Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. M

Prof. Dr. Otto Maas, (Mannheim) 1867-1916 (München), working in Wiesbaden?, published on medusae during the last decade of the 19:th and the first decade of the 20:th century [Koellikerina maasi (Browne, 1910), Eucheilota maasi Neppi & Stiasny, 1911, Halitrephes maasi Bigelow, 1909, Maasella Poche, 1914, Versura maasi Mayer, 1910].

Dr. A.C. Maaterese, 19??-, Seattle, is interested in larval fishes.

Tthe Gulf of Aden coral name Caryophyllia mabahithi Gardiner & Waugh, 1938 must be a tribute to the Egyptian R/V Mabahith (meaning investigation in Arabic), rather than to a person's name.

Mabillia Bourguignat, 1876 and Mabilliella Ancey,1886 were named after Jules François Mabille, 1831-1904, French malacologist.

Lacking information about Mabruck in the actinian name Helianthopsis mabrucki Carlgren O., 1900.

Lacking information about Mac in the anomuran name Decaphyllus maci McLaughlin, 1997.

The copepod (often monstrilloid) researcher Dr. Bernard John McAlice, 1930-, Univ. of Maine, is honoured in the monstrilloid name Cymbasoma mcalicei Suárez-Mmorales, 1996.

Prof. Dr. Alexander Macalister, (9 Apr. - Dublin) 1844-1919 (2 Sep.), Prof. of Anatomy at Cambridge Univ., published several books on systematic zoology and was considered a leading creationist.

Dr. Donald Evan McAllister, (23 Aug. - Victoria, British Columbia) 1934-2001 (17 June), Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, worked on fish before retirement.

The Arctic fish name Cyclopteropsis mcalpini (Fowler, 1914). was named for Mr. Charles W. McAlpin, " to whom the University is indebted for assistance in securing the present collection". He is identical with Charles Williston McAlpin, 1865-1942 (3 Feb. - New York), (a son of the New York tobacco industrialist David Hunter McAlpin, 1816-1901, and a friend of president Woodrow Wilson), who had graduated at Princeton and was Secretary of the Princeton Univ. between 1901-1914 and also collected a huge amount of pictures of president George Washington.

Colonel Thomas Townley Macan, 1860-1934, is best known for his publications on insects and mollusks from British fresh and brackish waters. An exact namesake, living between 1910-1985 (12 Jan. - Cumbria), who took part in the H.M.S. Mabahiss expedition [Arab. mabahiss = researchers] to the Indian Ocean in 1933-34 (q.v.), but else was known as a limnologist, is likely his son (or perhaps grandson). Laophonte macani Sewell, 1940 is likely named for the younger of them.

Notoplax macandrewi Iredale & Hull, 1925 was named for George McAndrew, 18??-1928 (Nov. - Kiama Hospital), New South Wales shell collector.

Sir Robert McAndrew, Esq., (22 Mar. - Wandsworth, SW London) 1802-1873 (22 May - his residence Isleworth House, London), who was a fruit merchant and conchologist in Liverpool (his father, who died when Robert was 19 year old, had been a London merchant originating from Elgin, Scotland), was 1845 the first discoverer of Calocaris macandreae Bell,1846 (in Loch Fyne and Mull of Galloway);. McAndrew had moved to Liverpool, when his brother died a few years after his father and married a cousin, Eliza McAndrew, 1810-1892, in 1829 and became fascinated of sea shells a few years later. In 1849 he refitted one of his two yachts 'Naiad' (purchased after selling his earlier dredging boat, the "Osprey" in 1848, because his former boat was too small for longer sailing; he sold the "Naiad" during the autumn 1856) to dredging purposes. (His only dredging adventure after selling his ship was during his expedition to the Red Sea with two younger colleagues (the Suez area and southwards) in 1870, three years after he had completely retired from business). He was a close friend of i.a. Forbes, Barrett & Jeffreys (q.v.). Later he used 'Naiad' to dredge also abroad, like in Norway, Vigo Bay (where in company with the brothers Samuel P. and Henry Woodward (q.v.) he dredged in 1856), etc. Despite that he is coinsidered to be a pioneer in deep sea dredging, his ships could not normally dredge deeper than around 200 fathoms. His large shell collection ended up in the Zoology Museum, University of Cambridge. His youngest son George, (Liverpool) 1843-1921 (Dorking, Surrey), changed the spelling of the family name from McAndrew to MacAndrew, because his Spanish contacts in the fruit business had difficulties in pronuncing Mc correctly, but could easier understand Mac. [Macandrevia, Macandrewia J.E. Gray, 1859, Terebra macandrewi E.A. Smith, 1877, Geodia macandrewii Bowerbank, 1858, Flabellum macandrewi J.E. Gray, 1849, Philomedes macandrei (Baird, 1850), Bolma macandrewii Mørch, 1868, Alvania macandrewi Manzoni, 1868, Turbonilla macandreae H. Adams, 1871, Atys macandrewi E.A. Smith, 1872, Pseudopythina macandrewi P. Fischer, 1867, Goodallia macandrewi (Smith, 1881), Dentalium macandrewi Boissevain 1906, Erosaria macandrewi (G.B. Sowerby, 1870)]. Some of the mollusc names may perhaps instead honour one of his sons, who also was a shell collector, James J. MacAndrew, (Liverpool) 18??-1915 or his grandson Vernon William McAndrew, 1880?-1940 (22 June, aged 59, when a German magnetic mine sank his yacht Campeador, which had been converted to a patrol vessel, off the Isle of Wight and all but two of the 22 men on board lost their lives), (a nephew of J.J. MacAndrew), who collected shells as well.

The gastropod name Turbonilla macbridei Dall & Bartsch, 1909 was not named in honour of Prof. Ernest William MacBride, (12 Dec. - Edgehill, Belfast) 1866-1940 (17 Nov.), who published on ontogeny, phylogeny and zoology and had worked at McGill Univ, Montréal, between 1897-1909 and after that at Imperial College, London, but in honour of Prof. Thomas Huston Macbride, (31 July - Rogersville, Tennesseee) 1848-1934 (27 Mar. - Seattle), US mycologist.

The oligochaete name Heterodrilus maccaini Erséus, 1984, the crab namePinnotheres mccainae; Schmitt in Schmitt, McCain & Davidson 1973 as well asthe Antarctic ray name Bathyraja maccaini Springer, 1971are all named for Dr. John Charles McCain, 1939-, (formerly at the University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran as principal investigator of the Northern Area Marine Environmental Baseline Study, now retired). He worked on amphipods (1967 Ph.D. student of Dr. Thomas E. Bowman (q.v.)), and later on the effects of oil spills in Persian Gulf. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

William McCalla (M'Calla, Mc'Alla) 1814-1849 (2 May (in Cholera) - Roundstone, Connemara, Galway), Irish schoolmaster and botanist (algologist), who, after having been dismissed (for passing on unpublished data) when assisting David Moore, worked as specimens collector for Dr. John Scouler & Dr. Thomas Coulter. Published i.a. "Algae Hibernicae" [Cladophora macallana W.H. Harvey]. (Dr. E. Charles Nelson kindly provided much of this information).

Dr. George Alexander MacCallum, (23 Apr. - Toronto) 1843-1936 (30 Sep. - Baltimore), Canadian physician and naturalist working on parasitic platyhelminths, moving with his family to New York after retirement in 1910 and to Baltimore in 1921, because he had sons working in these cities. [Amphibdelloides maccallumi (Johnson & Tiegs, 1922), Erpocotyle maccallumi (Price, 1942)].

The living ostracod Roundstonia macchesneyi (Brady & Crosskey, 1871), also known as Cytheromorpha macchesneyi and originally described in 1871 as Cythere macchesneyi by G.S.Brady & H.W.Crosskey on the base of fossil shells from Post-Tertiary marine clays of Canada, has been inscribed to their esteemed friend Professor MacChesney, of the - 'First' or 'Old' - University of Chicago, likely, thus, a tribute to Prof. Joseph H. McChesney, (Ohio) ca 1822-1???, Geologist and Palaeontologist associated with the Illinois State Geological Survey, who published about fossils during that time and had been appointed by Abraham Lincoln to be consul in Glasgow, Scotland (and in Newcastle upon Tyne between 1862-69) and afterwards became professor of natural sciences at the Chicago Univ. (Prof. Eugen Karl Kempf, Frechen, Germany, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Bayard Harlow McConnaughey, (21 Apr. - Pittsburg) 1916-2002 (15 Sep.), Dep. of Biology, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, USA, PhD at Univ. of California, Berkeley, in 1948, who has worked on e.g. dicyemids and published books on marine life and biology (partly together with his wife Evelyn).

The hagfish Eptatretus mcconnaugheyi Wisner & McMillan, 1990 is named after Ronald R. McConnaughey, 193?-, a Scripps Institution of Oceanography manager of scientific collections and experimental aquariums, who retired in 2000 and was replaced by Eddie Kisfaludy. (The Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library, Peter Brueggeman, kindly provided this information).

Dr. James Culbertson McConnel, 1844-1904 (25 July - Liberty, New York), US Malacologist, but mainly a good black and white illustrator of a diversity of mollusks, e.g. for Dall (q.v.).

The hagfish name Eptatretus mccosceri McMillan, 1999 is named for Dr. John E. McCosker, 19??-, ichthyologist and Senior Scientist at California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.

John McCrady, (15 Oct. - Charleston, South Carolina) 1831-1881 (16 Oct. - Nashville, Tennessee), disciple of L. Agassiz (q.v.), worked as a pioneer with North American hydroids until 1860, when the civil war, personal problems etcetera turned him into other directions, for example criticism of Darwinism. He also was a mathemathician and had married Sarah DeBerriere Dismukes, born 1840, at September 1 1859. A daughter, Esther, was born in 1860. After the student years at Harvard, he became a professor of mathemathics at the College of Charleston, but became an officer in the Confederate engineers during the civil war. After the war, he returned to his professorship in Charleston, later becoming assistant to Agassiz, then biology professor at the Univ. of the South, Savannee, Tennessee [Clytia mccradyi (Brooks, 1888), Phialidium mccradyi (Brooks, 1888), Mnemiopsis mccradyi Mayer, 1900].

The stomatopod name Tetrasquilla mccullochae (Schmitt, 1940) is because of the female species name ending not likely honouring the Australian Museum's essential ichthyologist Allan Riverstone McCulloch, (20 June - Sydney) 1885-1925 (1 Sep. - Honolulu), who i.a. published on fishes from New South Wales and crabs from SE Australia. Likely it may have honoured Dr. Irene Agnes McCulloch, 1886-1987?, who published several items on foraminiferans together with J.A. Cushman (q.v.) from the end of the 1930s to the beginning of the 1950s. She received her B.A. and M.A. degrees at the University of Kansas, and her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. She was much involved in teaching already as a graduate assistant in Zoology at Berkeley between 1913-16, then at Occidental College and a Tulane University, arriving at the University of Southern California as a Professor of Zoology in 1924 and evidently working there almost up to her 90s. She was there instrumental in interesting Capt. Allan Hancock (q.v.) in marine fauna, particularly marine biological expeditions (& the consecutive establishment of Allan Hancock Foundation - established at USC in 1941, the Hancock Library of Biology and Oceanography (of which the library of the Boston Society of Natural History - purchased by Hancock in 1944 - was the start ), etc.). Her last publication arrived ca 1977 and her personal library - she was herself a notorious collector of scientific books, sometimes competing with Stillman Berry (q.v.) regarding bidding on antiquarian book collections - went after her decease to the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History.

The New Zealand holothuroidean name Heteromolpadia joyceae Pawson & Vance, 2007, is in honour of Mrs. Joyce McCullough, 19??-, China Grove, North Carolina, "as a small token of appreciation of her untiring, endlessly cheerful, volunteer assistance in the field and in the laboratory over the past several years".

Dr. Sir John Denis Macdonald, (26 Oct. - Cork) 1826-1908 (7 Feb.), F.R.S., Assistant-Surgeon of H.M.S. Herald between 1852-59 (under Captain N.M. Denham), who i.a. published about Ascidia from the Australian area, the son of an artist and art critic.

D.J. MacDonald, 19??-, diver and shell collector?, who submitted specimens of Morum macdonaldi Emerson, 1981, taken by diving at West Reef, Kwajalein, Marshal Islands.

The bivalve name Idas macdonaldi Turner, Gustafson, Lutz & Vrijenhoek, 1998 must be in honour of Prof. Dr. Ian R. MacDonald, 19??-, PhD at Texas A & M Univ. in 1990, a biological oceanographer (Pofessor at Florida State Univ.), who supplied the mussel specimens from Alvin dive # 3633 in Gulf of Mexico.

Val MacDonald, 19??-, British Columbia, is interested in polychaetes.

Marshall McDonald, (26 June - Romney, Hampshire County, W. Virginia) 1835-1895 (1 Sep.), was a fish-culturist and practical inventor of hatchery apparatus. He succeeded S. F. Baird (q.v.) (except for a short temporary appointment of George B. Goode) as U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries. McDonald was the first full-time salaried Commissioner, remaining in the post until his death. His assistant was Hugh M. Smith. The deep-sea fish Conocara macdonaldi Goode and Bean, 1895 is "In honor of Col. Marshall McDonald, United States Commissioner of Fisheries since 1888." Perhaps the "mac" (instead of "mc") prefix of the Conocara species and Lampanyctus macdonaldi (Goode & Bean, 1896) is a nod to Latinization, rather than placed there just to confuse historians! [likely Callionymus macdonaldi Ogilby, 1911, possibly Notobrancaea macdonaldi Pelseneer, 1886] (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly supplied this information).

The Madagascar skate name Fenestraja maceachrani (Séret, 1989) is honouring Prof. Dr. John D. MacEachran, 19??-, Professor of Ichthyology at Texas A & M Univ. PhD in 1973 at College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

The digenean name Steganodermatoides maceri Bray & Gibson, 1986 is a tribute to Dr. Charles T. (Tim) Macer, 19??-, fisheries scientist, of the MAFF Lab. Lowestoft, who has been publishing at least since 1968 on. (Dr. Rod Bray kindly provided this information).

Prof. Dr. Frank Mace MacFarland, (10 June - Centralia, Illinois) 1869-1951 (21 Feb. - San Francisco), of Stanford Univ., who published on US Pacific nudibranchs, is honoured in the nudibranch names Glossodoris macfarlandi (Cockerell, 1902), Doridopsis macfarlandi Østergaard, 1955 and Platydoris macfarlandi Hanna, 1951 and in the ciliate name Licnophora macfarlandi Stevens, 1904. Regarding the nudibranch name Spurilla oliviae (MacFarland, 1966), originally Aeolidiella oliviae Dr. Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California kindly had the following information: Although MacFarland (1966) doesn't say, I'm 99.999% sure that the species is named for his wife (from Aug. 27 1902) Olive Knowles Hornbrook MacFarland, (June - West Virginia) 1872-1962 (2 May), who (along with workers at California Academy of Sciences) compiled the 1966 volume after his death in 1951 (and during his lifetime helped him as a skilled technician and as an artist). He was a professor at Stanford University, co-director of Hopkins Marine Station, and President of California Academy of Sciences.

Captain Dr. A.C. MacGilchrist, in the anomuran name Pylocheles (Bathycheles) macgilchristi (Alcock, 1905) must refer to a military physician in India (published i.a. on quinine and salts of it and was Surgeon-Naturalist on board the Investigator) and also worked on decapod crustaceans, chiefley in the Indian Ocean area. He was a MD and published at least until 1917 and was in 1912 called Major Archibald Currie MacGilchrist, (24 May - Scotland) 1872-19??, educated in Glasgow and Edinburgh.

John MacGillivray, (18 Dec. - Aberdeen) 1821-1867 (6 June - Sydney), [Aglaophenia macgillivrayi (Busk, 1852)] was the eldest of 12 children of William MacGillivray, (25 Jan. - Old Aberdeen) 1796-1852 (5 Sep. - Aberdeen), a Scottish naturalist (Professor at the University of Aberdeen from 1841) with roots in the Outer Hebrides. William described i.a. Thracia villosiuscula 1827 and Odostomia scalaris, but he mainly worked on birds, like his son later would do when he - as a collector for Gray, Gould, Forbes (q.v.) and others - participated in several expeditions to Australia (first on board HMS Fly 1842-45, then HMS Rattlesnake 1846-50 and during this trip he married Williamina Paton Gray in Sydney, a girl from Scotland whith whom he had a son and two daughters, and later HMS Herald from 1852, but quitted in Sydney and went home to his family in 1855). Thomas Henry Huxley (see Dyster) was his assistant during the second of these trips. John later on died in destitution on this continent. However, when young, he worked on marine material from the Hebrides during a couple of years in the beginning of the 1840s. He and his family moved to Grafton, New South Wales in 1864. He was employed by the malacologist Dr. James Cox (q.v.) and had went back to Sydney in order to prepare a monograph of land shells for Cox, when he died by a heart attack. His posthumous fame points to a man of some complexity, sometimes pitying himself and drunk, sometimes working hard. John's brother, the physician Dr. Paul Howard MacGillivray, (Edinburgh) 1834-1895 (9 July - Bendigo, Victoria, Australia), emigrated to Australia in 1852, and set up a surgical practice in Williamstown, Victoria and also wrote essential articles about the bryozoans of this continent. Their father William was not a wealthy man and in his youth (in 1819) he had to walk for six weeks from Aberdeen to London in order to visit the British Museum of Natural History [Haustellum macgillivrayi Dohrn, 1862]. {Picture of J. MacGillivray by his brother-in-law}

George Eber MacGinitie, (29 Mar. - Sparta, Knox, Nebraska) 1889-1989, (6 Sep.) and he and his wife Nettie Lorene MacGinitie, (27 Feb. - Sheridan, Yarnhill, Oregon) 1899-1993 (16 June - San Juan, Washington), born Murray (a farmer's daughter from Western Oregon), collected in Newport Bay and published in 1949 the book "Natural History of Marine Life" together. They met in 1925 at Hopkins Marine Station, married on 19 Feb. 1927 in Fresno, California. G.E.M. was an instigator of the Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology and was its director between 1932-57, after which his wife took over for a few years. Their son Dr. Walter Harold MacGintie, (14 Aug.) 1928-, has been working at Friday Harbor [Betaeus macginitieae J.F.L. Hart, 1964, Upogebia macginitieorum A.B. Williams, 1986, Thysanocardia macginitiei (Fisher, 1952), Barrowgammarus macginitei (Shoemaker, 1955), Malmgreniella macginitiei Pettibone, 1993, Raymondcia macginitiei Soule, Soule, & Chaney,1995, Bradypontius macginitiei Eiselt, 1986, Harmothoe macginitiei Pettibone, 1955].

Scaphella macginnorum Garcia & Emerson, 1987 is named after Thomas and Barbara McGinn, 19??-, well-known collectors from Cutoff, southern Louisiana. Tom was a shrimp fisherman for many years, and used to carry a dredge in his shrimp boat with the sole purpose of collecting shells. He collected S. macginnorum and S. contoyensis Emerson & Old, 1979 in one of his trips to the Yucatan area in the southern Gulf of Mexico (Dr. Emilio F. Garcia kindly provided this information).

The collector / author John Thomas (Tom) Ladue McGinty, 1907-1986, of Palm Beach, Florida, is honoured in the gastropod name Attiliosa macgintyi Vokes, 1999 [Macgintiella Olsson, 1956, Conus mazei macgintyi Pilsbry, 1955, Cyphoma macgintyi Pilsbry, 1939, Distorsio constricta macgintyi Emerson & Puffer, 1953, Eubela macgintyi Schwengel, 1943, Latirus cariniferus macgintyi Pilsbry, 1939, Murexiella macgintyi (M. Smith, 1938), Olivella macgintyi Olsson, 1956, Petaloconchus erectus mcgintyi Olsson & Harbison, 1953, Vitrinella thomasi (Pilsbry, 1945), Distorsio constricta macgintyi Emerson & Puffer, 1953, Eubela macgintyi Schwengel, 1943, Cyclostrema thomasi Pilsbry, 1945]. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida, kindly provided this information). A namesake was Paul P. McGinty, 1877-1956, US Malacologist, a Georgia architect, who retired to Florida in 1923, but mainly collected terrestrial animals.

The Madagascar polychaete name Capitobranchus macgregori Day, 1962 is not a tribute to Ernest Alexander McGregor, 1880-1975, entomologist, but much more likely a tribute to Dr. D. McGregor, 19??-, who collected som polychaete material at Madagascar, Natal, Mauritius, tropical East Africa and Aden in 1961, deposited at the BMNH. Day only mention him as Dr. McGregor, but some worms in the BMNH mention D. McGregor as collector. If the initial D is a real initial or stands for Dr. is a bit unsure.

