sep. - Nahant), was a disciple of Louis Agassiz (q.v.) and a classmate of Louis' son Alexander at Harvard. He helped his teacher to found the Museum of Comparative Zoology there. He was connected with Harvard for most of his life, but after being a Liutenant-Colonel in the civil war, he entered fisheries biology in 1866 and stayed within this field during 17 years. However, he is most known as an ophiuroidologist, but did also write some papers on corals and birds, when young. He also was a congressman and a social reformer. During his last 12 years he was an invalid from a nerveous disease, which gradually made him lose use of his limbs. [Ophiactis lymani Ljungman, 1872, Ophiomusium lymani Wyville Thomson, 1873, Paguristes lymani A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1893, Dasmosmilia lymani (Pourtalès, 1871), Ophiothrichoides lymani Ludwig, 1882, Astrochele lymani Verril, 1878, Copidaster lymani A.H. Clark, 1948, possibly ]. Cerithium lymani Pilsbry, 1949 is instead a tribute to the collector Frank Lyman, (10 June) 1895-1981 (1 Oct.), Lantana, Florida, who was an US shell dealer betweeen 1932-53.

J. Lynch (likely identical with the US zoologist Dr. James Eric Lynch, 1892-1975), Univ. of Washington, who began to publish on ciliates not later than in 1929, is honoured in the ciliate name Lynchella Kahl, 1933.

Hans Christian Lyngbye, (29 June - Blendstrup, Jutland) 1782-1837 (18 May), Danish algae researcher [Lyngbya C.A. Agardh, Bryopsis lyngbyei Hornemann, 1818]. His father was a vestry-keeper in Blendstrup, later in Gjerding. H.C. Lyngbye studied to become a priest and already when studying theology, he became interested in botany, particularly algae, and in 1817 he received a prize from the Univ. of Copenhagen for a survey of the algae of Denmark. After this he travelled to Norway and the Faeroes collecting algae - also collecting old songs from the Faeroes about Sigurd Fafnesbane and other figures in the Nibelungen group, which he translated to Danish - and published in 1819 "Tentamen hydrophytologiae Danicae" - a classical work over the algae of Nordic seas. The same year he became a priestman in the place where he grew up (and married the 11 year younger Henriette Augusta Tilemann in 1822), but moved in 1827 to Zealand, where he acted as a priest in Söborg and Gilleleje. In 1836 he wrote "Rariora codana" - a work classifying algal vegetation phytogeographically, but this remained unpublished until Eugene Warming (q.v.) in 1879 published the botanical part of the work..

The nematode name Rhynchonema lyngei (Allgén, 1940) is likely honouring the Danish shell collector (at the Aarhus Museum) and book dealer Herman Lynge, 1862-1945, the son of the Antiquarian book dealer Herman Henrik Julius Lynge, 1822-1897. Their antiquarion book shop Lynge & Søn A/S in Copenhagen was sold in 1932, but the name is kept.

Pieter (or Pierre) Lyonnet, (22 July - Maastricht) 1708-1789 (10 Oct. - the Hague), Dutch entomologist and large-scale shell collector, born by French parents.

Sidney Smith Lyon, (4 Aug. - Cincinnatti, Hamilton, Ohio) 1808-1872 (24 June - The Octagon, Jeffersonville, Clark, Indiana), US geologist, who after having been seriously wounded in the civil war took up studies of crinoids. When younger, he had been a portrait painter.

Mr. (Captain of the Royal Navy) William Lyons, (25 Jan. - Tetworth, Huntingdonshire) 1766-1849 (17 Nov. - Tenby, Pembrokeshire), British conchologist from Tenby [Lyonsia Turton, 1822, Lyonsiella Sars, 1868].

Dr. William G. (Bill) Lyons, 1939-, US malacologist, former president of the American Malacological Union, who has described about 20 species of marine gastropods and polyplacophorans. An earlier file on him is found in Abbott's (1987) Register of American Malacologists. Busycon (Busycoarctum) lyonsi Petuch, 1987, Muricopsis lyonsi Petuch, 1986, and Daphnella lyonsi Espinosa and Fernandez-Garces, 1990, were named for him. He is also honoured in a polychaete annelid name Heteropodarke lyonsi Perkins, 1984 and in an isopod crustacean name (Tropidotea lyonsi Menzies & Kruczynski, 1983). (Dr. Lyons himself, kindly provided this information, correcting an earlier wrongly attributed name to his late British namesake).

Captain Sir Henry George Lyons, (11 Oct. - London) 1864-1944 (Aug. - Great Missenden), F.R.S., of the Egyptian Survey Department, is honoured in the hydroid name Moerisia lyonsi Boulenger, 1908.