Lacking information about McIlhenny in the Callianassid name Calliax mcilhennyi (Felder & Manning, 1994), but possibly a tribute to Prof. John "Jack" Stauffer McIlhenny, (25 May) 1909-1997 (3 Apr.), professor of Natural Science, who inherited his uncle's Edward Avery McIlhenny's, (28 Mar. - Avery Island) 1872-1949 (8 Aug.), large natural history library and his uncle's book collecting desire, but donated his large collections to the Louisiana State University Labraries in 1971. E.A. McIlhenny was a naturalist and explorerer, but after adventures in the Arctic region in 1897, he went home to semi-tropical Louisiana to run the family enterprise that made Tabasco sauce (which his father Edmund, (15 Oct. - Hagerstown, Maryland) 1815-1890 (25 Nov.), had invented during the late 1860s), partly on Avery Island and which E.A, McIlhenny and his brother John Avery McIlhenny, (29 Oct.) 1867-1942, (J.S. McIlhenny's father) continued to develop.

Limnodriloides macinnesi Erséus, 1986 is named for Mr. Duncan McInnes, 19??-, Hong Kong, "who very kindly collected the sample containing the holotype (as well as other subtidal samples in the present study) while scuba diving".

William Carmichael M'Intosh, F.R.S., (10 Oct. - St. Andrews, Fife) 1838-1931 (1 Apr.), educated at the university of St. Andrews (where i.a. J. Goodsir (q.v.) was one of his professors (the one he was most impressed by)), returned there as professor 1882 after 20 years as director of a mental asylum (where he had been aquainted with the chief physician in the county, Dr. Fraser Thompson, 1806-1871 (Oct.), who was an amateur naturalist as well) [Lagisca fraserthomsoni (M'Intosh, 1897)]. M'Intosh had applied for the professorship in Edinburgh 12 years before he was appointed professor at St. Andrews, but was then defeated by the older Wyville Thomson (q.v.). M'Intosh is well-known as author of "A Monograph of the British Marine Annelids". Medical experience made him a Total Abstinence man and he only used alcohol for preservation of worms [Aphelochaeta mcintoshi (Southern, 1914), Leptomesochra macintoshi (T. & A. Scott, 1895), Malmgrenia mcintoshi (Tebble & Chambers, 1982), Intoshella Darboux, 1899, Ototyphlonemertes (Otohelicophora) macintoshi Bürger, 1895, Rhopalura intoshi Metschnikoff, 1881, Intoshia Giard, 1877, Epizoanthus macintoshi Haddon & Shackleton, 1891, Hyalopomatus macintoshi (Gravier, 1911), Lineus mcintoshi (Langerhans, 1880), Glycera macintoshi Grube, 1877, Lysilla macintoshi Gravier, 1907, Sabellaria intoshi Fauvel, 1914, Marphysa macintoshi Crossland, Terebellides intoshi Caullery, 1915, Eupolymnia intoshi (Caullery, 1944), Thelepus mcintoshi Grube, 1878]. He was succeded 1917 by Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, (2 May - Edinburgh) 1860-1948 (21 June), the author of "On Growth and Form", who's statistiscal and mathematical interests contrasted with the classical natural history disposition of M'Intosh [Darcythompsonia T. Scott, 1906, Bathyconchoecia darcythompsoni (Scott, 1909)]. D'Arcy Thompson's father was an authority on ancient Greek and D'Arcy himself became a classical scholar and published i.a. an edition of Aristoteles "Historia Animalum" in 1910. William's younger sister Roberta Mitchell M'Intosh Gunther, 1843-1869 [Tetrastemma robertianae, Eteone robertianae (M'Intosh, 1874)], died, when giving birth to her son Robert William Theodore. She was a skilful illustrator. Most of the coloured plates in her brothers monograph were painted by her. Her husband was Albert Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Gunther (or originally Günther, who had arrived from Tübingen to Britain), (3 Oct. - Esslingen, Würtemberg) 1830-1914 (1 Feb.), who had succeded John Gray (see Leach) as curator at the British Museum of Natural History [Coryphaenoides guentheri (Vaillant, 1888), Stylocoeniella guntheri Bassett-Smith, 1890, Lepidophanes guentheri (Goode & Bean, 1896), Setarches guentheri Johnson, 1862, Inachus guentheri (Miers, 1879), Thaumeledone guntheri Robson, 1930, Guentherus, Calycidoris guentheri Abraham, 1876, Halosaurus guentheri Goode & Bean, 1896, Callionymus guentheri Fricke, 1981]. Elisabeth, 1801-82, : W.C. M'intosh' tender mother was the first person to observe Melinna elisabethae M'intosh, 1922 in a stomach of a haddock, when gutting fish and she is also remembered in several other names, e.g. Euborlasia elisabethae (M'Intosh, 1873-74), Enipo elisabethae M'Intosh, 1900, Lagisca elisabethae M'Intosh, 1900, Polycirrus elisabethae M'Intosh, 1915. The family name is sometimes spelled McIntosh.

Prof. Dr. Alasdair Duncan McIntyre, (17 Nov. - Helensburgh) 1926-2010 (15 Apr. - Aberdeen), meiofauna researcher at the Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, Scotland, honoured in the nematode name Eubostrichus macintyrei Platt & Zhang, 1982. Constructed together with W. Smith, (also at the Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen) and published in 1954 about the Smith-McIntyre spring loaded bottom grab. He studied at the Univ. of Glasgow, undergraduate degree in 1948 and PhD in 1973.

Maciolek : (see Blake).

Lacking information about MacKay in the west African torpedo ray name Torpedo mackayana Metzelaar, 1919, but the Dutch author, Dr. Jan Metzelaar, (21 Oct.) 1891-1929 (4 Oct. - Alpena, Michigan (drowned in Lake Huron)), a student of Max Weber (q.v.) in Amsterdam, moved to and worked in USA from 1923, so likely an European, less likely an US person and the US ichthyologist Charles Leslie McKay, 1854-1883, must be far too early to be the honoured person.

Dr. J. Douglas McKenzie, 19??-, Holothurian researcher, who defended his PhD thesis at the Queen's University, Belfast, in 1985.

Dr. Ken MacKenzie, 193?-, at the Aberdeen Marine Laboratory (where he began in 1961, from which he, however, took early retirement in 1995, but then moved to the Zoology Department in the city), is honoured in the flatworm name Kenmackenzia Gibson, 1983 (+ subfamily name Kenmackenziiinae Gibson, 1983) and the nematode name Proleptus mackenziei Williams & Richards, 1978, being a parasite in Raja fyllae from the Barents Sea.

Leuroleberi mackenziei Kornicker, 1981 was named for Dr. Kenneth Glencoe McKenzie, (18 Sep. - Poona, India) 1928-2003 (14 May - Yugen, his property close to Wagga Wagga, New South Wales), who supplied some specimens of this new ostracod. Likely the same person may be honoured in the ostracod name Polyleberis mackenziei Kornicker, 1974. After WWI and studies at the Univ. of Bombay, he moved to Australia, where he later - in 1963 - acheved his PhD at the Univ. of Western Australia. Later he worked at the Stazione Zoologica, Napoli, Univ. of Minnesota (until 1964), British Museum (Natural History) (until 1972) and returned to Australia in 1973 and kept on with ostracods at the Univ of Western Australia, and from 1985 at the Univ. of Melbourne. He published 175 papers and edited / co-edited several books.

Dr. Andrew Scott Y. Mackie, 1955-, skilful Scottish polychaetologist at the National Museums & Galleries, Cardiff, Wales [Gyptis mackiei Pleijel, 1993, possibly Discapseudes mackiei Bamber, 1997].

Dr. George O. Mackie, (20 Oct. - Lincolnshire, England) 1929- , English-Canadian zoologist working on hydromedusae, siphonophores, ascidians, and glass sponges, especially their nervous systems and how nerves, muscles, and epithelia interact to produce behavior. University education at St. John's College, Oxford University (PhD 1956 under the supervision of W.H. Holmes); moved permanently to Canada (where he had lived with his brother during WW2 with relatives, becaus his father was a medical Dr. in India) in 1956, first to University of Alberta and later (1968) to University of Victoria to be closer to the sea. The Mackies spent many summers at the Friday Harbor Laboratories in Washington, where George continues to work at the bench in his "retirement". George has travelled extensively in search of appropriate organisms for specific scientific questions and experiments. He was elected to Fellowships in the Royal Society of Canada in 1982 and in the Royal Society of London in 1991. The hydromedusa Geomackiea zephyrolata Mills 1985 is named for Dr. Mackie, who also is a good violoncellist. (Dr. C. Mills kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about MacLain in the Baffin Bay gastropod name Boreotrophon maclaini (Dall, 1902).

Dr. Patsy A. McLaughlin, 19??-, of Western Washington Univ. (earlier at Florida International University), wrote a monograph on N Pacific hermit crabs in 1974 [Asteropella maclaughlinae Kornicker, 1981, Nesotanais maclaughlinae Gutu & Iliffe, 1989, Tomopagurus maclaughlinae Haig, Metaverruca maclaughlinae Buckeridge, 1997, Pagurus maclaughlinae García-Gómez, 1982, Discorsopagurus maclaughlinae Komai, 1995, Paguristes maclaughlinae Martinez-Iglesias & Gomez, 1989, Diogenes maclaughlinae Nayak & Neelakantan, 1985, Cirolana maclaughlinae N. Bruce & Brandt, 2006, Tomlinsonia mclaughlinae Williams & Boyko, 2006].

Dr. James Hamilton McLean, 1936-, US malacologist; Curator of Molluscs at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History [Eatoniella (Albosabula) mcleani Ponder & Worsfold, 1994, Drillia mcleani, Engina macleani Olsson, 1971, Ischnochiton macleani Ferreira, 1978, Cantrainea macleani Warén & Bouchet, 1993, Calliostoma mcleani Shasky & Campbell, 1964, Epitonium macleani DuShane, 1970, Pterynotus macleani Emerson & D'Attilio, 1968, Coralliophila macleani Shasky, 1970, Decipifus macleani Keen, 1971, Lepidozona (Lepidozona) macleaniana Ferreira, 1985, Phyllonotus (Purpurellus) macleani Emerson & D'Attilio, 1969, Decipifus macleani Keen, 1971, Prunum macleani Roth, 1978, Cadulus macleani Emerson, 1978, Eulimostraca macleani Warén, 1992, Sinezona macleani Geiger, 2006]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last eponym)

Lacking informastion about MacLear in the crinoid name Endoxocrinus maclearanus (W. Thomson, 1877) A.H. Clark,1923 and in the polychaete name Epigamia maclearana (M'Intosh, 1885), but likely a tribute to Captain (later Admiral) John Flot Lee Pearse Maclear, (27 June - Cape Town) 1838-1907 (17 July - Niagara (by heart failure)), Sir George Nare's successor in 1879 on HMS Alert, and who earlier had worked on several ships, i.a. HMS Challenger under Nare during the circumnavigation, when e.g. the big rat, Rattus macleari (Thomas, 1887) was found on the Christmas Island.

William Sharp MacLeay, (21 July - London) 1792-1865 (26 Jan.), English zoologist (the eldest son of the entomologist Alexander MacLeay, (24 June - Ross county, Scotland) 1767-1848 (18 July - Sydney), who in 1798 had taken over the secretaryship of the Linnean Society from his friend Thomas Marsham (see Linnaeus) and stayed in this position until 1825, when he was selected Colonial Secretary to the Government of New South Wales and left for Australia. He had 17 children). W.S. Mac Leay was primarily an entomologist who during the late 1810s had worked in Cuvierr's laboratories in Paris, but he also i.a. worked on tunicates and he followed his father to New South Wales, but revisited London in 1836-37 [Chelyosoma macleayanum Broderip & Sowerby, 1830, Metapenaeus macleayi (Haswell, 1879), Liocarcinus mcleayi (Barnard, 1947), Oliva vidua macleaya Duclos, 1835, Spurilla macleayi ], or the nephew of A. MacLeay, the New South Wales naturalist, politician and pastoralist Sir William John MacLeay, (13 June - Scotland) 1820-91 (7 Dec.), founder of the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, may be honoured in the name Ascetta macleayi von Lendenfeld,1885 (a possible synonym of Guancha blanca Miklucho-Maklaj,1868). W.J. M. followeded his cousin W.S.M. to Australia in 1839 after his mother's death in 1838. Von Lendenfeld published this name in an Australian journal and also some works on Australian cnidarians from this museum at this time, so the second MacLeay is the most probable candidate. However, this name may possibly also (albeit then oddly spelled) allude to Nikolaj Nikolajevitj Miklucho-Maklaj, (17 July - a village in Novgorod Rožděstvenskoje province) 1847-1888 (14 Apr. - St. Petersburg), the Russian science traveller, who described Guancha blanca. He lost his father at age 11, studied mathemathics and physics in St. Petersburg, then Heidelberg and then Leipzig, there studying philosophy and medicin but also becoming influenced by Haeckel (q.v.) and Gegenbaur (q.v.) and then starts his traveling life. He followed Haeckel to Madeira, the Canary Islands and Morocko in 1866 (as a young helper) for zoological (sponges and shark brains) studies (La Guancha, a village on Tenerife, is probably the type locality of the sponge). After returning to Germany, he studied Zoology and Botany in Jena. In 1867 he made a trip to Sicily and in 1869 he visited Arabia and the Red Sea. Then he worked as an assistant to von Baer (q.v.). In October 1870, he and his Swedish servant, a pessimistic saylor named Olsson, left Kronstadt with the corvette Witjas for Brasil, Chile and the South Sea and reached Astrolabe Bay, New Guinea in September 1871 after first having visited Easter Island, Tahiti and Samoa. The natives called him "the Man from the Moon". He had befriended the Papuans and they almost considered him as a god. During his short life he managed to publish more than 70 narratives of journeys. After his travels in New Guinea in 1876-77, he stopped in Australia for some years, i.a. publishing three papers together with MacLeay and married Margaret Emma Robertson, a daughter of an Australian politician in 1884 and they got two sons before he died from a rare tropical disease back in Russia (the family had moved from Australia to Russia in 1887). One of his ancestors had moved from Scotland to Russia, hence the name Maklai / Maclay.

The shrimp name Periclimenes mclellandi Heard & Spotte, 1997 is a tribute to Dr. Jerry A. McLelland, 1950-, Univ. of South Mississippi, who is interested in and has published on several marine invertebrate groups, including the genus Periclimenes.

The hydroid name Bougainvillia macloviana Lesson, 1843 is not named for a person MacLove or another similar name, but is derived from the Latin name for the town St Malo close to Dinard in northern Bretagne (Brittany), France. People from this town are called 'Malouines' and the Spanish name Malvinas for Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic is derived from this word, so several species from that area are also called macloviana after these islands, like this hydroid, of which the type material was collected there (also e.g. the Patagonian skate Bathyraja macloviana (Norman, 1937)). (Patrick Roper kindly elucidated the origin of this eponym).

Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McLure, (28 Jan. - Wexford (Ireland))1807-1873 (17 Oct. - London), British Arctic explorer.

Phallodrilus macmasterae Erséus, 1986 is named for Ms. Bonnie MacMaster, 19??-, who collected a sample containing the type material of this species in Prospero's Cave, Bermuda.

The Australian Malacologist Dr. Donald Fred McMichael, 1932-, is honoured in the gastropod name Volutoconus grossi mcmichaeli Habe & Kosuge, 1966. Volutoconus grossi helenae McMichael, 1966, is in honour of Helen, 19??-, the wife of the author. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the wife's eponym).

Chrysallida macmillanae Van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 2000 was named for Mrs. Nora Fisher McMillan, (Belfast) 1908-2003, curator of Mollusca at the Liverpool Museum and also a contributor to the history of natural science. As a young girl in Belfast, she was influenced by the malacologist and photographer R.J. Welch (q.v.) to an interest in natural history.

McMillan : (see also "Grouser").

Prof. James Ira Wilson McMurphy, (Illinois) 1871-1943 (20 Nov. - Palo Alto), Prof. of Biology - mainly a specialist on Fungi and plant pathology - at Stanford University, California.

Lacking information about McMurray in the Bahama / Cuba gastropod name Latirus macmurrayi Clench & Aguayo, 1941.

Dr. James Playfair McMurrich, (16 Oct. - Toronto) 1859-1939 (9 Feb.), Canadian zoologist, a student of Ramsay Wright, achieved his PhD at the Johns Hopkins University in USA, but returned to Canada and worked mainly on vertebrates, but also on cnidarians, particularly actinians [Centropages mcmurrichi Willey, 1920, Boloceroides mcmurrichii (Kwietniewski), Saccactis mcmurrichi Lager, 1911, Anthopleura mcmurrichi Wassilieff A., 1908].

Elysia macnaei Marcus, 1980 was named after the late William Macnae, 1914-1975, malacogist. He was a Scottish born and educated marine ecologist who moved permanently to South Africa in 1948. Most of his research was performed while on staff at the University of the Witwatersrand. (His son James kindly provided this information).

The scleractinien name Coscinaraea mcneilli Wells, 1962 and the Australian pycnogonid name Pallenopsis macneilli Clark,1963 is honouring Francis (Frank) Alexander McNeill, 1896-1969, Australian zoologist and museum worker, who was in charge of the Crustacea at the Australian Museum between 1922-61. McNeill published (during the 1930s and -40s) on timber borers in the Sydney area and (in 1968) on crustaceans from the British Great Barrier Reef expedition in 1928-29 (in which he had participated), but made in his early time essential contributions to crustacean taxonomy before he excelled in popularizatin of science in numerous magazine articles. Also the Queensland crab name Demania macneilli Garth, 1976 must honour this person. (Obituary notice with portrait by G.P. Whitley 1969 in Austr. Zoologist 15 (2): 214-23).

The California actinian name Urticina mcpeaki Hauswaldt J. S. and Pearson K. E., 1999 is in honour of Ronald H. McPeak, 19??-, "who has contributed greatly over the years to our knowledge of the kelp forest community in general, and its anthozoans in particular".

The Spanish crustacean worker Dr. Enrique Macpherson, (24 Mar.) 1951-, is honoured in the crab name Chaceon macphersoni (Manning & Holthuis, 1988).

The holothuroid name Trachythyone macphersonae Pawson, 1962, from e.g. the Macquarie Island, may likely be a tribute to Miss J. Hope Macpherson, 19??-, Curator of Mollusca, Victoria Museum, Melbourne, mentioned by Isobel Bennett as a helper of her and Elizabeth Pope (q.v.) in marine investigations along coasts of New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania during the late 1950s and early 1960s and also (together with Bennett, Dr. Mary Gillham & Susan Ingham) in December 1959 the first women to visit the Macquarie Island.

Pierre Justin Marie Macquart, (Hazebrouck) 1778-1855 (25 Nov. - Lestrem), French invertebrate zoologist, mainly a Dipterology Entomologist. Director of the Natural History Museum in Lille.

The digenean name Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 is honouring Dr. Alasdair McVicar, 19??-, parasitologist, of the DAFS Lab. Aberdeen, now retired to Westray, Orkneys. (Dr. Rod Bray kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Machado in the sqat lobster name Galathea machadoi Barrois, 1888. Possibly it may honour the antropologist, zoologist and geologist Antonio Machado y Núñez, (Cádiz) 1815-1896 (24 July - Madrid), who was a Spanis pioneer regarding biodiversity and published on Spanish fishes in 1857 and also published on mammals and birds. After studying medicin in his home town, he went to Guatemala, Cuba and Mexico, but eventually returned to Europe, first Paris and later then again Spain (Sevilla), where he turned to natural sciences instead of medicin.

Mr. John Macoun, (17 Apr. - Magheralin, County Down) 1831-1920 (18 June - Sidney, Brtitish Columbia), Geological Survey, Canada, Irish born explorer and naturalist, who's family emigratet to Canada in 1850 and who dredged Boreotrophon macouni Dall & Bartsch, 1910 and Turbonilla macouni Dall & Bartsch, 1910.

Dr. Saverio Macri, (Siderno) 1754-1848 (Napoli), physician and professor of Natural History in Naples, mainy working on insects and quadrupeds, but also on marine creatures [Theodoxus macri (Recluz, 1849)]. (Tom Eichhorst kindly provided the species name)

The ostracods Cytheretta maddocksae Jain, 1978, Tetraleberis maddocksae Kornicker, 1981, Pterobairdia maddocksae McKenzie & Keij, 1977 Havanardia maddocksae Jellinek 1989, Aratrocypris maddocksae Whatley, Witte & Coles, 1989, Parasterope maddocksae Korniccker & Thomassin, 1998 were named for Prof. Dr. Rosalie F. Maddocks, 1938-, ostracod researcher and Professor at the Department of Geosciences, University of Houston, Texas.

Dr. Madhupratap Madhusudhanan, (10 Sep. - Ambalapuzha, Kerala) 1949-2004 (7 Jan.), National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India, was a zooplankton researcher interested in copepods, especially the family Acartiidae.

The cephalopod names Gonatus madokai Kubodera & Okutani, 1977 and Sepia madokai W. Adam, 1939, are tributes to the Japanese malacologist Prof. Madoka Sasaki, 18??-1927, Professor of Fisheries at the Imperial Univ. of Hokkaido, who published on dibranchiate cephalopodes.

Dr. Fritz Jensenius Madsen, (11 Feb.) 1916-93 (Mar.), PhD in 1961, echinodermatologist, also working on some cnidarians; curator at the Zoological Museum, København. He also took part in the circumnavigation 1951-52 with Galathea [Ophiura madseni (Belyaev, 1972)].

Friedrich (Fritz) Czeschka, Edler von Maehrenthal (or rather Mährenthal), 1857-1910, who was a cooperator of F.E. Schultze (q.v.) in Berlin between 1885-1901, published i.a. on zoological nomenclature [Maehrenthalia von Graff, 1905].

Maesiella McLean 1971, Maesiella maesae McLean & Poorman, 1971, Pugnus maesae Roth, 1972, Simnia maesae Cate, 1973, Fusiturricula maesae Rios, 1985 & Anarithma maesi Drivas & Jay, 1986 were named for Dr. Virginia Orr Maes, 1920-1986, associate malacologist at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, USA. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Mr. Philippe Maestrati, 19??-, Assistant in the MNHN, Paris. (Visayaseguenzia maestratii  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006, Epitonium (Lamelliscala) maestratii E.F. Garcia, 2003)

The calanoid name Paracomantenna magalyae 1977 : (see Campaner).

The echinoderm names Magdalenaster Koehler, 1907 and Circeaster magdalenae Koehler, 1909 are actually named for Koehler's and his wife's (Jeanne Lumière, sister of the cinematographe inventors Auguste, 1862-1954, & Louis Lumière, 1864-1948, - and later inventors of a colour photo system) daughter Madeleine Koehler, (1 June) 1895-19??, and not for a Magdalene (see Koehler). The young Madeleine became one of the worlds first juvenile cinematographic actresses, when she - 2 years old - in 1897 acted in a scene in Louis Lumiére's film "Arrival of the train", a classical - 50 seconds short - movie filmed in Lyon, which is said to have caused panic among spectators, when the train rushed towards the crowded audience. Her - at that occation 5 years old - brother Marcel, 1892-1958, (honoured in the name Marcelaster Koehler, 1908 - described originally as Marcellaster by his father in 1907) and in Circeaster marcelli Koehler, 1909, was also seen in the movie, as was her aunts and maternal grandmother. Marcel manufactured in 1911 together with Jules Escoffier, (18 Oct.) 1881-1914 (23 Apr.), the motorcycle Koehler et Escoffier, but after Escoffier's death and the end of WW1 the manufacture firm was sold. Koehler also honoured his beau-frère's Auguste Lumière in the Indian Ocean sea star name Eooplosoma augusti Koehler, 1909 and Louis Lumière in the Indian Ocean sea star name Palmipes ludouici Koehler, 1909 and Koehler's brother Albert Koehler, 18??-19??, was honoured in Thoracaster alberti Koehler, 1909. A similarly latinized form of his wife's (marriage 1890) name Jeanne née Lumière, (2 Apr. - Besançon) 1870-1926 (24 Nov. - Lyon) is behind the sea star names Johannaster Koehler, 1909, Lydiaster johannae Koehler, 1909 and Chitonaster johannae Koehler, 1907 and the street Rue Jeanne Koehler in Lyon is in her honour, mainly because of her charity work and hard work as a nurse there during WWI and later (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided most of this information; colour picture of 15 years old Madeleine together with her a little older cousin Andrée Lumière, daughter of Auguste, who was the first real juvenile film star in "Repas de bébé" / "Baby's breakfast" from 1895. Sadly she died in the Spanish flu in 1918).

Fernão de Magalhães (Magellan), (Spring period - Sabrosa) 1480-1521 (27 Apr.), Well known for his “first” circumnavigation of the globe. He was killed by Lapu-Lapu's (q.v.) troups during the battle of Mactan in Punta Engano, Mactan Island, the Philippines. [Calliobasis magellani  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

The red algal specialist Dr. Christine A. Maggs, (8 June) 1956-, at Queen's Univ., Belfast, is honoured in the red algal name Osmundea maggsiana Serio, Cormaci & Furnari and in Gelidium maggsiae Rico et Guiry c. 1998.

The name of mlle Maria José Magistretti, 19??-, Italian pharmaceutical chemist, is found in Littorina mariae Sacchi & Rastelli, 1966, a synonym of L. fabalis (Turton, 1825). Perhaps? a relative of Mario Magistretti, 1902-1974, Italian coleopterologist.

The scleractinian name Ceratotrochus magnaghii Cecchini, 1914 may possibly be a tribute to the Italian Hydrographic Office ship Ammiraglio Magnaghi rather than to a person's name? The ship was named for Admiral Giovanni Battista Magnaghi, 1839-1902, the founder of the hydrographical institute (in 1872) of the Italian Marine.

Prof. Marie-France Magne-Simon, 1924-, French (Roscoff) phycologist, is probably honoured in the fungus name Didymella magnei G. Feldmann, 1958. At least he is honoured in the Papua New Guinea species Dictyota magneana Coppejans, De Clerck & Leliaert, 2001.

The gastropod name Conus magnottei Petuch, 1987 is in honour of Gary Magnotte, 1938-1996, Pompano Beach Florida, who collected the holotype. He was a shells dealer and the owner of Burry's Shell Museum in Pompano Beach. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Charlotte Preston Magnum, (19 May) 1938-1998 (19 Feb. (cancer)), US Crustacean worker.

The German/Jewish botanist Prof. Paul Wilhelm Magnus, (29 Feb.) 1844-1914 (13 Mar.), published "Die botanischen Ergebnisse der Nordseefahrt 1872" in Berlin (where he lived) 1874. Ascocyclus orbicularis (J. Ag.) Magnus in Kylin, 1947 is now known as Myrionema magnusii (Sauv., 1927) Lois., 1967 (see also his disciple Kuckuck).

Adolf Hugo Magnusson, (1 Mar.) 1885-1964 (14 July), Swedish lichenologist [Thelidium magnussonii (Servít) Rolf Santesson, 1993].

Dr. Christopher L. Mah, 19??-, asteroid specialisat at the Smithsonian Institution, is most likely too young (PhD at the Univ. of Illinois in May 2005) to be the person honoured in the asteroid name Christopheraster A.M. Clark, 1981, and if so, Prof. Dr. Christhopher R.C. Paul, 19??-, at the Department of Palaeontology, Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, the Netherlands (earlier head of the department of Earth Science at the Univ. of Liverpool), may perhaps be the honoured person? He is also honoured in the asteroid name Chrispaulia Gale, 2005.

Lacking information about Mahieux in the Biscay decapod name Dicranodromia mahieuxii A. Milne-Edwards, 1883, but the species was almost certainly taken during the expedition by "Travailleur" a few years earlier, so likely Mahieux was one ohe persons onboard or a person, who in some other way was connected with the expedition.

The gastropod name Conus mahogani (Reeve, 1843) is likely named for the wood mahogany, not a person.

Lacking information about Maia? in the Red Sea gastropod name Chrysallida maiae Hornung & Mermod, 1924.

Louis Maillard, (28 Oct. - Verrières-le-Buisson) 1814-65 (23 Jan. - by peritonitis), a French engineer (and friend of the author Aurore Dupin, married as Baroness Dudevant (George Sand), 1804-76) working in Réunion, was also a keen collector of algae.

The digenean name Macvicaria maillardi Bartili, Bray & Gibson, 1989 is honouring Dr Claude Maillard, 19??-, parasitologist, Université de Montpellier, France and the monogenean name Atriaster maillardi Lopez-Roman & De Armas-Hernandez, 1989 is likely a tribute to the same person (if not honouring Louis Camille Maillard, (4 Feb. - Pont with Monsoon) 1878-1936 (12 May - Paris), MD in 1903, professor in Algier from 1919, working on medicine, chemistry and zoology and publishing on histology together with A. Prenant and Bouin?). (Dr. Rod Bray kindly provided the information about which person the name he was a coauthor of is honouring).

Lacking information about the collector Maindron in the Senegalese fish name Nematogobius maindroni (Sauvage, 1880) and the cephalopod name Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, 1884. Possibly Maurice Maindron, 1857-1911, "Ecrivain français" and "président de la Société Entomologique de France" may be honoured person, but more likely Ernerst Maindron, 1838-1908, an assistant to the perpetual secretary of the Acedemie Sciences and also an affectionate poster publisher during the Belle Epoque.

The red algal name Chondria mairei Feldmann-Mazoyer, 1949 must be a tribute to Prof. Dr. Réné Charles Joseph Ernest Maire, (Lons-le-Saunier) 1878-1949, French botanist, professor at the Univ, of Alger.

Sir James Ramsay Gibson Maitland, 1848-97, British pioneer pisciculturist.

Robert Thomas Maitland, 1823-1904, Dutch curator at the Amsterdam zoological museum between 1856-64 and between 1880-93. The time between these periods he had spent as director of the Zoo in Den Haag. His main interst was mollusks.

Maizania Bourguignat, 1889 was named for the crew of the ship Maizan, 1???-1845, killed in 1845 in the Ousaghara, Tanzania (see Bloyet).

V.V. (or W.W.) Makarov, 1???-19??, published on Anomura in 1938 in the series "Fauna SSSR. Novaya seriya" [Mesocletodes makarovi Smirnov, 1946, Melitoides makarovi Gurjanova, 1934, Lophosquilla makarovi Manning, 1995, Carineogammarus makarovi (Bulycheva, 1962), Parapagurodes makarovi McLaughlin & Haig, 1973]. A namesake A.K. Makarov, 1???-19??, was working at the hydrobiological station in Odessa, heading the department of hydrobiology during a few years after the death of its first head N.A. Zagorovsky in 1934, still another, Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov, (8 Mar. - Nikolayev) 1849-1904 (13 Apr. - on board the battleship Petropavlovsk, Port Arthur, Russia, after hitting a mine) was a Russian oceanographer (after whom also the town Makarov is named), and Rodion Rodionovich Makarav, (22 Dec. - Moscow) 1937-94 (12 Aug. - Moscow), was a crustacean researcher..

Prof. Dr. Jiro Makiyama, 1896-1986, Honorary president of the Malacological Society of Japan, is honoured in the scaphopod name Episiphon makiyamai T. Kuroda & K. Kikuchi, 1933.

Elena Borisovna Makkaveeva (9 July) 1930-2001 (20 Nov), zoologist, born in Kamenez-Podolsky, Ukraine, studied in Odessa University (1948-1953). Since 1953 she worked in the Institute of Biology of the southern Seas, Sevastopol. Had more than 70 publications, including monographs “Invertebrates of macrophytes in the Black Sea” and “Benthos of the Red Sea shelf” (co-author). She is honoured in the tanaid name Synapseudes makkaveevae Bacescu, 1976. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information).

Dr. René Edmond Malaise, (29 Sep.) 1892-1978 (1 July), PhD in 1945, was a Swedish world traveller and entomologist, who constructed the so called Malaise Trap for collecting insects after having experienced during one of his journeys how insects who had entered his tent had large difficulties to leave the tent, but observed one day that it had been a small hole in the tent close to the top and almost all insects could easily leave this way, so he let a taylor in Rangoon make a few tent like traps with upper openings connected to a catching tin and this kind of trap, now widely used by entomologists, was developed. During later years Malaise more or less left biology and built up a large art collection, including works of. e.g. Rembrandt.

Dr. Vladimir V. Malakhov, 1951-, Director of the Invertebrate Zoology Department, Moscow State Univ., is honoured in the phoronid name Phoronopsis malakhovi Temereva, 2000.

Henri Jules Jean Baptiste Malan, (1 Jan. - Paris) 1869-1912 (13 Jan. - Saigon), "ancien Gouverneur du Dahomey".

Dr. Alphonse G. Malaquin, (24 Oct. - Cambral) 1868-1949 (22 Apr.), was appointed a Preparator in Zoology at the University of Lille in 1888. He joined the faculty in 1903, and was made Professor in the Institute of Zoology in 1907. Malaquin was the founder of the Regional Laboratory of Applied Zoology (1907) and of the Regional Museum of Zoology (1910). He was named Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1920, and an Officer in 1937. Malaquin's studies of polychaetes and their monstrillid copepods is recalled by Cymbasoma malaquini (Caullery & Mesnil, 1914). He also published "Recherches sur les Syllidiens..." in 1893. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly supplied this information).

André Eugène Frédéric Malard, (30 Apr. - Charleville, Marne) 1859-19??, "sous-directeur de laboratiore maritime de Tatihou" - an island in Normandie, is honoured in the polychaete name Paralaeospira malardi Caullery & Mesnil, 1897.

The ostracod name Loxoconcha malcomsoni Horne & Robinson, 1985 is in honour of the Irish ostracod worker Dr. Samuel M. Malcomson, 1866?-1886 (aged only 29 - obituay Dec. 4 1886 in the British Medical Journal), who passed away very young, physician and microscopist.

The barnacle name Rostratoverruca malevichi Zevina, 1988,is likely not a late tribute to the well known Revolutionary painter Kasimir (Kazimir) Severinovich Malevich, (26 Feb. - Kiev) 1878-1935 (15 May -Leningrad), but rather an honour of Zevina's colleague I.I. (Iosif? Ignatevich?) Malevich, 1???-19??, who i.a. published on Oligochaeta, partly together with Zevina during the 1950s and headed the division of invertebrate zoology at the Moscow state university in 1946-50.

Lacking information about the shell collector Donald I.J. Mallick, 19??-, Institute of Geological Sciences, London, in the gastropod names Lyria mallicki Ladd, 1982 and Coralliophila mallicki Ladd, 1977.

August Wilhelm Malm, (23 July - Lund) 1821-82 (5 Mar. - Göteborg), his father was a master taylor; became in 1848 curator / director at the Natural History Museum in Göteborg (Gothenburg), a job he kept until his death when he was succeded by Stuxberg (q.v.) - titular professor in 1881. He had studied zoology mainly in Copenhagen, but also under Sven Nilsson in Lund and had worked at Riksmuseet in Stockholm in 1840. The island of Gåsö - in the county of Bohuslän - was often his base when collecting marine fauna; published i.a. "Svenska iglar" in 1863 [Malmiana Strand, 1942, Tryphana malmi Boeck, 1870, Taranis malmi Dall, 1889, Pleurotomella tornata malmii Dall, 1889]. In Göteborg he is probably mainly remembered for a stranded young blue whale of 16.4 m length - "the Malmian Whale", which he saved for the Museum and described as a new species Balaenoptera Carolinae, named after his wife Caroline Mathilde (née Christensen), whom Malm had met in Copenhagen, mother of their son Dr. August Hugo Adonis Malm, 1844-1907, PhD in 1874, who to some extent followed his father, working with fisheries in W Sweden.

Prof. em. Dr. Göran Malmberg, 1926-, Swedish (Stockholm Univ.) helminthologist working on monogeneans [Gyrodactylus malmbergensis Prost, 1974, Gyrodactylus malmbergi Ergens, 1961]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided the eponyms)

Dr. Anders Johan Malmgren, (27 Nov. - Kajaani) 1834-97 (12 Aug. - Helsinki), Finnish-Swedish zoologist and the son of a pharmacist; a disciple of von Nordmann (q.v.). His dissertation in 1864 (the same year he married a Swedish daughter of an agronomist, Augusta Lundberg, 1839-1917 (Sept.), resulting in two daughters, Maria Johanna (called Hanna), 1864-, (married to the pharmacist Edvard Felix Hellén) and Alvina Walborg Elisabet, 1865-1945 (married to Karl Oscar Wasastjerna), who booth got own children, and two sons, Karl Johan Hjalmar, 1867-1934, and Albert Edvin, 1875-1946), treated fish fauna in Finland, he participated i.a. in three Swedish expeditions to Spitsbergen (1861 (led by Torell), 1864 & 1868 (the last two led by Nordenskiöld)) before, during and shortly after a period of studies in 1862-65 in Stockholm. During this time he a few times also made collecting trips to the archipelago of Bohuslän, e.g. to the Koster Channel together with Lovén (q.v.) and Ljungman (q.v.). Material mainly from the two first of his Arctic trips was the base of his two essential polychaete works from 1865-67. Several of his created taxon names are a bit difficult to understand from where he got them, but likely he had read much old Greek history and liked old female lyrical poets, because he used generic names like Praxilla (however preoccupied, so Verrill (q.v.) later changed it to Praxillella), likely from the female poet from Sikyon by that name from around 500 b.C., and his two generic names Melinna and Samytha, seem to be two female figures in the now only fragmentarily known lyrical poetry of the Greek female poet Nossis' from Lokri, Italy, (who lived around 300 years b.C.) and his genus name Enipo Malmgren, 1865 must be in honour of the presumed mother Enipo (a slave woman) of the soldier poet Archilochos from Paros, living around 680-645 b.C., reputed for erotic poems written to enjoy his soldier friends, like "woman is twice a pleasure to man, the wedding night and her funeral ..." and i.a. for writing so satiric poems about Lykambes and his two daughters, that they hanged themselfes, because Lykambes had promised to give his daughter Neobulé as wife to Archilochos, but took back his promise. Malmgren became assistant professor of zoology in Helsinki in 1869 and spent from this time on the most of his time with fisheries biology, albeit he became governour (landshövding) of the county of Uleåborg 1889. [Malmgrenia M'Intosh, 1874, Malmgreniella Hartman, 1967, Aglaophamus malmgreni (Théel, 1879), Stenopleustes malmgreni (Boeck, 1871), Prionospio malmgreni Claparède, 1870, Pista malmgreni Saphronova & Jirkov, in Jirkov, 2001, Acanthostepheia malmgreni (Goës, 1866), Proclea malmgreni (Ssolowiew, 1899), Gorbunovia malmgreni (Hansen, 1878), Potamethus malmgreni (Hansen, 1878), Melinna malmgreni Caullery, 1944].

The gastropod name Trivia maltbiana Schwengel & McGinty, 1942 must in some way be connected to the Beal-Maltbie Shell Museum, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, rather than an honour of a person's name.

The crab name Heterocrypta maltzani Miers, 1881, must honour the German naturalist and poet Hermann, Freiherr von Maltzan, (18 Dec. - Rostock) 1843-91 (19 Feb. - Berlin), who i.a. was a malacologist. He collected i.a. in the Mediterranean in 1874 and in southern Spain and Portugal in 1879. He contracted malaria, when collecting in Senegambia in 1881, later causing his premature death. His last collection expeditions were to Crete (1883) and Sardinia and Sicily (1884). [Buccinum maltzani Pfeffer, 1886, Montacuta maltzani Verkrüzen, 1876, Dentalium maltzani R. W. Dunker]. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided von Malzan's birth year).

Lacking information about Malus (or Malusi?) in the bryozooan name Fenestrulina malusii (Audouin, 1826). May it have been the mineralogist Étienne Louis Malus, (23 July - Paris) 1775-1812 (24 Feb.), who was honoured? Malus had been on Napoleon's trip to Egypt and possibly collected some biological material.

Dr. Oleg Ivanovich Mamaev, (7 Nov.) 1925-94 (28 Aug.), Russian marine biologist at Moscow State Univ.

Dr. Yuriy Viktorovich Mamkaev, 19??-, Russian (St. Petersburg) platyhelminnth worker, active in the White Sea area, is honoured in the kalyptorhynchian name Cheliplana mamkaevi Evdonin, 1977 and in the prolecithophoran name Plagiostomum mamkaevi Kulinich, 1978.

Lacking information about Mamo in the gastropod name Liostomia mamoi Mifsud, 1993.