Prof. Dr. Christian Frederik Lütken, (4 Oct. - Sorø) 1827-1901 (6 Feb.), Danish zoologist, who before his dissertation (the first in zoology in Denmark) for Steenstrup in 1857 had been a soldier - he left the army in 1852 as first-liutenant - for some years. After this he worked as an assistant to Steenstrup (q.v.) at the Zoological Museum in København (Copenhagen) for several years. Eventually he succeded Steenstrup as professor of Zoology in 1885. Being very radical and revulutionary as a young man, he became rather conservative and dictatorical as an older professor. He was a very thorough and deeply read in person and made much to pupularize biology in Denmark. He retired in 1899 after having had a paralytic stroke the year before and was succeded by Hector Frederik Estrup Jungersen, (13 Jan. - Dejberg, Jylland) 1854-1917 (6 Mar. - København), who particularly interested himself in fish anatomy and different aspects of pennatularians [Thaumatocrinus jungerseni A.H. Clark, 1923, Primnoella jungerseni Jensenius Madsen, 1944, Tealidium jungerseni Carlgren, 1921]. Lütken's main science areas were fishes, echinoderms & parasitical crustaceans, but he worked on all kinds of animals, except insects and molluscs [Luetkenia Claus, 1864, Suberites luetkeni (O. Schmidt, 1870), Lycodes luetkeni Collett, 1880, Ophiothrix luetkeni Wyville Thomson, 1873, Drifa glomerata f. luetkeni (Marenzeller, 1877), Amphiura (Amphiura) luetkeni, Ophiomastix luetkeni, Acanthochaenus luetkenii Gill, 1844, Lora luetkeni Dall, 1919, Acropora lutkeni Crossland, 1952, Ophiophragmus lutkeni (Ljungman, 1871) Clark, 1913 Leptogorgia luetkeni Wright & Studer, 1889]. (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided information about birth day and place of Lütken)

Dr. Jørgen G. Lützen, 1935-, Danish zoologist at the Institute of Cell Biology and Anatomy, København (Copenhagen), who particularly has been interested in marine parasitic molluscs, copepods (published several papers together with Bresciani (q.v.)) and Rhizocephala. He has also published about e.g. ascidians, but since the late 1980s protonephridial research is his main interest [Luetzenia Rehder, 1980, Thompsonia luetzeni Hoeg & Bruce, 1988]. The copepod Nanaspis ninae Bresciani & Lützen, 1962 is named för Lützen's wife Nina, 19??-, who during their stay at Kristineberg Marine Reasearch Station, where the first specimens were found, helped the two authors with cooking and other service.

Löbbecke : (see Lischke).

Professor Dr. Axel Johan Einar Lönnberg, (24 Dec. - Stockholm) 1865-1942 (21 Nov. - Stockholm), Uppsala zoologist, who after his dissertation mainly worked at the Vertebrate department of the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm; he founded the popular biological journal "Fauna och Flora" and was between 1925-42 the last prefect of the Kristineberg Marine Zoological Station. (After 1942 the station has been managed only by the local director) [Paratimea loennbergi (Alander, 1942), Artedidraco loennbergi Roule, 1913, Moroteuthis loennbergii Ishikawa & Wakiya, 1914, Stercorarius antarctica loennbergi G. Matthews, 1912].

Olof Lövgren, around 1970-, from Kalmar Univ., dredged the specimens at Humlesäcken, Gullmarfjord, Swedan, on which the descriptions of Tetraneuronemertes lovgreni Sundberg, Gibson & Strand, 2007 are based.

Paul Løyning, (13 Mar.) 1895-1960 (23 Apr.), Norwegian zoologist, who succeded Emily Arnesen (q.v.) as curator at Zoological Museum, Oslo in 1926. He published about Norwegian nudibranchs and worked on parts of the "Maud"-exspeditions material (gastropods, a cephalopod, etc.). As a marine zoologist he took part in the Norwegian expeditions to Greenland in 1930, -31 and -32, from where he collected a huge material. In 1933 he left his former job and became teacher (senior master) in Oslo.. [Ectyodoryx loyningi Burton, 1934]. Another nudibranch worker, who was active at approximately the same time in the Oslo Fjord was Marie (Mia) Sofie Larsen, (14 Dec.) 1897-1996 (18 Feb.), who later (Oct. 20 1925) married Prof. Fridthjof Økland and got two sons. Her parents were lektor Aksel Larsen og Marie (Maja) Sørensen. Bachelor of Science in 1923. Her main interest was zoology, but she was also interested in mathemathics, astronomy and botany. Her «Nudibranchfaunaen i Drøbakssundet» was published in Videnskapsselskapets skrifter I, Matem.-Naturvid. Kl. 1925, No.2. Pedagogical degree in 1924. During her study time she had several posts as a supply teacher in schools in Oslo, e.g. at Borgerskolen , Oslo, 1924-25. Later she became senior mistress (lektor) and inspector at Oslo offentlige lærerskole, where she worked for most of her active life until age 70. She has revised and translated technical books into Norwegian and written journal and newspaper articles. One of her mottos was «You shall build up!» - taken from one of Albert Schweitzer's books. (Prof. Marit E. Christiansen kindly provided the information about Løyning and Larsen's son, Professor Jan Økland, Oslo, kindly provided the information about Mia Larsen).