Johannes (Jan) Govertus de Man, (2 May) 1850-1930 (19 Jan.), a disciple of Selenka (q.v.) during his professorship in Leiden. De Man's dissertation dealt with vertebrates, but when he was appointed assistant curator at the Museum in Leiden in 1872, he changed direction to invertebrates and in 1875 he succeded Hoffmann (q.v.) as invertebrate curator. Apart from initial studies in platyhelminthes and a paper on sipunculans (i.a. together with his former professor) he became a specialist on free-living nematods and decapod crustaceans. The director of the Museum, Hermann Schlegel, (11 June - Altenburg, Saxony) 1804-84 (23 Jan. - Leiden), who had succeded Temminck (q.v.) in 1858, was more interested in vertebrates and became disappointed when de Man changed direction to invertebrates [Porogobius schlegelii (Günther, 1861), Comanthina schlegeli (P.H. Carpenter, 1881), Rhinobatos schlegelii Müller & Henle, 1841 , Caprodon schlegelii (Günther, 1859), Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, 1880, Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker,1854), Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup, 1856, the Yellowband parrotfish name Scarus schlegeli (Bleeker, 1861), Apogon schlegeli Bleeker, 1854, Eudyptes schlegeli]. Eventually this old insensible and stubborn director began harassing his young shy and work-devoted employee and in 1883 de Man left the museum and spent the next 10 years working with his favourite animals at the home of his parents, who were economically well situated. From 1893 and the rest of his life he continued - economically independent - his work in a house of his own close to the mudflat seashore in the fishing village Ierseke. He became a close friend of the Amsterdam Zoological Museum director Max Weber (q.v.) and had also close contact with his sucessor R. Horst (q.v.) in Leiden [Demania Laurie, 1906, Vir Holthuis, 1952 (Latin vir = man), Manella Rathbun, 1906, Demanietta Bott, 1966, Demaniella Steiner, 1914, Rhabdodemania Baylis & Daubney, 1926, Metoncholaimus demani (Zur Strassen, 1894), Rhabdodemania Bailis & Daubney, 1926, Manipontonia Bruce, Okuno & Xinzheng, 2005, Tricoma demanema, Chromadorita demaniana Filipjev, 1922, Richtersia demani Stekhoven, 1935, Dracograllus demani Allen & Noffsinger, 1978, Axonolaimus demani de Coninck & Stekhoven, 1933, Sabatieria demani Bresslau & Stekhoven, in Stekoven, 1935, Metapenaeus demani (Roux, 1922), Petrarctus demani (Holthuis, 1963), Phascolosoma (Satonus) demanni (Sluiter, 1891), Araeolaimus demani (Schuurmans-Stekhoven, 1950) Wieser, 1956, Chromadorina demani Inglis, 1962, Eleutherolaimus demani (Rouville, 1903), Molgolaimus demani Jensen, 1978, Gonodactylellus demanii (Henderson 1893), Anachis demani de Jong & Coomans, 1988, Engina demani de Jong & Coomans, 1988, Periclimenes demani Kemp, 1915, Anchistus demani Kemp, 1922, Charybdis (Goniosoma) demani Leene, 1937, Dromia (Cryptodromia) de Manii Alcock, 1899 (a synonym of Cryptodromia amboinensis de Man, 1888), Etisus demani Odhner, 1925, Neoliomera demani Forest & Guinot, 1962, Percnon demani Ward, 1934, Demanietta manii (Rathbun, 1904), Pseudocollodes demani Balss, 1929, Labuanium demani (Bürger, 1893), Thalamita de Mani Nobili, 1905 (a synonym of T. invicta Thallwitz, 1891), Uca demani Ortmann, 1897, Uca manii Rathbun, 1909 ( a synonym of U. forcipata (Adams & White, 1848)), Xantho demani Odhner, 1925 ( a synonym of Lachnopodus subacutus (Stimpson, 1858)), Zozymodea demani (Odhner, 1925), Clibanarius demani Buitendijk, 1937, Panulirus demani Borradale, 1899 (a synonym of P. versicolor (Latreille, 1804)), Scyllarus demani Holthuis, 1946, Caridina demani J. Roux, 1911, Exopalaemon mani (Sollaud, 1914), Palaemon sundaicus De Mani Nobili, 1899 (a synonym of Macrobrachium equidens (Dana, 1852)), Metapenaeus demani (J. Roux, 1921), Pontophilus demani Chace, 1984, Processa demani Hayashi, 1975, Synalpheus demani Borradaile, 1899, Urocaris de Mani Balss, 1916 (a synonym of Periclimenes scriptus (Risso, 1822))]. (Dr. B. Hoeksema at the Leiden Museum kindly sent over a list made by Prof. Holthuis of eponyms honouring de Man regarding genus names of crustaceans and nematodes and decapod and stomatopod species names).

Lacking information about Mancel in the Mauritius gastropod name Natica manceli F. P. Jousseaume, 1874, which the author evidently achived from the collectioin of Liénard de la Mivoie (q.v.).

Georg Mandahl-Barth, 1910-94, Danish malacologist, wrote a popular book about seashore organisms, but worked else mainly in other environments than the sea.

The nudibranch genus Mandelia Valdés & Gosliner, 1999 is named for Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (25 July) 1918-, well-known freedom and peace fighter (Nobel peace prize in 1993) and former president of South Africa.

Lacking information about Mandoul in the brown algal name Clathrodiscus mandoulii (Sauvageau) G. Hamel, 1935.

Dr. Martin Wilhelm von Mandt, (6 Aug. - Lennep) 1800-1858 (20 Nov.), physician from Wuppertal, who worked on crustaceans from the Arctic region after having taken part in an expedition to Greenland and Spitsbergen in 1821 with the ship Blucher (sent out from Hamburg) under the English captain John Rose, is honoured in the stone crab name Lopholithodes mandtii Brandt, 1848 and also in another lithodiid name Dermaturus mandtii Brandt 1850 plus in the name of a bird from Greenland. Later he became Tsar Nicholas I's of Russia personal physician.

Dr. Giuseppe Manganelli, (29 Jan.) 1958-, well know Italian malacologist at the University of Siena, specialized in land snails [Alzoniella manganellii Bodon, Cianfanelli & Talenti, 1997].

Manger von Kirschberg : (see Kirschberg).

Dr. Guiseppe Mangili, (7 Mar. - Caprino) 1767-1829 (15 Nov.), Italian physician and naturalist at the University in Pavia, worked especially with Vipera venoms and on molluscs and worms, but also writing diaries and his extensive notes there on Alessandro Volta's, (18 Feb. - Como) 1745-1827 (5 Mar. - Camnago), (the developer of the electric condensator and the first finder of the gase methane) lectures are well known [Mangelia Risso, ex Leach MS, 1826].

Dr. Katharina M. Mangold, 1922-2003, Swiss marine biologist at Laboratoire Arago, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.

Prof. Dr. Charlotte Preston Mangum, (19 May) 1938-98 (19 Feb. (by cancer)), US crustacean (also interested in polychaetes and other invertebrates) researcher.

Lacking information about Manien in the amphipod name Natarajphotis manieni Lyla & al., 1998.

Lacking information about Mann in the Australian region bivalve name Dicyathifer manni Wright, 1866, in the sea urchin name Astriclypeus manni Verrill, 1867 and in the actinian names Bunodactis manni Verrill A.E., 1899 and Cladactella manni Verrill A.E., 1928. Possibly Dr. Robert James Mann, (Norwich, Norfolk) 1817-86 (8 Aug. - Wandsworth, London), physician, who in 1855 in London published "The philosophy of reproduction" may be the honoured person in the first name? There ara some other persons to suspect, mainly Horace Mann Jr., (25 Feb. - Boston, Mass.) 1844-68 (11 Nov. - Harvard), US naturalist who read zoology under Agassiz at Lawrence Scientific School and in botany under Asa Gray; on Gray's advice he followed William Tufts Brigman, (24 May) 1841-1926 (30 Jan.), to the Hawaii islands in 1864 and specialized on his return on Hawaii plants and received a degree in 1867; when Gray left for Europe next year, Mann was placed in charge of the botanical garden, but died in tuberculosis two months later; however, he must be the most likely person to be honoured in Verrill's names, because they were likely friends and Horace Mann may have collected specimens of all Verrill's manni species around Hawaii. Gustav Mann, (Hanover) 1836-1916 (München), gardener in Kew Gardens and botanical collector to the Niger expedition 1859-62, is very unlikely as honoree in these names. Albert Mann, 1853-1935, US diatom researcher, must be too young for the oldest of Verrill's names and not a very likely person and William M. Mann, (1 July - Helena, Montana) 1886-1960 (10 Oct. - Washington, D.C.), US entomologist, must be much too young for most of these names.

Lacking information about Mann in the South American Atlantic decapod (Anomura) name Aegla manni Jara, 1980. Possibly - but perhaps not likely? - a tribute to the Canadian leech researcher and marine ecologist Dr. Kenneth Henry Mann, (15 Aug. - Dovercourt, England) 1923-2010 (24 Jan. - Halifax), who permanently emigrated to Canada with his family in 1967? By the way, the generic name Aegla Leach must be a mythological - although not very well-known - figure, a daughter of Phlegyas and Cleophema, Aegla, otherwise known as Coronis in the Hellenic mythology, a name, which Leach likely had been inspired to from his older friend at the British Museum, the Rev. Thomas Maurice (see Leach).

Have not seen the Belgian author's, Dr. Didier Chardez, (2 Oct. - Paris, by Belgian parents) 1924-2000 (9 Sep.), explanation about who Manne in the amoeba name Pseudocorythion mannei Chardez, 1971 is.

The amphipod name Caprella manneringi McCain, 1979 is in honour of the collector, Dr. Ian Mannering, 19??-, Zoology Department, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Dr. Raymond Brendan Manning, (11 Oct.) 1934-2000 (18 Jan.), chairman, Dep. of Inv. Zool., Smithsonian Inst. PhD in 1963 at the University of Miami. Worked mainly on stomatopods and decapods, publishing not far from 500 species descriptions. Despite a heart condition and lung cancer, the latter eventually taking his life, he was working almost to the end of his life [Manningia Serene, 1962, Cinetorhynchus manningi Okuno, 1996, Leuconopsis manningi de Frias Martins, 1996, Chaceon manningi Ng, Lee & Yu, 1994, Cyclodorippe manningi Tavares, 1993, Lithodes manningi Mcpherson, 1988, Idanthyrsus manningi Kirtley, 1994, Metapenaeopsis manningi Crosnier, 1994, Neocallichirus manningi Kazmi & Kazmi, 1992, Microprosthema manningi Goy & Felder, 1988, Thor manningi Chace, 1972, Trizocheles manningi Forest, 1987, Acoridon manningi Adkison, Heard & Hopkins, 1983, Latreillia manningi Williams, 1982, Acanthosquilla manningi Makarov, 1978, Typton manningi A.J. Bruce, 2000, Holothuria manningi Pawson, 1978, Pontonia manningi Fransen, 2000, Uroptychus raymondi Baba, 2000, Paralomis manningi Austin & al., 2000, etc. - more than 40 taxon names are in honour of this worker and he described far more than 500 new taxon names, although often together with other persons]. The crab name Neopinnotheres lillyae Manning, 1993, was "named for my wife Lilly (q.v.), whose support and artistic talent have contributed to all of my studies of systematics of crustaceans".

Manou : (see Suduiraut).

Dr. Fernando Arturo Manrique Colchado, 19??-, Mexican marine biologist. He is emeritus professor at Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudos Superiores of Monterrey and works on marine biology and ecology mainly about plankton; honoured in Sabellides manriquei Salazar-Vallejo 1996. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Wendell Clay Mansfield, (9 June - Charlotte Center, W New York) 1874-1939 (24 July), US palaeo-malacologist, is honoured in the gastropod name Latiaxis mansfieldi (McGinty, 1940).

Dr. Gideon Algernon Mantell, (3 Feb. - Lewes, Sussex) 1790-1852 (10 Nov. - London, from an overdose of opium taken against scoliosis), British obstetrician and geologist /paleontologist.

Dr. Harold Winfred Manter, (18 June) 1898-1971 (15 Apr.), US (Nebraskan) helminthologist, is honoured in the copepod name Dissonus manteri Kabata, 1966. He has published at least between 1926-54 [Pseudobacciger manteri Nahhas & Cable, 1964, Protomicrocotyle manteri Bravo, 1967, Coitocaecum manteri Parukhin, 1971]. Also the trematode name Lecithocladium manteri Gupta & Puri, 1982 is in honour of his name, but there is an opinion that this species is a synonym of Lecithocladium angustiovum Yamaguti, 1953. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided the information about trematode name and one of the other eponyms).

Prof. Irène Manton, (17 Apr. - Kensington) 1904-1988 (13 May), British flagellate researcher, who cooperated with e.g. Parke (q.v.) [Chrysochromulina mantoniae Leadbeater, 1972, Pyramimonas mantoniae Moestrup & Hill, 19??, Mantonella, Imantonia Reynolds, 1974]. Her sister Dr. (h.c. - of Lund Univ.) Sidnie Milana Manton, (4 May - London) 1902-79 (1/2 Jan. - London), was a specialist on crustaceans and other arthropods, achieving her PhD at Cambridge in 1927 (and in 1928-29 participating in an expedition to the Great Barrier Reef), working (together with her husband John Philip Harding (q.v.) (married in 1937)) at the Natural History Museum in London, but she also bred new breeds of domestic cats and published a book about cats.

Angelo Manzoni, (Lugo) 1842-95, Italian geologist and palaeontologist [Manzonia Brusina, 1870, Manzonella Jullien, 1888, Onoba manzoniana Rolán, 1987]. A namesake is Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Manzoni, (7 Mar. - Milano) 1785-1873 (22 May - Milano), Italian poet, author of novels and malacologist from Milano, to whom Guiseppe Verdi wrote his Requiem, first perfomed at the first anniversary of Manzoni's death. (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly corrected the information about which person who was honoured).

The bryozoan name Maplestonia MacGillivray, 1885 is likely honouring the Australian bryozoan worker Charles Mash Maplestone, (21 Feb. - Beccles, Suffolk) 1838-1914 (18 Jan. - Eltham, Victoria). mainly occupied with tertiary material, but to a certain extent also with living creatures. He was the oldest child of an English architect, who emigrated to Australia in the beginning of the 1850s with his family and worked as a wine-grower. C.M. Maplestone's mother died in 1856, but his father remarried a widow and Charles later married a daughter of his father's new wife. (Chris Rowley at theVictoria Museum kindly supplied this information).

The gastropod names Favartia maraisi E. H. Vokes, 1978, Epitonium (Limiscala) maraisi Kilburn, 1985, Sukashitrochus maraisi Herbert, 1986, Mitromorpha (Mitrolumna) maraisi Kilburn, 1986 & Gingicithara maraisi Kilburn, 1992 are named for Alwyn P. Marais, 1966-, shell collector, Johannesburg, South Africa and his father Johan P. Marais, 1939- [Acmaea maraisi Kilburn, 1977, Epitonium maraisi Kilburn, 1985, Pterynotus maraisi Vokes, 1978, Sukashitro maraisi Herbert, 1986]. They have been collecting together during the last quarter of the 20:th century and are booth honoured in the gastropod name Scissurella maraisorum Geiger, 2006, because they collected the type specimens. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided two of the eponyms)

Who is Marc in the tardigrade name Archechiniscus marci Schulz, 1953 and in the proseriatan name Promonotus marci Ax, 1954, but possibly a tribute to the halacarid worker Marc André (q.v.)?

The gastropod name Odetta marci van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998 is named in honour of Dr. Marc S. S. Lavaleye, (q.v.), "participant in the Mauritania expeditions and keen collector of Pyramidellidae".

Marc in the nudibranch name Hypselodoris marci Marcus, 1970 : (see Kempf).

Who is Marcell(o) in the tardigrade name Batillipes marcelli Morone de Lucia, D'Addabbo Gallo & Grimaldi De Zio, 1988?

Lacking information about Marcella in the West African fish name Prognathodes marcellae (Poll, 1950).

The Octocorallian name Olindagorgia marcgravii (Bayer, 1961), must likely - because of its Braziz distribution - be a tribute to Georg Albrecht Marcgraf / Markgraf / Marcgrave, (10 Sep. - Liebstadt, near Dresden) 1610-1644 (Luanda, Angola, from a fever), who from 1636 explored the natural history of New Holland (Brazil). His Historia Naturalis Brasiliae was published in 1648 and Cuvier considered him to be the most able and most precise of the early natural historians of the centuries before Cuvier.

Marchad : (see Marche-Marchad).

Lacking information about Émile Marchal, 19??-, in the Callianassid name Callianassa marchali Le Loeuff & Intès, 1974.

Dr. Igor Marche-Marchad, 19??-, 1'Institut Francais d'Afrique Noire and its biological station at Goree, Senegal, who during the 1960s published thick monographies on African marine fauna, is the person honoured in the scleractinian name Asterosmilia marchadi (Chevalier, 1966), in the scaphopod names Graptacme marchadi Nicklès, 1979, Gadila marchadi Nicklès, 1979, in the gastropod name Alvania marchadi Gofas, 1999, in the polychaete name Melinna marchadi Fauvel & Rullier, 1959 and in the sipunculan name Siphonosoma (Hesperosiphon) marchadi Stephen, 1960. He published at least between the beginning of the 1950s until the beginning of the 1980s.

Dr. Andrey Marchenkov, 1966-, St Petersburg researcher on copepods associated with marine invertebrates.

The copepod Eucanthus marchesettii Valle, 1884, parasitic on Adriatic fish, was named for the botanist "Director Dr. Carlo de Marchesetti, (17 Jan. - Trieste) 1850-1926 (1 Apr. - Trieste), Museo Civico di Storia Naturali di Trieste", who studied medicine in Wien, but then returned to his home town. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Dr. Roberto Marchetti, (12 June) 1930-95 (24 Sep.), Italian marine biologist.

Lacking information about Ernest Marcon, 18??-1???, French traveller, in the mollusc name Marconia Bourguignat, 1889.

Andrea Marconato, (8 July - Vicenza) 1957-, Italian marine biologist / ichthyologist.

Prof. Dr. Ernst (later Ernesto) Gustav Gotthelf Marcus, (8 June - Berlin) 1893-1968 (30 June - Sâo Paulo), zoologist, who grow up close to the Berlin Zoo and spent most of his childhood watching the animals there. His thesis in 1919 dealt with entomology (Coleoptera), but after this he was trusted to work up the bryozoan material in the Museum. He became initially an assistant of Karl Heider (q.v.), but in 1929 he was appointed assistant professor. Because of the nazi 'legislation' against jews Marcus was dismissed - not in 1933 as most jews - but in 1935, after the decease of Hindenburg, who had protected those jews, who had been awarded the First Class Iron Cross during WWI. In 1936 he assumed a professorship at the New University of São Paulo, where he worked until his retirement in 1963, the last 16 years devoted to opisthobranchs, like his wife. In Northern Europe he is most well-known for his bryozoan volume of "Danmarks Fauna", which was published in 1940. Genus names, which he constructed, are usually short, seldomly consisting of more than three syllables [Marcusella Westblad, 1953, Marcusiella Luther, 1955, Synsiphonium ernesti, Marcusiola Steinböck, 1966, Cheliplana marcusi (Karling, 1956), Schizochilus marcusi Boaden, 1963, Stenoplax marcusi G. Righi, 1971, Acmaea marcusi Righi, 1966, Conualevia marcusi Collier & Farmer, 1964, Eunice marcusi Zanol, Paiva da Silva Attolini, 2000, Sipunculus marcusi Ditadi, 1976, Psolus marcusi Tommasi, 1971, Ammothella marcusi Hedgpeth, 1948, Pandarus marcusi Carvalho, 1940, Halosoma marcusi Mello-Leitao, 1949, Lottia marcusi Righi, 1966, Psolus marcusi Tommasi, 1971]. He also worked on other animal groups (freeliving flatworms, annelids, pantopods, ctenophorans), often together with his wife since 1924, Dr. Eveline du Bois Reimond Marcus, (6 Nov. - Berlin) 1901-90 (31 Jan. - Sâo Paolo), who named several of her new species marcusi "after my beloved husband" and he named several species evelinae (e.g. Nygulgus evelinae E. Marcus 1954, Itaipusa evelinae (E. Marcus 1954), Callioplana evelinae E. Marcus 1954, Aglaja evelinae (E. Marcus, 1955), Alcha evelinae E. Marcus, 1949, Elysia evelinae E. Marcus, 1957, Cadlina evelinae E. Marcus, 1958, Okenia evelinae E. Marcus, 1957, Ancula evelinae E. Marcus, 1961, Miesia evelinae (E. Marcus, 1957), Corambe evelinae E. Marcus, 1956, Discodoris evelinae E. Marcus, 1955, Muessa evelinae E. Marcus, 1965, Ganitus evelinae (E. Marcus, 1953), Tuilica evelinae E. Marcus, 1951, Nerpa evelinae E. Marcus, 1948, Miava evelinae E. Marcus, 1954, Triadomma evelinae E. Marcus, 1947, Pucelis evelinae E. Marcus, 1947, Theama evelinae E. Marcus, 1949, Tiddles evelinae E. Marcus, 1963, Togarma evelinae Marcus, 1949, Rosmarium evelinae Marcus, 1950, Pusostoma evelinae Marcus, 1950, Artingia evelinae Marcus, 1948, Marcomesostoma evelinae (Marcus, 1955), Lurus evelinae Marcus, 1950, Itaspis evelinae Marcus, 1952, Kata evelinae Marcus, 1949, Anoplodactylus evelinae Marcus, 1940. That's love! Her grandfather was the famous Berlin physiologist Emil Heinrich du Bois-Reimond, 1818-96 (26 Dec.), a son of a Swiss huguenot father and a Berlin huguenot mother and advised in research by Johannes Müller (q.v.). Eveline was a keen scientific illustrator and made all illustrations in their common publications, but after her husbands death, she also continued publishing almost 30 opisthobranch papers of her own, i.a. describing Bosellia marcusi Ev. Marcus, 1972, presumably for her former husband. Some of the taxon names created by the Marcus couple are difficult to derive. Dondice was the name of a firm in São Paulo. Piceinotecus is derived from a Portugese phrase their close friend Diva (see Corrêa, who in 1958 named Otonemertes marcusi for them - and in 1948 had named Ototyphlonemertes evelinae ) said, when coming down the stairs one day: picei = I stepped; no = onto; Teco : name of Marcus' dog. Thus, Diva had stepped upon Marcus' dog. Eveline loved cats as well. She sent Christmas greetings with feline decorations and both Catriona maua and the genus name Miesea are named for cats, the latter from Miese, being a German name for cat [Divanella evelinae Gibson, 1973, Sipunculus marcusi Ditadi, 1976, Marcusaedrilus Righi & Kanner, 1979, Forficatocaris evelinae Noodt, 1972, Emarcusia Roller, 1972, Evelineus Corrêa, 1955, Flabellina marcusorum Gosliner & Kuzirian, 1990]. (André Tromboso, Brazil, kindly provided some of the eponyms).

Marcus : (see also Marcus Coltro).

Lacking information about Mare in the nematode name Paramesacanthion marei Warwick, 1970. Despite the male ending of the species name it may possibly be a tribute to the British researcher Dr. Molly Florence Mare (10 July) 1914-1997 (27Aug.), Newnham College, Cambridge, who in 1942 invented the word "meiofauna". She married at 14 May 1943 the entomologist and marine biologist Dr. Malcolm Spooner (q.v.).

Dr. Emil Edler von Marenzeller, (16 Aug. - Wien) 1845-1918 (6 Dec.), Wien (Vienna) zoologist, who had started his career as an assistant to Ludwig Schmarda. From rather young years he suffered severely from sciatica. [Marenzelleria, Josephella marenzelleri Caullery & Mesnil, 1896, Pseudostichopus marenzelleri Hérouard, 1902, Fungiacyathus marenzelleri (Vaughan, 1906), Hyalopomatus marenzelleri Langerhans, 1884, Enallopsammia marenzelleri Zibrowius, 1973, Flabellum marenzelleri Cairns, 1989, Stylaster marenzelleri Cairns, 1986, Eupolymnia marenzelleri (Caullery, 1944), Thelepus marenzelleri M'Intosh, 1885, Lygdamis marenzelleri Caullery, 1944, Chiridota marenzelleri (R. Perrier, 1904), Sinularia marenzelleri Wright & Studer, 1989].

Dr. Paul Mares, 1826-1900, French botanist and explorer in Algeria and the Balearic Islands [Maresia Bourguignat, 1876].

Prof. Dr. Ramón Margalef López, (16 May - Barcelona) 1919-2004 (23 May), is honoured in the calanoid names Acartia margalefi Alcaraz, 1976 & Stephos margalefi Rivera, Vives & Gili, 1991 and the mysid name Hemimysis margalefi Alcarez, Riera & Gili, 1986.

Lacking information about Margareta in the coral name Fungiacyathus margaretae Cairns, 1995.

The amphipod name Deutella margaritae Guerra-Garcia, 2003 is named for Isla Margarita, Venezuela, thus a toponym rather than an eponym. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

Tivadar (or Theodor) Margó, (5 Mar. - Pest) 1816-96 (5 Sep. - Pusztaszentlőrinc), Hungarian zoologist, who i.a. published a survey of the animal kingdom in 1883 [Ozobranchus margoi (Apathy, 1890)]. (More about him)

Leo Margolis, (18 Dec. - Montréal) 1927-97 (13 Jan.), parasitologist and fisheries biologist at the Pacific Biological Laboratory, Nanaimo, British Columbia (Canada). [Didymocystis margolisi Kamegai & Araki, 1995, Acanthochondria margolisi Kabata, 1984 and Pseudotaeniacanthus margolisi Johnson & Kabata, 1995, Allopodocotyle margolisi Gibson, 1995, Steringophorus margolisi Bray, 1995]. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided this information).

The amphipod name Iphimediella margueritei Chevreux, 1912 is likely not named for a person's name, but was originally found in Marguerite Bay, Palmer Archipelago, the Antarctic.

Margueritta & Marguite : (see Niel Bruce & Sandy Bruce).

Dr. Lynn Margulis, (5 Mar. - Chicago) 1938-, renowned U.S. protistologist.

Marian : (see Pettibone).

Maria in Calliostoma mariae Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006 : (See Poppe).

The French malacologist Edouard Auguste Marie, 1835-88, is honoured in the gastropod name Retusa mariei Dautzenberg, 1889. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

The gastropod name Conus marielae Rehder & Wilson, 1975 and the cockle name Acrosterigma marielae Wilson & Stevenson, 1977 must be tributes to Mariel King, (q.v.), as must the decapod name Paralbunea mariellae (Serène, 1973), which was collected by the Mariel King memorial expedition.

The Caribbean mollusca name Bailya maijkae de Jong & Coomans, 1988 is in honour of Marijke de Jong, 19??-, daughter of the first author.

Who is Marilyn in the Biscayne Bay, Florida nematode name Marylynnia Hopper, 1977 (which is an exchange name for Marilynia Hopper, 1972, which showed to be occupied)? Presumably the author B.E. Hopper may have e.g. a wife named Marilyn?

Dr. Tomás Leonardo Marini, 1902-19??, Argentine ichthyologist and fisheries biologist. He is honoured in Anchoa marinii Hildenbrand 1943 and Coelorinchus marinii Hubbs 1934. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Marink in the sipunculan name Nephasoma marinki Pergament, 1940.

The halacarid name Agauopsis marinovi Petrova, 1976 and the copepod names Vectoriella marinovi Stock, 1968 & Filexilia marinovi Conroy-Dalton & Huys, 1997 must likely be tributes to Tenio Minkov Marinov, (14 Oct.) 1927-92 (20 Jan.), Bulgarian researcher, who published much on polychaetes and harpacticoids and also published some papers on ostracods, halacarides, etc.

Miro Marinovich, 19??-, F.V. Petersen (Simunovich Fisheries, Auckland), collected the holotype of Pectinodonta marinovichi Marshall, 1999.

Lacking information about Marion in the polychaete name Perinereis marioni (Audouin & H. Milne Edwards, 1834). Of course A.-F. Marion, can not be the honoured person, because he was not born yet, but possibly a tribute to Marion-Dufresne (see Dufresne)?

The gastropod name Calliostoma marionae Dall, 1906 is not in honour of a person's name, but was named the schooner Marion.

Lacking information about Marion in the W African fish name Bathytyphlops marionae Mead, 1958, but possibly the type material may have been found by R/V Marion-Dufresne.

Prof. Antoine-Fortuné Marion, (10 Oct. - Aix-en-Provence) 1846-1900 (23 Jan. - Marseille), French zoologist and professor / director of the Natural History Museum of Marseille (see also Bobretzky), who during his school years in Aix was a friend of the artist to be Paul Cézanne, who later painted his portrait. [Marionina Michaelsen, 1889, Marionia Vayssière, 1877, Aphelochaeta marioni (de Saint-Joseph, 1894), Neocucumis marioni (von Marenzeller, 1878), Crenopharynx marioni (Southern, 1914), Anticoma marioni (Southern, 1914), Dolicholaimus marioni de Man, 1888, Dracognomus marioni Allen & Noffsinger, 1978, Hormathia marioni (Haddon, 1889), Nauticaris marionis Bate, 1888, Peltocoxa marioni Catta, 1875, Tetrastemma marionis Joubin, 1890, Emplectonema marioni (Hubrecht, 1879), Triloculina marioni Schlumberger, 1893, Clavularia marioni (von Koch, 1891), Peltocoxa marioni Catta, 1875, Munidopsis marionis (A. Milne-Edwards, 1882), Heterocrypta marionis A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, Pinnotheres marioni Gourret, 1887, Onychocella marioni (Jullien, 1881), Crisilla marioni Fasulo & Gaglini, 1987, Facelinopsis marioni Vayssière, 1888, Mytilaster marioni Locard, 1889, Lima marioni P. Fischer, 1888, Dysteria marioni (Gourret & Roeser, 1886), Amphisiella marioni Gourret & Roeser, 1888, Euplotes marioni Gourret & Roeser, 1886, Facelinopsis marioni Vayssière, 1888, Spirorbis marioni Caullery & Mesnil, 1897].

Prof. Em., Dr. Richard N. Mariscal, 1935-, PhD at Univ. of Calif., Berkeley in 1966, zoologist at the Florida State University, working on e.g. amemone fishes, is honoured in the sea anemone name Anthopleura mariscali Daly & Fautin, 2004.

Lauri Maristo, 19??-4?, from Finland, who had investiged types of lakes in Finland and published on Monocelids in 1938, was killed during WWII [Paracicerina maristoi Karling, 1952].

Marit : (see Christiansen).

Prof. Edward Laurens Mark, (30 May - Halet, Chatauqua County, New York) 1847-1946 (16 Dec.), was a long-time Professor of Zoology at Harvard and was the person, who suggested a biological station at the Bermudas and lived and worked there for a long time. He was a student of Rudolf Leuckart and in turn was the professor for many worthy American zoologists. The copepod Ridgewayia marki (Esterly, 1911) recalls this relationship. A portrait is found (web page 21) in Bermuda Biological Station for Research - 100 years (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Dirk van der Mark, (22 July?) 1921-80, Dutch Malacologist.

Aleksandr Prokofevich Markevich, 1905-99, was a prolific Ukrainian helminthologist / copepodologist. His death date is sometimes listed as 1975, from a misunderstanding of his 70th birthday respects published in Vestnik Zoologii (Kiev) 1975:88-90, with small portrait. For helminths, he is honored by Lopastoma markevichi Kurochkin & Korotaeva, in Polyanskij, 1982, Helicometra markewitschi Pogorel'tseva, 1954, Allocreadium markewitschi Kowal, 1949, Parasymphylodora markewitschi (Kulakowskaja, 1947), in the monogenean names Markewitschiana Allamuratov et Koval, 1966, Pseudoanthocotyle markewitschii Nikolaeva & Pogorel'tseva, 1965, in the acanthocephalean name Pseudorhadinorhynchus markewitschi Achmerov et Dombrowskaja-Achmerova, 1941, in the myxosporean / myxozoan names Sphaerospora markewitschi Donec, 1962; Henneguya markewitschi Allamuratov, 1967; Ceratomyxa markewitchi Iskov & Karataev, 1984, in the trypanosome name Trypanosoma markewitschi Lubinsky, 1950. In regard for his many papers on parasitic copepods between 1931 and 1978, he has had two genera named for him: Markewitschia Kulakowskaja & Achmerov 1965 (Cestoda) (the copepod genus Markewitschia Yamaguti, 1963 is considered to be a synonym of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1822) and Markevitchielinus Titar, 1975. Two copepod species, Charopinus markewitschi Gusev, 1951 and Paraergasilus markevichi Titar & Chernogorenko, 1982, preserve his memory (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information, but Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly later supplided some other eponymes, which originally were not included).

Dr. John C. Markham, 19??-, Arch Cape Marine Laboratory, Oregon, U.S.A, is a bopyridean isopod specialist [Pseudionella markhami (Adkinson & Heard 1978), Probopyrus markhami Roman-Contreras, 1996, Paguristes markhami Sandberg, 1996].

Dr. Douglas F. Markle, 19??-, ichthyologist & Prof. Em. of Fisheries from Pittsburgh, Dep. of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State Univ., is honoured in the Nova Scotia skate name Breviraja marklei McEachran & Miyake, 1987.

The harpacticoid name Eoschizopera marlieri (Rouch & Chappuis, 1960) may likely be a tribute to the Belgian hydrobiolologist Dr. Georges Marlier, 19??-, who has published (i.a. on Trichoptera) at least from 1951.

The E Atlantic fish names Callionymus marleyi Regan, 1919 and Chaetodon marleyi Regan, 1921 may likely be tributes to Harold Walter Bell-Marley, (London) 1873-1945 (Jan. - Durban, by blackwater fever), who had arrived to South Africa as a soldier and took part in different battles. He had met Burnup (q.v.) in 1911 and began collecting mollusks (often from stomachs of deepwater fishes), which Burnup put names on for him (if they were described). After retirement from the army, he went back to South Africa and held the post as Principal Fisheries Officer in the Natal province from 1918 until retirement in 1937. His primary interest was marine life, but he also collected insects, particularly beetles, and vegetables and sent material to museums throghout the world.

Lacking information about Marly in the Brazil calanoid name Xanthocalanus marlyae Campaner, 1978.

Alain Maron, (1 Apr. - Roscoff) 1939-96, (19 Aug.), French marine biologist.

Ernest David Marquand, 1848-1918, British (Channel Islands) Botanist / Malacologist.

The polyplacophoran name Chiton marquesanus H. A. Pilsbry, 1893 is not in honour of a person's name, but was found at Marquesas Islands.

Columbella marrae E.F. Garcia, 1999 is named after Mrs. Lauretta Marr, 19??-, of Midland, Texas. She also has the taxon Cancellaria laurettae Petit & Harasewych, 1998 named after her. Both taxa are from Panama, an area in which Mrs. Marr specializes (Dr. Emilio F. Garcia kindly provided this information).

The Antarctic chaetognath name Solidosagitta marri (David, 1956), the Antarctic crinoid name Eumorphometra marri John, 1938 and the polychaete name Eunereis marri Monro, 1939. must likely honour Dr. James William Slessor Marr, (9 Dec. Aberdeen) 1902-65 (30 Apr.), who took part in several expeditions when being young (e.g. with Shackleton (q.v.) in 1921), already then as a plankton specialist and later being involved in Antarctic research, especially working on krill.

Frederick Price Marrat, (16 Mar. - Broadway, New York (where his British father teached mathematics during a few years)) 1820-1904 (5 Nov.), Liverpool conchologist and mineralologist, who also was interested in cryptogams [Oliva miniacea marrati Johnson, 1871].

Lorna Marrow, 1919-, Melbourne, Australia, collected the holotype of Terebra marrowae Bratcher & Cernohorsky, 1982 [Pitar (Pitarina) marrowae Lamprell & Healy, 1992]. Her husband Ivan Marrow, 1920-94, big Australian shell collector is honoured in Patelloidea profunda ivani J. Christaens, 1975, and Patelloida marrowi J. Christaens, 1975. Their son, Mr. Maxwell P. Marrow, 1953-, shell collector in Beaumaris, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [Vexillum marrowi Cernohorsky, 1973, Bouchetriphora marrowi B.A. Marshall, 1983, Thala maxmarrowi Cernohorsky, 1988, Mitra marrowi H. Turner, 2001?], is now is in charge of the large family collection and e.g. co-authored in 2001 with Dr.Hans Turner a description of 5 new Costellariidae.

Paul Mars, 1922-73, French Malacologist.

Dr. Charles Dwight Marsh, (20 Dec. - Hadley, Massachusetts) 1855-1932, US copepodologist and botanist. PhD at the Univ. of Chicago in 1904. [Diaptomus marshianus Wilson, 1953].

Mrs. L. Marsh collected material of Laevidentalium marshae Lamprell & Healey, 1998. Very likely it is the same person, who also is honoured in the sleractinian name Coscinaraea marshae Wells, 1962. Her full name is Loisette M. Marsh, (Vancouver Island, Canada) 192?-, moved with her parents to Perth at age 8, worked for the Department of Marine Invertebrates - Zoology, Western Australian Museum 1970-93 as a marine zoologist, i.a. intersted in cnidarians, but mainly an echinoderm specialist, retirement from 1993, but continuing to work as a research associate of the museum. [Favia marshae Veron, 2000, Cymbastela marshae Hooper & Bergquist, 1992, Stylaster marshae Cairns, 1988, Stylobates loisetteae Fautin, 1987, Acropora loisetteae Wallace, 1994].

Dr. Phil Lewis Marsh, (4 Feb. - Tombstone, Arizona) 1891-1957 (12 Oct.), US physician and Malacologist.

Othniel Marsh : (see Cope).

Lacking information about Marshall in the medusa name Solmissus marshalli Agassiz & Mayer, 1902, but possibly a tribute to the late Marshall McDonald (q.v.), who both of the authors had known?

Marshallora Bouchet,1985 was named for Bruce Anders Marshall, 1948-, from New Zealand (but partly a Swedish descendant), working at the National Museum of New Zealand, who in 1983 revised the recent triphorids of South Australia [Choristella marshalli McLean, 1992, Sassia marshalli Beu, 1978, Pterynotus marshalli R. Houart, 1989, possibly Thaumeledone marshalli O'Shea, 1999].

James Thomas Marshall, 1842-1922, British malacologist from Jersey [Iphitus marshalli (Sykes, 1925), Diaphana marshalli (Sykes, 1904), Clathurella marshalli Sykes, 1906, likely Beringius marshalli (Dall, 1919), Curveulima marshalli Bouchet & Warén, 1986, possibly Calliostoma marshalli Lowe, 1935, possibly Turbonilla marshalli Dall & Bartsch, 1909 (but more likely a tribute to an US collector)].

The bivalve name Nucula marshalli Schenk, 1939 is a new name for N. uruguayensis Marshall, 1928, non E.A. Smith, 1880, so the honoured person must be William Blanchard Marshall, (21 Jan. - Philadelphia, Penn.) 1865-1957, who worked on bivalves (mainly fresh-water) from Uruguay and other latin American states between 1915-34.

Professor Norman Bertram (Freddy) (5 Feb. - Great Shelford, near Cambridge) Marshall, 1915-96 (13 Feb.), FRS, English deep sea researcher, mainly working on fish at the British Museum (Nat. Hist) and later (from 1972) at Queen Mary College, London [Coryphaenoides marshalli Iwamoto, 1970, possibly Ledella pustulosa marshalli Allen & Hannah, 1989]. Marshall Peak in the Antarcic (where he worked between 1944-46) is also named after him.

Lacking information about Marshall in the echiuroid name Thalassema marshalli Prashad, 1935. It is almost impossible to guess to whom Prashad dedicated this species, but a Dr. H.H. Marshall, 18??-19??, Port Medical Officer in Rangoon, collected lots of fresh water, brackish water and terrestrial species for the Indian Museum, so he may be a possible person.

Sheina Macalister Marshall, (20 Apr. - Rothesay, Bute) 1896-1977 (7 Apr.), Scottish marine biologist at the Millport Laboratory [Calanus marshallae Frost, 1974]. She cooperated with Andrew Picken Orr, (6 Aug. - Ayrshire) 1898-1962 (19 Sep.), especially in reserch on Calanus and other copepods.

Charles Henry Tilson Marshall, 1841-1927 (20 Jan.), a British Army Officer active in Punjab, India and George Frederick Leycester Marshall, (27 Mar.) 1843-1934 (7 Mar.), Colonel in the Indian Army, were brothers and naturalists, both primarily interested in birds, but the younger brother also very interested in butterflies and both had a large general interest in nature.

Prof Dr. Alan John (Jock) Marshall, (17 Feb. - Redfern, Sydney) 1911-1967 (20 July - Heidelberg (cancer)), Australian ornithologist, who became one armed in his teens, due to a shooting accident.

Marshall Hall : (see Hall).

The sturgeon name Acipenser ruthenus marsiglii Brandt, in Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833 must be a tribute to the Italian soldier and naturalist Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli, (20 July - Bologna) 1658-1730 (30 Nov. - Bologna), who spent much time in the Netherlands.

Lacking information about Marska in the South African polychaete name Sabellaria marskaae Kirtley, 1994.

George Terence Marston, (31 Jan. - Chicago) 1867-1903, US bank employee and Malacologist, who during his last 12 years worked in Quincy.

The plathelminth Stylochus martae Marcus, 1947 was collected by Snra. Dra. D. Marta Vannucci Mendes, 19??-, who i.a. published on medusae, so likely also Notoplana martae Marcus, 1948 and Schizochilus martae E. Marcus, 1950 are tributes to the same person.

Henri Martel, 1846-1927, French malacologist, is honoured in the gastropod name Turbonilla marteli Dautzenberg, 1913.

Dr. Karl Edouard von Martens, (18 Apr. - Stuttgart) 1831-1904 (14 Aug. - Berlin), curator at the Museum in Berlin, worked mainly with crustaceans, but also molluscs (however almost only terrestrial and limnic, although when taking part in the Prussian expedition to Eastern Asia on board the "Thetis", in 1860-62, he collected and mentioned also some marine molluscs and other invertebrates, but the marine molluscs were handed over to Lischke (q.v.)) [Scyllarus martensii Pfeffer, 1881, Glypturus martensi (Miers, 1884), Morula martensi, Cyclopecten martensi Dijkstra 1998, Boergeseniella martensiana (Kützing) Ardré, 1970, Thysanocardia martensi (Collin, 1901), Martensia martensi (Goës, 1866), Dentalium martensi Boissevain 1906, Cerithiopsis martensii Dall, 1881, Colus martensi (Krause, 1885), Odostomia martensi Dall & Bartsch, 1906, Bankia martensi (Stempell, 1899), Cronia martensi W. H. Dall, 1923, Architeuthis martensii (Hilgendorf, 1880), Talorchestia martensi (Weber, 1892)]. His father, the botanist Georg Mathias von Martens, (12 June - Mira, close to Venice) 1788-1872 (24 Feb. - Stuttgart), took care of the algae material his son had collected during the "Thetis" expedition [Porphyrosiphon martensianus (Menegh.) Anagn. & Komárek]. He should not be confused with Dr. Friedrich Martens, 1635-99, surgeon and barber in Hamburg, who in 1675 published "Spitzbergische oder Groenlandische Reise Beschreibung gethan im Jahr 1671", because he had taken part in an expedition to Greenland and Spitsbergen with the whaler "Jonas im Wahlfisch" in 1671. Another namsake was J.C. Martens, 1817-72, Dutch Malacologist.

Lacking information about Martes in the bivalve name Martesia Sowerby, 1824.

The gastropod name Odostomia marthinae (Nofroni & Schander, 1994) must be a tribute to Marthine Bellocq (see Gubbioli).

José Julián Martí Pérez, (28 Jan. - Havana) 1853-95 (19 May - Cauto), a hero of the Cuban struggle for independece. His parents were Spanish, but his writings about Cuban nationality, perhaps particularly "Nuestra America" from 1891 inspired the revolutions of 1898 and 1959 [Triphora martii Rolan & Fernandes, 1995, likely Neolithodes martii Birstein & Vinogradov, 1972]. Also e.g. the national Cuban airport "el Aeropuerto José Martí" is named for him.

Martin in the scaphopod name Cadulus martini Scarabino, 1995 : (see Scarabino).

Dr. Daniel Martin, 1961-, polychaetologist at Department of Aquatic Ecology, Camí de Santa Bàrbara, Blanes (Girona), Catalonia, Spain. PhD at the Univ. of Barcelona in 1991 [Syllis danieli San Martín, 1992].

Philippe Martin, 19??-, Belgian collector and conchologist, who published several papers on Cypraeidae. [Pseudostomatella martini  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Who is Martin in the gastrotrichan name Lepidodasys martini Remane, 1926?

Lacking information about Martin in the gastropod name Horologica martini Jay & Drivas, 2002, but possibly a tribute to K. Martin, 19??, who has published on Indo-Pacific mollusks?

The gastropod name Murexiella martini Shikama, 1977 is a tribute to Martin Nang, 19??- in Cebu.

The crab name Dicranodromia martini Guinot, 1995 must be a tribute to Dr. Joel (Jody) W. Martin, (North Carolina) 19??-, decapod crustacean worker at Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Lacking information about Martin in the cephalopod name Histioteuthis dofleini martini Pickford, 1964.

The cowry name Notadusta martini (Schepman, 1907) and the bivalve name Modiolus martini M. M. Schepman 1891 are likely booth in honour of the Dutch / German geologist and paleontologist Prof. Dr. Johann Karl Ludwig Martin, (24 Nov. - Jever) 1851-1942 (14 Nov.), who worked at the Rjksmuseum, Leiden as a geologist, but had achieved his PhD in Göttingen.

Lacking information about Martin in the gastropod name Bullata martini (Petit, 1853).

Lacking information about Martin in the fish name Callionymus martini Fricke, 1981.

Martin : (see also San Martín).

Conus samiae Da Motta, 1982 is named for Mrs. Samia Martin, 1910-90, Philippine amateur shell collector, together with her husband Roger.

Who is Martina / Martine in the polychaete name Sphaerodoropsis martinae Desbruyères, 1980?

Joseph Hugu(h)es de Boissieu de La Martinière, (26 Jan. - Saint-Marcellin) 1758-88, was a naturalist on the classic French scientific expedition sent out in 1785 in L'Astrolabe and La Boussole under the command of the Comte de La Pérouse, 1741-88. This voyage ended in New Hebrides when the two ships were wrecked on a reef and every man was officially lost, including La Martinière some weeks before his 30th birthday. However, the disappearance of the La Pérouse Expedition was one of the great sea-mysteries for 40 years. La Martinière sent reports back to France from various ports of call; these dealt with copepods, helminths, and a wide variety of marine forms. One named for him was the helminth Capsala martinierei Bosc, 1811. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided all this information).

The tanaid name Paratanais martinsi Bamber & Costa, 2009 from the Azores is named for Prof. António Manuel de Frias Martins, (9 Apr. - São Miguel, Açores) 1946-, "in gratitude for his assistance in attending the workshop, and exemplary hospitality".

The bivalve name Modiolus martorelli Hidalgo, 1878 must be a tribute to Francesc Martorell i Peña, 1812-1878, who had bequeathed to the city of Barcelona, what became the Martorell Museum, inaugurated in 1882.

Lacking information about Marty in the nemertean name Amphiporus martyi Oxner, 1907.

The scaphopod name Laevidentalium martyi Lamprell & Healy, 1998 : (see Healy).

Lacking information about Martyn in the gastropod name Cingula martyni Dall, 1887. It is likely an US or Canadian honouree and hardly the English shell dealer Thomas Martyn, 1760-1816, who is honoured. He is known for publishing "The Universal Conchologist, Exhibiting the Figure of every known Shell, Accurately Drawn, and Painted after Nature".

Alexander V. Martynov, 1971-, malacologist from the Zoological Institution in St.-Petersburg, is honoured in the nemertean names Ototyphlonemertes martynovi Chernyshev, 1993 and Alexandronemertes Chernyshev, 1992. (The author of theses names, Dr. Alexei Victorovich Chernyshev, Vladivostok, kindly provided this information).

Hidetoshi (Hisatosi) Marukawa, 1882-1958, was one of Japan's most-beloved pioneer fisheries scientists. His scientific work began with a paper on copepods in 1908. From 1910 to 1912, he studied in Germany with E. Ehrenbaum (q.v.) and in Denmark with H. J. Hansen (q.v.). He also visited Norway and met G. O. Sars (q.v.). Marukawa's subsequent research showed the significant relationships between plankton, copepods, and fisheries. He described the new genus Pseudolovenula in 1921, as well as seven new species over his lifetime. These contributions are recalled by Lubbockia marukawai Mori, 1937. After a long career at the Imperial Fisheries Institute, Marukawa retired as Professor of Oceanography in 1939. He established the Hamada Fisheries High School in 1949 and became its first principal at age 68, not retiring again until 1955 [Antalis marukawai Otuka, 1933]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided all this information).

The New Zealand palaeo-malacologist John Marwick, (3 Feb.) 1891-1978 (17 Aug.), is honoured in the gastropod name Uttleya marwicki A. W. B. Powell, 1952.

Lacking information about Mary in the gastropod name Clathurella maryae McLean & Poorman, 1971.

Marylee in the gastropod names Terebra maryleeae R.D. Burch, 1965 and Hastula (Hastula) maryleeae R.D. Burch, 1965 : (see Mary Lee Burch).

The Pogonophoran name Oligobrachia mashikoi Gureeva & Ivanov, 1986, a fairly shallow living Japanese species, is likely not named directly for e person's name, but for the marine biological laboratory at the Noto peninsula, of the Kanazawa University, started by the director Shinya Mashiko Kirai, and thus sometimes named the Mashiko Laboratory.

Lacking information about Maslov in the amphipod name Menigrates maslovi Bryazgin, 1974.

Lacking information about Maslovsky in the nemertean name Zygonemertes maslovskyi Czerniavski, 1880.

Lacking information about Mason in the Madeira sponge name Corallistes masoni (Bowerbank,1869), but possibly it may be the physician and natural history collector Dr. Philip Brookes Mason, (Burton-on-Trent in Staffordshire) 1842-1903, who collected many natural history objects both in Britain and when travelling (e.g. to Madeira), was honoured or possibly - but not very likely - Wood-Mason (q.v.)?

Lacking information about Masoom in the Callianassid name Podocallichirus masoomi (Tirmizi, 1970).

David Masry (or David (Masry) Darom?), 19??-, Israelic harpacticoid researcher [Kliopsyllus masryi Bodin, 1979].

George Edward Massee, (20 Dec. - Scampston, East Yorkshire) 1845-1917 (16 Feb.), British cryptogam botanist.

The cowry name Barycypraea fultoni massieri Lorenz, 1991 is honouring Werner Massier, 19??-, Namibian (Swakopmund) shell dealer and collector.

Raybaudi Massilia : (see Raybaudi).

Dr. Claude Massin, (25 Aug.) 1948-, Belgian Echinoderm worker, working on Holothoroidea, but also on Coralliophilidae among the Mollusca. PhD in 1978 [Massinium Samyn & Thandar, 2003].

Dr. Paul Massot, (15 Aug. - Perpignan) 1800-1881 (30 Mar. - Paris), French Malacologist, physician and politician.

Dr. Miquel Massuti Alzamora, (Felanitx) 1902-1950 (30 Dec. - Palma), published on ciliates from Mallorca in 1929 and is honoured in the ciliate name Dileptus massutii Kahl, 1933.

Cirroteuthis massyae Grimpe, 1920, Bolitaena massyae (Robson, 1924) and Eledone massyae Voss, 1964 were named for Anne Letitia Massy, 1867-1931 (16 Apr. - in her home at Howth, aged 64, unexpectedly), from Ireland, the 3:rd child of Hugh Deane Massy of Stagdale, Galbally, county Limerick, a student of cephalopods, who had grown up in Malahide. She published on South African cephalopods during the 1920s. She also published on other (Irish) mollusks, e.g. "pteropods" & heteropods and worked during 25 years in a "temporary" post in Irish Fisheries in Dublin, because she had no formal training for this kind of work. (Dr. E. Charles Nelson, kindly provided some of this information).

Dr. Hajime Masuda, 19??-, President of the Izu Oceanic Park, Japan is honoured in the shrimp name Izucaris masudai Okuno, 1998. (Dr. A.J. Bruce kindly supplied this information).

The amphipod name Orchestia mateusi Afonso, 1977 is honouring Prof. Dr. Amílcar Magalhães de Mateus, 1911-??, married to Emília de Oliveira Mateus, 19??-, who were a married couple, working at the University of Porto, Portugal, publishing much about amphipods from Portugal and later also from other places at least until 1986, but she stopped publishing after her husband had died (which likely happened during the 1990s). (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Mathae in the tropical reef sea urchin name Echinometra mathaei (de Blainville, 1825), possibly collected during the circumnavigation with "La Coquille"?

Dr. Patricia Mather (neé Kott, under which name she usually publishes), (12 Dec. - Perth) 1925-, Australia's expert on ascidian taxonomy. Dr of Science at Univ. of Western Australia in 1970 and Honorary Dr of Science at Univ. of Queensland in 1990. She is at the Queensland Museum, where she was curator of higher invertebrates until she retired in 1990, when she became a Honorary Research Associate [Plurella kottae Monniot & Monniot, 1996, Styela kottae Monniot & Monniot, 1991]. (Dr. A.J. Bruce kindly provided this information).

Gregory Macalister Mathews, (10 Sep. - Merrygoen, New South Wales) 1876-1949 (27 Mar. - Winchester, England (cancer)), Australian ornithologist, who in 1902 had married a rich widow, some years older than himself and partly lived in England, published some papers together with Iredale (q.v.), who had been his secretary before Iredale left Britain for Australia in 1923.

Mathilde in Sigalion mathildae Audouin & Milne-Edwards,1830 : (see Brongniart).

Lacking information about Matho in the copepod name Haloschizopera mathoi (Monard, 1935).

Dr. William George Maton, (31 Jan. - Salisbury) 1774-1835 (30 Mar.), son of a wine merchant, British physician (physician extraordinairy to Queen Charlotte in 1816, to the Duchess of Kent and the infant Princess Victoria in 1820 and becoming a dear friend of the royal family) and naturalist (one of the earliest elected Fellows of the Linnean Society) [Jujubinus exasperatus matoni Payraudeau, 1826], who in 1797 described some molluscs and i.a. wrote some papers together with Rev. Thomas Rackett, (Wandsworth, Surrey) 1757-1841 (29 Nov. - Spetisbury), an Oxford academian, who was interested in all fields of science, albeit antiquities was his main interest (and had so many side interests beside his rectorate, that he was accused of neglecting his parish and a few of the parish members actually left the church and became catholics instead). Rackett was also a good draughtsman and musician. One of his articles together with Maton was "An historical Account of Testaceological Writers" in Transactions of the Linnean Society [Gibbula racketti (Payraudeau, 1826)].

The Japanese herpetologist and ichthyologist Dr. Kiyomatsu Matsubara (born Sakamoto), (10 Feb. - Takarazuka City) 1907-68 (12 Dec. - Maizuru), is honoured in the NW Pacific skate name Bathyraja matsubarai (Ishiyama, 1952) and in the stingray name Dasyatis matsubarai Miyosi, 1939. The scorpaenid fish Sebastes matsubarae Hilgendorf, 1880 is of course, however, not named for him, but for Dr. Shinnosuke Matsubara, 1858-19??, director of the Imperial Fisheries Institute in Tokyo, who i.a. published on goldfish culture in Japan.

Lacking information about Matsug(a)? in the polychaete name Scolelepis (Parascolelepis) matsugae Sikorski, 1994.

Dr. Hikoshichiro Matsumoto, 1887-1975, Japanese ophiuroid researcher, Professor of Palaeontology, Tohoku Imperial University, Sendai, who in his publications in 1915 and 1917 made new foundations for ophiuroid classification, but after his early publications seems to have worked with other things than echinoderms and in 1955 became the founder professor of the Department of Biology at the Fukushima Medical University. The cephalopod names Pseudoxybeloceras matsumotoi Collignon, 1965 and Naefia matsumotoi Hirano, Obata & Ukishima 1991 (cretacean species) may possibly be named for him, but other namesakes are more likely, e.g. Prof. Dr. Tatsuro Matsumoto, (2 Nov.) 1913-2009 (7 Feb.), palaeontologist at the Kyushu University, may be a likely honouree for the cretacean specis. A namesake is Dr. George I. Matsumoto, 19??-, PhD at UCLA in 1990, cnidariologist, ctenophorologist and deep sea invertebrate zoologist at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute.

Yutaka Matsuo, 1951-, Japanese, working on diurnal migration and rearing of copepods.

The coral names Anacropora matthai Pillai, 1973 and Favia matthaii Vaughan, 1918 are likely tributes to Prof. Dr. George Matthai, (Palghat, Malabar) 1888-1947 (25 June - Cambridge, at age around 59), Anglo-Indian researcher from a family of Syrian Christians, at the Punjab Univ., who published on corals during the 1910s and 1920s, but also published on them in 1948 (posthumously). Stanley Gardiner (q.v.) was his professor, when reading in Cambridge.

Dr. Ernst Matthes, 1899-1958, disciple of Kükenthal (q.v.); wrote together with his teacher "Leitfaden für das Zoologische Praktikum" [Encentrum matthesi Remane, 1949, Hymedesmia matthesi Arndt, 1941].

The gastropod name Anachis helenae Costa, 1983 was named for Helena Cirino Matthews, 19??-, from the Laboratory of Science of Universidad Federal do Cearà - Brazil.

Elijah Henry Matthews, 1850-19??, in the polyplacophoran names Leptochiton matthewsianus W. T. Bednall, 1906, Acanthochites matthewsi Pilsbry, Tegulaplax matthewsi Iredale & Hull and Placophoropsis matthewsi T. Iredale, 1910 was a South Australian collector of polyplacophorans.

Prof. Henry Ramos Matthews, (31 Dec.) 1930-2002 (28 Dec.), Brazilian malacologist, honoured in the gastropod names Ancilla matthewsi J.Q. Burch & R.L. Burch, 1967, Bullata matthewsi Van Mol & Tursch, 1967, Morum (Cancellomorum) matthewsi Emerson, 1972, and Pacatula matthewsi Lopes 1974. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided the dates, full name and nationality).

Dr. John (Jack) B.L. Matthews, 1935-, British copepodologist, working for a long time in Bergen, Norway [Bradyetes matthei Johannessen, 1976].

Prof. Boris Stepanovich Matveev (Matweew), 1889-1973, was a director of Institute of comparative anatomy in Moscow. Nematode Contracaecum matwejewi Layman & Mudrjeceva, 1926. (Prof. A. Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information).

Matz : (see Berggren).

The gastropod name Erato maugeriae Gray, 1832 from the West Indies is likely not in honour of the British naval commander Nicholas Mauger, (17 July - St. Lawrence, Jersey) 1773-1851 (aged 77), but more likely a female person named Maugeri.

Acanthochiton maughani Torr & Ashby, 1898 and Acanthochiton pilsbryi maughaneanus Ashby, E. 1919 was named for Mr. M.M. Maughan, 18??-19??, South Australian shell collector, who was especially interested in polyplacophorans and published a few papers on such creatures.

The German ichthyologist and taxidermologist in Portugal Dr. h.c. Günther E. Maul, 1909-1997, who began publishing from Funchal, Madeira in around 1945, where he had settled around 1930, in the fish names Himantolophus mauli Bertelsen & Krefft, 1988, Pollichthys mauli (Poll, 1953) and Maulisia mauli Parr, 1960. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly corrected the first name).

Émile François Maupas, (2 July - Vaudry) 1842-1916 (18 Oct. - Alger), French naturalist, who lived most of his life in Algeria and discovered the importance of conjugation within ciliates [Maupasiella Cépède, 1910, Maupasia Viguier, 1886].

Lacking information about Maurelle in the gastropod name Lora maurellei (Dall & Bartsch, 1910).

The fish genus Maurolicus Cocco, 1838 is named for Franciscus Maurolicus, (16 Sep.) 1494-1575 (21/22 July), matemathician from Messina (where the type of this fish genus - M. amethystinopunctatus Cocco - was found), who i.a. through induction showed that 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n-1) = n*n.

Possibly (but perhaps not likely) the US palaeo-malacologist Dr. Carlotta Joaquina Maury, (6 Jan. - Hastings-on-Hudson, NY) 1874-1938 (3 Jan. - Yonkers, N.Y.), may be the honoured person in the gastropod name Epitonium mauryi Tursch & Pierret, 1964. Another possible candidate may be the US hydrographer and marine educater captain Matthew Fontaine Maury, (14 Jan.) 1806-73 (1 Feb. - Lexington, Virginia), born in Spotsylvania, Virginia, who after spending his youth as a sailor had an accident when a stage-coach he travelled in overturned and he broke his leg, making him limping the rest of his life. However, he became director of the US Navy's depot of Charts and Instruments from 1847-61 and in 1855 he published the first edition of his famous "The Physical Geography of the Sea". During the civil war he fell in disfavour with Washington D.C., after having taken his part with Virginia and other southern states.

The bryozoan name Ascorhiza mawatarii d'Hondt, 1983 must likely be a tribute to either Dr. Shizuo Mawatari, 19??-, who began publishing already during the 1930s and achieved his PhD in 1958, or possibly (but perhaps less likely) his son, Prof. Shunsuke F. Mawatari, 19??-, Hokkaido Univ., beginning publishing during the 1970s, Japanese bryozoan workers.

John Mawe, (Derby) 1766-1829 (26 Oct. - London), British conchologist, who was born into the middle class in England and was orpaned at an early age. He spent some 15 years in the merchant navy and collected shells from various ports around the world. After his time in the navy he went to work for a dealer and manufactorer of marble objects of art. He married the boss's daughter Sarah Brown, (Derby) 1767-1846 (The Strand, London), in Nov 1794 and expanded the business into one of various and sundry natural history specimens (including gems and seashells) - a very lucrative business at that time. He wrote numerous books on natural history including a book on The Linnaean System of Conchology, describing the Orders, Genera, and Species of Shells, arranged into Divisions and Families, (1823). He also wrote about minerology and his was the first (1815) description of mineral mining in Brazil, which he had visited during a hard expedition between 1804-11, when he was away from Britain. He wrote what has been called the "first shell collecting guide," The Voyager's Companion or Shell Collector's Pilot, in 1821. This was an expanded version of an earlier, less known but similar work he did in 1804. The shell credited to Mawe is Mawe's latiaxis, Latiaxis mawe Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834. But this shell is actually named after his wife Sarah who helped with the business and published his last work after her husband's death. The copuple got two children, a daughter Sarah Ann Mawe, born 21 July 1795, who married a man, Anthony T. Tatlow, born in 1789, who became a partner of her parents, but her husband died in 1828, and her own death date is unknown and a son John Saint Mawe, 1797-1820. (Dr. Thomas E. Eichhorst, USA, kindly corrected the birth date - which from the beginning here wrongly was cited as 1764 - and very kindly also contributed with the rest of the information above).

Frederick Ernest Mawle, 1866-19?? (likely around 1937?), in the polyplacophoran names Callistochiton mawlei Iredale & May, 1916 & Ischnochiton mawlei Iredale & May, 1916 was a Tasmanian (Port Arthur, South Tasmania) shell collector, much interested in Polyplacophora.

Prof. Patricia M. Mawson, 19??-, Univ. of Adelaide, has published on Australian free-living and parasitic nematodes at least from the beginning of the 1940s, is honoured in the nematode names Wiesoncholaimus mawsonae Inglis, 1966, Mawsonascaris Sprent, 1990, Inglisonema mawsonae G.D. Schmidt & R.E. Kuntz, 1971 and Epacanthion mawsoni Warwick, 1977 (likely one and the same person despite the male genitive form in one of the names). She may likely be the eldest daughter of Sir Douglas Mawson (below), and if so, she is born in March 1915 in Melbourne.

Sir Douglas Mawson, (5 May - Shipley, U.K.) 1882-1958 (15 Oct. - Adelaide), Australian professor of geology and mineralogy; took part in the Shackleton Antarctic expedition with "Nimrod" 1907-09[Carinina mawsoni Wheeler, 1940, Larvapora mawsoni (Livingstone,1928), Mawsonella Brady, 1918, Cylindryllioides mawsoni Nicholls, 1938, Ischnochiton mawsoni Cotton, 1937, Golfingia mawsoni (Benham, 1922), Trophon mawsoni A. W. B. Powell, 1957, Cycethra verrucosa mawsoni A.M. Clark, Cirroctopus mawsoni (Berry, 1917)].

The bivalve name Asthenothareus maxwelli Marshall 2002 was named for Dr. Philip Maxvell, 19??-, of Waimate, South Island, New Zealand (formerly NZGS). (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Maxwell in the kinorhynch name Echinoderes maxwelli (Omer-Cooper, 1957).

The gastropod name Maxwellia Baily, 1950 is in honour of Mr. Maxwell Smith (q.v.).

The bivalve name Yoldia (Aequiyoldia) maxwelli (Stilwell & Zinsmeister, 1992) must likely be a tribute to Dr. Phillip Alan Maxwell, (5 Apr. - Christchurch) 1940-2007 (5 Feb.), New Zealand palaeontologist, who had specialized in mollusks.

Mr. William Lewis May, (18 Apr. - Wanstead near Mount Barker, South Australia) 1861-1925 (30 Aug. - Sydney), Australian conchologist, who published two mayor books and several papers on Tasmanian shells and molluscs [Mayena Iredale, 1917, Marginella mayii Tate, 1900, Notoplax mayi E. Ashby, 1922, Ischnochiton mayi H. A. Pilsbry, 1895, Notocypraea comptonii mayi (Beddome, 1898), Callochiton mayi Torr, Acanthochiton mayi Ashby, Callistochiton mayi Ashby, possibly Sinularia mayi Lüttswager, 1914 ].

The harpacticoid name Triathrix mayae Fiers, 1997 is not in honour of any special person, but of "the splendid Mayan culture for which this region is known".

Prof. Dr. Paul Mayer, (20 July) 1848-1923 (28 May - Jena), published in 1882 "Die Caprelliden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte..."

Charles Johnson Maynard, (Newton, Massachusetts) 1845-1929, US zoologist, mainly publishing on butterflies.

Prof. Ernst Walter Mayr, (5 July - Kempden, Germany) 1904-2005 (3 Feb.), German born US biologist (mainly ornithologist) at the Harvard University - after 21 yars as curator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York from 1932, who has written a lot on systematics and evolution and is considered to be one of the greatest evolutionists of his life time through his thoughs about allopatrric speciation.

Dr. Alfred Goldsborough Mayer, (16 Apr. - Frederick, Maryland) 1868-1922 (24 June - Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas, weakend from tbc), U.S. cnidariologist (and entomologist) working at the Tortugas Biological Station; a pupil of Alexander Agassiz (q.v.). In 1910 he published the monograph "Medusae of the World". According to Dr. D. Damkaer he so often had his name mis-spelled as Mayor that Harvard library catalogs him both ways. However, Mr. Keith Bayha, University of Delaware, after reading the text above, pointed out that he had been informed by Dr. Rich Harbison at Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., that Dr. Mayer changed his name later in life from Mayer to Mayor because of anti-German sentiment in the U.S. Mr. Bayha also mentioned that in the Dry Tortugas there is a memorial plaque on one of the islands to Dr. Mayer which spells his name Mayor. [Ectopleura mayeri Petersen, 1990, Rissoina mayori Dall, 1925, Eutiara mayeri Bigelow, 1918, Melicertissa mayeri Kramp, 1959, Lobonema mayeri Light, 1914, Coeloseris mayeri Vaughan, 1918, Porites mayeri Vaughan, 1918, likely Gadila mayori Henderson, 1920].

Dr. Paul Mayer, (20 July - Lüdenscheid) 1848-1923 (28 May - Jena), published "Die Caprelliden des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres- Abschnitte..." in Leipzig in 1882. He had been a disciple of Haeckel (q.v.) and worked at the marine laboraratory in Napoli after finishing his PhD thesis in 1874 (starting there officially in 1878) until 1913 and is especially known for his ways of systematizing histological techniques.

Charles Johnson Maynard, (Newton, Massachusetts) 1845-1929, US Malacologist and ornithologist.

The gymnamoeba name Mayorella Schaeffner, 1926 is likely honouring the Swiss physician Dr. Eugéne Charles Georges Mayor, (7 June - Neuchâtel) 1877-1976 (14 Sep. - Neuchâtel), who together with Dr. O. Fuhrmann (q.v.) collected i.a. rhizopodes in Colombia the years before WW1. He later published about Swiss fungi.

Conus mazei Deshayes, 1874 was named for the navy officer and botanist Hippolyte Pierre Mazé, (2 Nov. - Brest) 1817-92, commissaire de marine à Martinique, although for several years living in Guadeloupe.

Lacking information about Mazel(i) in the actinian name Anemonactis mazelii (Jourdan, 1880), but likely it was not a persons name, because of the original spelling Ilyanthus mazeli Jourdan with a small m.

Dr. Daniel Mazia, (16 Dec. - Scranton, Pennsylvania) 1912-96 (9 June - Monterey, Calif.), had started his career as professor of Zoology from the beginning of the 1950s to 1979 at the Berkeley University, after which he restarted cell biological research at the Hopkins Marine Station at the Stanford University.

Lacking information about Mazlowsky, 18??-1???, in the nemertean name Zygonemertes mazlowskyi (Czerniavsky, 1880).

William Gaillard Mazyck, (12 Oct. - Cordesville, South Carolina) 1846-1942 (24 July - Charleston), U.S. malacologist.

Edmund J. Meadows, 1???-19??, US (Hawaii) Malacologist, who started his collecting efforts in 1925.

The fish name Ruscarius meanyi Jordan & Starks, 1895 from the Puget Sound is in honour of Edmond Stephen Meany, (28 Dec. - East Saginaw, Michigan) 1862-1935 (22 Apr. - Seattle, by stroke), Professor of American History in the University of Washington, a leading member of the Young Naturalists' Society of Seattle.

Lt. Colonel Edgar Alexander Mearns, (11 Sep. - Highland Falls, New York) 1856-1916 (1 Nov. - Walter Reed hospital), surgeon, US Army, stationed in Philippines [Mearnsella Seale & Bean, 1907]. Mearns also published much on natural history during the last decade of his life, i.a. numerous descriptions of African birds. He was a close friend of Theodore Roosevelt, and acknowledge information from him in some publications.

Mechnikoff : (see Met(s)chnikov).

Dr. Johann Friedrich Meckel, Jr., (17 Oct.) 1781-1833 (31 Oct.), from Halle, Germany, took his dissertation there, worked during a few years with Cuvier in Paris, travelled through Europe and returned home. At the age of 25, he was appointed professor in his home town. He was known for his wide knowledle of general animal anatomi, but worked mainly with vertebrates [Gastropteron meckeli Kosse, 1813, Pleurobranchaea meckelii Meckel in Leue, 1813].

Lacking information about Meder in the polychaete name Amphicteis mederi Annenkova, 1929.

Thericium medrickyi F. Nordsieck, 1974 and Strigatella georgi F. Nordsieck, 1975 and is honouring the collector, Georg Medricky, 19??-.

Alexander B. Meek, 1865-1948, who was professor at the Armstrong College, Durham University, Newcastle upon Tyne, founded 1897 at the coast of Northumberland a small laboratory, which, because of a fire, was rebuilt 1908 as "Dove Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats", named for Eleanor Dove, an ancestor of the donator; Meek 1922 described Glossobalanus marginatus from this neighbourhood; he also wrote a thick book concerning fish migration. During some years the research vessel of the station had his name, but now the name is Bernicia, i.e. the Roman name of the part of England bordering Scotland ["Tornaria meeki", Neotonchus meeki Warwick, 1971]. An U.S. namesake, Fielding Bradford Meek, (10 Dec. - Madison, Indiana) 1817-1876 (22 Dec. - Washington, D.C.), was geologist and palaeontologist, very interested in fossile (Cretaceous) molluscs [Latiromitra meekiana (Dall, 1889), Ovulacteon meekii Dall, 1889].

The W Pacific skate name Okamejei meerdervoortii (Bleeker, 1860), is likely a tribute to Dr. Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort, (5 May - Brügge) 1829-1908 (7 Oct. - Brussels), a Dutch naval physician, who opened a practice in Dejima (Nagasaki harbour), Japan and also teached western medicin there.

Lacking information about Megaeth in the sipunculan name Phascolion megaethi Cutler & Cutler, 1979 if overhead an eponym?.

Johann Georg Megerle von Mühlfeld, (22 July - Wien) 1780-1831 (15 Sep. - Wien), Austrian naturalist and mineralogist, originaly named only Megerle, but von Mühlfeld was added to his name in 1803. A relative of him was the zoologist Johann Karl (Carl) Megerle von Mühlfeld, 1765-1840 (12 Sep.), who i.a. described several molluscs (also working as entomologist) and must be the person honoured in mollusc names [Megerlia King, 1850, Odostomia megerlei Locard, 1886]. (Tawan Ruanebo (Stefan?) kindly provided information about Johann Carl Megerle)

Dr. Paul Allen Meglitsch, 1914-, PhD in Illinois, US author of a popular textbook of invertebrate zoology (at least three editions between 1967 and 1991) [Meglitschia Kovaljova, 1988].

Claus Meier-Brook, 1934-, German limnologist and Malacologist.

Odostomia meijeri Van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998 was named for A.W.J. Meijer, 19??-, member of the former Dutch mollusca working group. There is also a Dutch palaeo-malacologist Dr. Tom Meijer, 19??-, at Naturalis publishing from 1969 on.

The author Elke Willen explains about the copepod name Paradanielssenia meikae Willen, 2008, that "The species is dedicated to my niece, Meike Willen, born 29.09.2004 in Stuttgart, Germany".

Meincke : a family of likely German origin in south Norway. A member of this family was a harponeer on board a Norwegian whaler belonging to Sven Føyn, 1809-94, the constructor of the harpoon rifle and the first person to construct a ship 'Spec & Fides', made entirely to catch whales. This harponeer very often judged the whales he saw to be larger than they really were, so e.g. Balaenoptera acutirostris may have been judged to have been B. musculus (blue whale) by him before it was harpooned, but diminished much when hauled on board. Because of his family name Meincke and the closely similar Norwegian word 'minke', meaning diminish, becoming less, B. acutirostris (and originally also other smaller whales) was named minkehval (Minke Whale) as a kind of joke by other crew members and later also other Norwegian whaler crews.

Meinert : (see Bergsøe).

Lacking information about Meischer in the digenean name Lampritrema meischeri (Zschokke, 1890).

Dr. Johannes Meisenheimer, (20 June - Griesheim) 1873-1933 (24 Feb.), Professor of zoology in Leipzig, where he succeded Chun, after a period (1909-14) in Jena. He was a disciple of Korschelt (q.v.) [Meisenheimeria Grimpe & Hoffmann, 1924, Diacavolinia vanutrechti f. meisenheimeri Van der Spoel, Bleeker & Kobayasi, 1993].

Dr. Josef Meixner, (19 Sep.) 1889-1946 (24 Nov. - Villach), born in Lancut, Galizia (now in SE Poland - at that time part of imperial Austria). Accomplished specialist on free-living platyhelminths, especially Kalyptorhynchia, working in Graz, Austria, achieving his PhD 5/7 1913 there on a thesis named "Zur Turbellarienfauna der Ostalpen, in Sonderheit des Lunzer Seengebietes", thus a disciple of von Graff (q.v.) and Böhmig. Was a soldier during WWI. From 1920 residing permanently in Graz and then also belonging to the staff of the Zoological Institute in Graz. Became director of the Zoological Institute of the University of Graz in 1938, from 25/10 1939 Ordinarius (i.e. full Professor). However, Meixner became a soldier during WWII, was taken war prisoner, ending up in a British concentration camp, later transmitted to a special prisoner camp for persons with political problems, where he died. His manuscript regarding turbellarians for "Die Tierwelt der Nord und Ostsee" was left unfinished. Only the general part of it was published in this series. The platyhelmint research tradition at the Institute was continued by his younger colleague Reisinger (q.v.) (who succeded the well-known ethologist Karl von Frisch, who had taken over after Meixner during the severe period after the war), until his retirement in 1971. Sorrily bombs and similar destroying equipment ruined parts of the Zoological Institute during the war, and also parts of the collection were destroyed at the end of the war. A transfer of the remaining microscopical slides (from L.von Graff, Reisinger and Meixner) from the institute to the Museum of Natural History, Vienna (= Naturhistorisches Museum in Wien) was performed under the directorship of Prof. Reinhart Schuster, who succeded Reisinger in 1971 until he formally retired in 1998, but continues his research on arthropods (mainly Acarina) at the institute as Prof. Emeritus [Meixneria Bock, 1913, Promesostoma meixneri Ax, 1951 Meixnerides Westblad, 1952, Schizorhynchoides meixneri Boaden, 1963, Pterognathia meixneri Sterrer, 1969, Stylochus (Stylochus) meixneri Bock 1925, Archimonocelis meixneri Martens & Curini-Galletti, 1993]. The entomologist (mainly lepidopterologist) Prof. Dr. Adolf Meixner, (14 Dec. - Wien) 1883-1965 (18 Nov. - Knappenberg, Kärnten), was Josef's older brother. (Prof. R. Schuster has very kindly provided most of this information).

Melchior, Destacamento Antarctico, is an Argentine military detachment in homonym island. after which the sea star Leptychaster melchiorensis Bernasconi is named. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information). Another eponym, Parvithracia melchior Marshall 2002 was named for Melchior of Persia, one of the Three Kings from the Bible (beside Balthazar of Arabia and Gasper / Jasper / Caspar of India). (Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last information).

Lacking information about Melhart in the bivalve name Lioconcha melharteae Lamprell & Stanisic, 1996.

Camillo Mell, 1878-1965, Austrian Malacologist.

The St. Helena fish name Scorpaena mellissii Günther, 1868 and in the St. Helena flounder name Bothus mellissi Norman, 1931 may likely both be in honour of the British engineer and amateur naturalist John Charles Melliss, (23 Jan. - St. Helena) 1835-1910 (23 Aug. - Hampstead). He is also honoured in the genus name Mellissia J.D. Hooker (St. Helena boxwood).

Dr. James Cosmo Melvill, (1 July - Hampstead) 1845-1929 (4 Nov.), owner of a large British shell cabinet. He started collecting at age eight, when his aunt gave him a sea shell collection from Mauritius and continued collecting not only shells, but also botanical and entomological objects from all over the world, while his friend and co-collector Charles Bailey, (18 June - Coventry, Warwickshire) 1838-1924 (14 Sep. - Torquay), collected botany and other natural history objects from more near areas, like the British Isles and other European and North African countries. Melvill got his Dr. of Sciece degree after giving away his British botanical collections to Harrow, lived for some years in Prestwich, near Manchester, then at at Meole Brace Hall, near Shrewsbury. Most of Melvill's shells were purchased by Tomlin (q.v.) and the combined collections are now deposited in the National Museum of Wales [Micropleurotoma melvilli Sykes, 1906, Turbonilla melvilli Dautzenberg, 1913, Spirotropis melvilli Sykes, 1906, Polemicella melvilli, Cerithiopsis melvilli Jay & Drivas, 2002, Conus melvilli Sowerby III 1879]. Turbonilla michaelis Melvill, 1910 is named for his grandson Michael Ernest Melvill, (14 Feb. - Bucklow, Cheshire) 1910-????, who became a Lt. Colonel and got a daughter Rosemary Jane, who married in 1967.

The monogenean name Diplectanum melvillei Oliver & Paperna, 1984 may possibly be namned for R/V Melville at Scripps, rather than for a person's name?

Dr. Roy Melville-Smith, 19??-, PhD in 1987, Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Cape Town, South Africa [Boreotrophon melvillsmithi (Houart, 1989)].

Lacking information about Menard in the foraminiferan name Globorotalia menardii (d'Orbigny, 1826). Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly informed about the presence of two similar names Ménard de la Groye and H. W. Menard, but is not sure if they possibly are one and the same person. The last one may be Henry William Menard, (10 Dec. - Fresno, Cal.) 1920-86 (9 Feb. - La Jolla, Cal.), who published on tectonics and islands and if so, of course not living when d'Orbigny constructed the species name. The other person is likely identical with Baron François René Pierre Ménard de la Groye, (16 Oct. - Le Mans) 1742-1813 (12 Aug. - Angers), who i.a. published on fossil bivalves, but mainly was a politician. Also François Jean Baptiste Ménard de la Groye, (2 May - Le Mans) 1775-1827 (30 Sep. - Saint-Samson), the son of the former, also published much on similar matters and was still living when d'Orbigny created the name, so he is the most likely honouree.

The decapod name Paralomis mendagnai Macpherson, 2003 is in honour of Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, (1 Oct. - Saragossa) 1541-1595 (18 Oct. - Santa Cruz, Solomon Islands), a Spanish explorer, who discovered and named the Solomon Islands in 1568 (after the biblical king Solomon) and later during the expedition in which he died, several other island groups, i.a. the Marquesas Islands (after the wife of Garcia de Mendoza, Marquis of Cañete and at the time Viceroy of Peru).

Prof. Heinrich Mendelssohn (31 Oct. Berlin, Germany) 1910-2002 (19 Nov. Ramat Chen, Israel). He studied initially medicine in Berlin, but changed to zoology after his immigration to Palestine in 1933. His M.Sc.-thesis was dealing with the biology and variability of the land snail Sphincterochila fimbriata, while his Ph.D.-thesis was about population densities of birds in Palestine. Both were written under the guidance of Prof. Shimon Bodenheimer. During his studies he joined already the Biological-Pedagogical Institute in Tel Aviv, of which he became also its director (1947-53). This institute became an integrated part of the Tel Aviv University (1956), of which he was appointed as the first Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and the first Vice-President of the University. He founded the Dept. of Zoology, of which he served as its Head for more than a decade (1956-66). He was especially interested in the biology, ecology, behaviour and zoogeography of vertebrates and wrote more than 225 articles in that field, which were often co-authored by his colleagues at the university or his students. He founded the Zoological Collection of the Tel Aviv University and served for many years as the Director of its Zoological Garden. At the same time he was a main figure in the establishment of the first Nature Reserves in Israel, the Society for the Protection of Nature and the Nature Reserves Authority. For all these efforts he was awarded the prestigious Israel Prize. He was also active in several professional committees within in the IUCN (International Union of Nature Conservation). He described three new taxa: Discoglossus nigriventer Mendelssohn & Steinitz, 1943 (Amphibia), Torgos tracheliotus negevensis  Bruun, Mendelssohn & Bull, 1980 (Aves) and Gazella gazella acaciae Mendelssohn, Groves & Shalmon, 1997 (Mammalia). Four taxa were named after him: Carabus (Tomocarabus) mendelssohni Schweigger, 1970 (Insecta), Mendelssohnia Kugler, 1971 (Insecta), the Red Sea fish Quisquilius mendelssohni Goren, 1978 (now known as Trimma mendelssohni) (Pisces) and Cerastus gasperettii mendelssohni  Werner, Sivan, Kushnir & Motro, 1999 (Reptilia). (Henk K. Mienis, Mollusc Collection, National Collections of Natural History, Dept. Zoology, Tel Aviv University, kindly provided all this information).

Mendes : (see Garcia Mendes).

Dr. Jesús Méndez Fernández "Suso", 19??-, biologist in Vigo, Spain [Turbonilla susomendezi Penas & Rolan, 1997, Macromphalina susoi Rolan & Rubio, 1998].

Capt. Xavier Mendoza, 1???-, fisherman from Guyamas, Mexico [Hanetia mendozana Berry, 1959, Cantharus mendozanus Berry, 1959, Cotonopsis (Cotonopsis) mendozana Shasky, 1970, Miraclathurella mendozana Shasky, 1971, possibly Eptatretus mendozai Hensley, 1985].

The gastropod name Odostomia mendozae Baker, Hanna & Strong, 1928 is named for Diego Bezerra de Mendoza, 16??-1533 (beginning of Nov., murdered by part of his crew, led by the chief pilot Ximénes, while sleeping), who, with Hernando de Grijalva, discovered Lower California in the 1530s.

Prof. Guiseppe Giovanni Antonio Meneghini, (30 July - Padua) 1811-89 (29 Jan. - Pisa), Italian medical Dr., zoologist, botanist and palaeontologist working at the University in Pisa, who i.a. described the genus Myxicola in a posthumous work by Renier, but also worked with e.g. molluscs [Leibleinia meneghiniana Gomont].

The hagfish name Eptatretus menezesi Mincarone, 2000 is a tribute to the Brazilian ichthyologist Dr. Naércio Aquino de Menezes-Filho, 1937-, working in Museu de Zoologia, Univ. of Sao Paulo, Brazil. (André Trombeta,. Brazil, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Karl Theodor Menke, (13 Sep. - Bremen) 1791-1861 (Bad Pyrmont, where he served as a balneology physician), German physician and malacologist. His collection was purchased by the dealer M.J. Landauer after his death and then sold to different private collectors [Cerithium menkei Carpenter, 1857, Natica menkeana R. A. Philippi, 1852].

The Dutch malacologist Henk P.M.G. Menkhorst, 19??-, is honoured in the gastropod names Bela menkhorsti van Aartsen, 1988, Graphis menkhorsti de Jong & Coomans, 1988 & Chrysallida menkhorsti Van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 2000.

The Brazil skate name Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó, 2001 is a tribute to the Argentinean ichthyyologist Dr. Roberto Carlos Menni, 19??-, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

The Caribbean mollosca name Crassisspira mennoi de Jong & Coomans, 1988, is in honour of Menno de Jong, (17 Mar.) 1984-, son of the first author.

M.G.Krishna Menon, 1???-19??, from Madras, India, published during the 1930s on Indian Ocean medusae and decapod crustaceans [Eucheilota menoni Kramp, 1959, Eirene menoni Kramp, 1953]. The namesake Rajakrishna P.N. Menon, 1918-, Professor of zoology, may possibly be his son.

The gastropod name Favartia (Pygmaeopterys) menoui R. Houart, 1990 is likely not a tribute to Dr. Ambat Gopalan Kutty Menou, (19 Apr.) 1921-2002 (11 Apr.), Madras, India, known to have been one of the foremost ichthyologists (of both fresh water and marine species) and zoogeographers of his time. At least several fresh water fishes are honouring his name. A much more likele candidate is the French echinoderm researcher Jean-Louis Menou, 19??-, a professional diver, who has published much from the New Caledonian area, where the species is distributed.

Prof. Dr. Robert James Menzies, (2 Dec. - Denver, Colorado) 1923-76 (18 Dec. - San José, Costa Rica, by stroke), PhD in 1951, U.S. deep sea isopodologist [Helomesus menziesi (Birstein, 1960), Carpoapseudes menziesi Gutu, 1975, Saturnia menziesi (A.H. Clarke, 1959), Dynamenella menziesi Sivertsen & Holthuis, 1980, Synapseudes menziesi Bacescu, 1976, Cymonomus menziesi Garth, 1971]. There was also a Dr. Archibald Menzies, (15 Mar. - Styx, near Perthshire in Scotland) 1754-1842 (15 Feb. - London), British physician, malacologist and botanical collector. He served as a botanist on Captain George Vancouver's voyages, 1791-95, collected marine algae specimens from Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The feather boa kelp is named Egregia menziesi (Turner) Areschoug, 1876. Menzies also collected specimens on an earlier voyage, 1786-89, with Colnett, on a fur-trading vessel, Prince of Wales. The material was described and illustrated by Dawson Turner between 1808-1819. He often planted seeds of Citrus fruits where he landed, to the use of new sea farers. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly informed about A. Menzies and Dr. Rick Harbo, Canada, kindly provided the information about his voyages).

The gastropod name Scalptia mercadoi Old, 1968 was named in honour of the shell collector and dealer Mario Mercado, 19??-. of Olangapo City, the Philippines, who began in the shell business shortly after WW II and collected the types of this species. He was still in business during the beginning of the 1980s.

Prof. Louis Auguste (Alfred?) Mercier, (Frouard) 1879-19?? (Suspendu de ses fonctions en 1944), French polychaetologist and protozoologist (published on microsporidians and myxosporidians) [Mercierella Fauvel, 1923]. He was Professeur at Faculté des sciences de Caen and Chef des travaux de zoologie (Faculté des sciences de Nancy).

Dr. Carl Heinrich Merck, (19 Nov. Darmstadt) 1761-99 (31 Jan. - Saint Petersburg, by stroke), German physician working in Russia, who from May 1786 until April 1794 participated as naturalist in the expedition in the north Pacific led by J. Billings and there collected lots of fishes, birds and mammals for the St. Petersburg Museum collections.

Mercury : (see Bulsara under heading music).

Meredith : (see Meredith Jones).

Prof. Dr. Konstantin Sergejewicz Mereschkowski (or Merejkowski or Merezhkovsky), (4 Aug. - St. Petersburg) 1854-1921 (10 Jan. - Geneva (had emigrated to Switzerland in 1917)), PhD in St. Petersburg in 1880, Russian biologist (a disciple of N.P. Wagner in St Petersburg), particularly interested in protoctists, but also e.g. sponges and coelenterates. Among his disciples were Knipovich (q.v.) and Schewiakoff (q.v.). He was professor (of Microbiology?) at the Univ. of Kazan and is probably today best known for his ideas about Endosymbionts, which Lynn Margulis (q.v.) during the 1970s took further. [Saccoglossus mereschkowskii (Nicolas Wagner, 1885), Haliclona merejkowskii Schwartschevski, 1905, Cienkowskya mereschkovckii (Cienkowskii, 1881) Schaudinn, 1896, Stichochaeta mereschkowskii Andrussowa, 1886].

Lacking information about Meret in the ascidian name Lissoclinum mereti Monniot & Monniot, 1987.

Maria Sibylla Merian, (2 Apr. - Frankfurt) 1647-1717 (13 Jan. - Amsterdam), German painting artist (depicting several botanical and zoological objects, so highly valued by Linnaeus, that he named an insect for her). She moved to the Netherlands when her mother had died in 1690 and succeded to travel to Surinam (together with her youngest daughter) for two years, continuing there to paint and collect natural history objects, but was forced to return to Amsterdam in 1701 after suffering from malaria. In 1715 she suffered a stroke, partly paralyzing her. She had married in 1665 and her first daughter Johanna Helena was born two years later and a second daughter Dorothea Maria was born in 1678. Maria Sibylla left her husband in 1685 and they were officially divorced in 1692. The first daughter married later and moved to Surinam and the second daughter married a painter and both daughters continued the painting tradition of their mother.

Opaliopsis meringnaudeae Kilburn, 1985 is not honouring a person, but the R/V Meiring Naudé, a CSIRO research vessel. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

The scleractinian name Blastomussa merleti (Wells, 1961) is not named directly for a person's name, but likely for Grotte de Merlet, near Passe Kouaré, in the barrier reef south of Nouméa, New Caledonia. The cave was named after a Dr. Merlet, who suffered from the bends there (and likely died). Merlet's scorpionfish, Rhinopias aphanes Eschmeyer, 1973, described from New Caledonia, may likely be named for the same cave?

Martial Henri Merlin, (20 Jan. - Paris) 1860-1935 (8 May - Paris), "ancien Gouverneur général du Congo français"

Gaston Mermod, 1885-1982, Swiss Malacologist, mainly working on limnic items.

Dr. Christopher Merrett, (16 Feb. - Winchcombe, Gloucestershire) 1614 (or 1615?)-95 (19 Aug. - Hatton Garden, London), English physician, published "Pinax rerum naturalium Britannicarum, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia et Fossilia in hac Insula reperta inchoatus" in 1666.

The halacarid name Rhombognathides merrimani Newell, 1947 may likely be a tribute to Prof. Dr. Daniel Merriman, (17 Sep. - Cambridge, Mass.) 1908-1984 (6 Aug. - Bethany, Connecticut), US biologist at Yale Univ. (succeded Parr at the chair of the Bingham Oceanografic Laboratory, New Haven, when Parr became director of the American Museum of Natural History in 1942) , who i.a. has published on the history of biology but else mainly was interested in fisheries and other applied aspects of marine science, because the author achieved his PhD at Yale in 1945.

Merrin: (see Storey).

Franz Karl (sometimes spelled Carl) Mertens, (3 Apr. - Bielefeld) 1764-1831 (19 June - Bremen), German botanist belonging to a distinguished but impovererished noble family (compare genus Mertensia among the herbs), especially algologist [Tilopteris mertensii (Turn. in Sm.) Kütz., Dictyota mertensii (Martius) Kützing, 1859].

Dr. Karl (sometimes spelled Carl) Heinrich (Andrey Karlovich) Mertens, (17 May - Bremen) 1796-1830 (18 Sep. - St. Petersburg), Naturalist (son of Franz Karl Mertens above), who took part in the Russian circumnavigation with the corvette "Séniavine" between 1826-29 together with e.g. the Polish/German naval officer and zoologist Freiherr Friedrich Heinrich von Kittlitz, (16 Feb. - Breslau) 1799-1874 (10 Apr. - Mainz), who also explored Alaska, and Postels (q.v.). Mertens wrote about e.g. the medusae of the expedition and described the pelagical polyclad Planocera pellucida (Mertens, 1832), [Staurostoma mertensi (Brandt, 1838), Leptoplana mertensii (Claparède, 1861), Mertensia Lesson, 1830, Cassiopea mertensi Brandt, 1838, Lepidozona mertensii A. T. von Middendorff, 1847, Idya mertensi Mertens, 1833 (a synonym of Beroe ovata Bruguièree, 1789), Cuspidella mertensi (Brandt, 1835), Stichodactyla mertensii Brandt, Truncatoflabellum martensii (Studer, 1878), Monolene mertensi (Poll, 1959), Hapalogaster mertensii Brandt, 1850, Parapagurus mertensii Holmes, 1900]. The medusae were described in more detail in 1838 by J.F. Brandt (q.v.). Count Fedor Petrovich Litke (or Lütke), (28 Sep. - St. Petersburg) 1797-1882 (28 Aug. - St. Petersburg), originally named Friedrich Benjamin Lütke, because his family was of German origin, wrote a report of the expedition in Russian in 1836, which was translated into French. Mertens became junior associate for botany in 1829 and for zoology in 1830 to the Russian Academy of Science. He died from typhus after having been at sea during the summer when the epidemy struck the crew members of the expedition ship.

Prof. Hugo Philip Ralph Merton, (18 Nov. - Frankfurt am Main) 1879-1940 (23 Mar. - Edinburgh), zoologist, geographer, ethnographer. He is best known as a wide-ranging collector and observer in the Aru Archipelago (Indonesia) (together with Dr. Jean Roux (q.v.), curator at the Natural History Museum, Basel) from October 1907 to August 1908, sponsored by Frankfurt’s Senckenberg Natural History Museum. Merton was a professor of zoology at the University of Heidelberg until he was removed under the Nazis’s draconian Nuremberg Laws in 1935. He was invited to the University of Edinburgh for a short time in 1937. Upon his return to Germany in 1938, he was arrested and sent to Dachau concentration camp, usually a death sentence. In Merton’s unusual case, he was “deported” to Scotland ogether with his wife in 1939 and began working again at the university. However, in the meantime, his health had been destroyed and he died in 1940. [Ritchie (1940) Nature (London) 145(3685):924-925.] Merton will be remembered in the marine copepods Acartia pacifica mertoni Steuer, 1917 and Pseudodiaptomus mertoni Früchtl, 1924. The gorgeous freshwater killifish Pseudomugil gertrudae Max Weber, 1911 was named for Merton’s wife Gertrude, who accompanied him on the Aru Islands [also several other species, like the hydroid Sertularia mertoni Stechow, 1923, the flatworm Temnocephala mertoni Volonterio, 2007, etc. (also a bird name), is honouring Mertons name]. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided this information).

The crab name Corycodus merweae Tavares, 1993 is a tribute to Michelle G. van der Merwe, 19??-, "conservateur au South African Muséum".

Lacking information about Mesjatzev / Mesyatzev in the nematode name Platycomopsis mesjatzevi Filipjev, 1927, but a Russian hydrobiologist named I.I. Mesyatzev, 18??-19??, (at the chair of Invertebrate zoology at Moscow Univ.) published during this era (e.g. in 1937) and likely R/V Professor Mesyatzev is named in this person's honour. He became a close friend of his former disciple Zenkevitch (q.v.).

Dr. Félix Mesnil, (12 Dec. - Omonville-la-Petite) 1868-1938 (15 Feb. - Paris), French zoologist, who had been a disciple of A. Giard (q.v.) and in 1893 married the sister of M. Caullery (q.v.) and these brothers-in-law very often published together. They had already in 1891-92 together made an European tour meeting colleagues: R. Hertwig & K. von Zittel in Müünchen, F. Vejdovsky in Pragues, E. Haeckel in Jena, W. Flemming in Kiel, Hubrecht & Engelmann in Utrecht, M. Weber in Amsterdam, P. Pelseneer in Gent, & Ch. Julin in Liège. In 1898 he played a role in the defense of Captain Dreyfus, when finding irregularities in the trial. [Mesnilia Canu, 1898, Scolelepis mesnili Bellan & Lagerdere, 1971, Coeloplana mesnili Dawydoff, 1938, Stephanopogon mesnili Lwoff, 1923]. (See also).

The gastropod name Conus messiasi Rolán & Fernandes, 1990 is in honour of João Messias, 19??-, Portuguese shell collector, who collected i.a. in Angola and the Cape Verde Islands.

Postasterope messingi Kornicker, 1986 is named for one of its collectors, Dr. Charles Garrett Messing, 1948-, Seattle, who i.a. has published on W Atlantic tanaids and comatulids.

Miss Marjorie K. Mestayer, 18??-19?? (evidently still living during 1965), Dominion Museum, Wellington, New Zealand, shell collector and friend of the author of Parachiton mestayerae Iredale, 1914. Cyclochlamys mestayerae (Dell, 1956) was named by her successor as malacologist after WW II at the museum [Colubraria mestayerae (Iredale, 1915), Perrierina mestayerae Powell, 1933, Eulimella mestayerae (Marwick, 1931), Bythoceratina mestayerae Hornibrook, 1952, Siphotextularia mestayerae Vella 1957].

Dr. Luigi Metaxà, (Roma) 1778-1842, physician and naturalist from Rome (but with a father from Greece) [Metaxia metaxae delle Chiaje, 1828].

Prof. Dr. Maynard Mayo Metcalf, (12 Mar. - Elyria, OH) 1868-1940 (19 Apr. - Winter Park, FL), PhD at Johns Hopkins Univ. in 1893, U.S. zoologist and evolutionist, who in 1923 and -40 published on opalinid ciliates and in 1918 on Salpidae [Metcalfina Ihle & Ihle-Landenberg, 1933]

W. Metcalfe, 1???-1874, British shell cabinet owner [Aesopus metcalfei (Reeve, 1858), Modiolus metcalfei Hanley, 1843].

Metha : (see Metha Thomsen).

Bernard Métivier, 1944-, French malacologist at the Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Paris [Perotrochus metivieri Anseeuw & Goto, 1995, Microsveltia metivieri Verhecken, 1997, Seguenzia metivieri B.A. Marshall, 1991, Pusillina metivieri Bouchet & Warén, 1993, Fissidentalium metivieri Scarabino, 1995, Calliostoma (Fautor) metivieri B.A. Marshall, 1995, Leptotrophon metivieri Houart, 1995, Muricopsis (Murexsul) metivieri Houart, 1988, Mendax metivieri Jay & Drivas, 2002]. Fissurella emmanuelae Métivier, 1971 was named for Emmanuèle Métivier, 1967-, daughter of the author and Nucula aureliae Métivier, 1982 was named for Aurélia Métivier, 1971-, also daughter of the author.

Dr. Ilja (Elias or Élie) Iljitj Met(s)chnikov, (Mechnikov, Metchnikoff or Metjnikov), (15-16 May - Panassovka, close to Karkhov, Ukraine) 1845-1916 (15-16 July - Sèvres, France), Zoologist and bacteriologist, initially working as professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in Odessa. In 1882 he inherited money enough to be economically independent and moved together with his wife and cooperator Olga, 1858-1943, to Messina. After a short sojourn in Odessa in 1886, they joined the Pasteur Institute in Paris. He received the Nobel prize of physiology in 1908 (together with Paul Ehrlich) for the discovery in 1882 of and research on phagocytosis (he himself having coined the word phagocyte) [Halisarca metschnikovi Lévi, 1953, Rhopalura metschnikowi (Caullery & Mesnil, 1899), coccidia: Eimeria metchnikovi (Laveran, 1897), bacteria: Vibrio metchnikovi Gamaleia, 1888, yeast fungus: Metschnikowia T. Kamienski, 1899 - being a "parahomonym" of the sponge name Metschnikowia Grimm, 1876, but both are used, because they belong to different clades of the evolutionary tree, Coeloplana metschnikowii Kowalevsky, 1880]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided some of the eponyms).

Prof. Dr. Geheimrat Karl August Metzger, (19 Aug. - Hildesheim) 1832-1917 (20 Jan. - Hannover, Münden), zoology Professor at the Königliche Furstakademie zu Münden, published on mollusks and crustaceans (i.a. together with Dunker (q.v.)) in Kiel (and on Helgoland fauna) during the second half of the 19:th century [Metzgeria Norman, 1879].

Karl Meunier, 1902-86, German zoologist associated with the Helgoland laboratory.He was one of two active nazi sympathizers (the other one was Helmut Hertling, 1891-1942,) among the zoologists at this island and he should not be confused with the Belgian phytoplankton worker l'abbé Prof. Alphonse François Meunier, (15 Apr. - Lessines) 1857-1918 (19 Feb. - Louvain), Louvain, who i.a. published the well-known work from the Barents and Kara Seas in 1910 [Preperidinium meunieri (Pavillard) Elbrächter, 1993, Tintinnopsis meunieri Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Coxliella meunieri Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Favella meunieri Kofoid & Campbell, 1929, Dinophysis meunieri Schiller,1933, Tiarina meunieri Kahl, 1930]. Still another namesake was Stanislas Etienne Meunier, (18 July - Paris) 1843-1925 (23 Apr. - Paris), geology professor at MNHN in Paris.

Prof. François Jean Meunier, (11 Aug.) 1942-, French ichthyologist at the MNHN, Paris [Jupiaba meunieri (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail, 1996)].

Friedrich Christian Meuschen, (15 Sep. - Hanau) 1719-1811 (20 Feb.), German diplomat and naturalist working in the Netherlands with, mollusks, crustaceans, fish, etc. is the person honoured in the fish genus names Meuschenia G.P. Whitley, 1929 and Meuschenula Whitley, 1931. He had a very long life for this time, but was not active during his last decades, so many have earlier guessed that he died around 1790 or 1800.

The nudibranch name Okenia mexicorum Gosliner & Bertsch, 2004, although seemingly just described as being Mexican, as stated in the description, “The specific name, mexicorum, honors our outstanding young Mexican colleagues, Dr. Alicia Hermosillo, 19??-, Universidad de Guadalajara, and Dr. Orso Angulo Campillo, 19??-, Univeridad Autonoma de Baja California Sur, who have advanced greatly our understanding of the opisthobranch fauna of the tropical Americas". Dr, Hermosillo is also honoured in the nudibranch name Discodoris aliciae Dayrat, 2005 (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Dr. Franz Julius Ferdinand Meyen, (28 June - Tilsit) 1804-40 (2 Sep. - Berlin), Prussian physician, botanist and algologist in Berlin, who was a pioneer in describing tissues like mesenchyma, parenchyma, prosenchyma and pleurenchyma. He took part in a circumnavigation with the "Seehandlungs-Schiffe Prinzess Louise" commanded by Captain W. Wendt in 1830-32. He described the Chilean sea star Meyenaster Verrill, 1913 gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834). The sponge genus Meyenia Carter, 1881 may possibly also be a tribute to him as is the plant genus Meyenia Nees, 1832 and the Blotched stingray Taeniura meyeni (Müller & Henle)?

The German-Russian Baron Alexander von Meyendorff, 1798-1865, who travelled in Russia, is likely the person honoured in the gastropod name Coralliophila meyendorffi (Calcara, 1842). Another possibility is Baron Georg von Meyendorff, who in 1826 published on a "Voyage à Boukhara", which he had performed in 1820. The family originated from Saxony, but moved already around 1200 to Livonia. One early member of the family was pope Clement II, 1005-1047. The family became barons during the Swedish period in the Baltic states.

H. Adolph Meyer : (see Möbius).

Dr. Werner Theodor Meyer, 1882-19??, PhD in Leipzig in 1906, Hamburg, German Cephalopod researcher, publishing during the first decade of the 20:th century (in 1906 and 1909 and one in 1913). No publications after WW I have been found, so he may have died during WW I or in the Spanish flu, during the end of the war.

Lacking information about Meyer in the Indian Ocean fish name Chaetodon meyeri (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), but possibly a tribute to Dr. Friedrich Albrecht Anton Meyer, (29 June) 1768-1795 (29 Nov.?), a German physician, educated in Göttingen, who in 1793 had published a work on "zoologischen Entdeckungen in Neuholland und Afrika", which included descriptions of some animans, e.g. an Australian shark.

M. Meyer, 19??-, a local shell collector from Durban, South Africa. When still a student he became a member of the Conchological Society of Southern Africa in 1967. He is honored in the marine gastropod names: Solariella (Microgaza) meyeri Kilburn, 1973 and Conus biliosus meyeri Walls, 1979. (Curator Henk K. Mienis, Tel Aviv Univ., kindly provided this information).

Berthella kania Sphon, 1972 was named for Mrs. Kaniaulono B. Meyer, 1945-, of the Smithsonian Tropical Reserach Institute in Panama, who collected specimen in the Perlas Islands, later working as an education and horticulture specialist in Cincinatti.

The nematode name Leptolaimus (Tubulaimus) meyerreili Jensen, 1991 must be a tribute to Dr. Lutz-Arend Meyer-Reil, 19??-, marine microbiologist at the Univ. of Kiel.

The nematode name Meyersia Hopper, 1967 is a tribute to Dr. Samuel P. Meyers, (21 Feb.) 1925-2007 (2 Nov.), Professor of Food Science, Louisiana State University, who co-authored som papers together with B.E. Hopper.

Prof. Dr. Arwed Hugo Meyl, 19??-, German namatod researcher, is honoured in the nematode names Meylia Gerlach, 1956 & Theristus (Penzancia) meyli Riemann, 1966. Meyl has published on nematodes from mid 1950s.

Mia : (see Gerhardt).

Dr. Hermes Walter Mianzan, 1957?-, Argentinian (Rio de la Plata) ctenophoran, cubozoan and scyphozoan specialist.

Pasquale Micali, 19??-, Italian malacologist from Fano, interested in Mediterranean and Red Sea Pyramidellidae, recent and fossil [Dizionopsis micalii Cecalupo & Villari, 1997, Goodallia micalii Giribet & Penas, 1999].

Michael in Chromodoris michaeli Gosliner & Behrens, 1998 : (see D. Behrens).

The author does not explain who Michael is, in the Maine hydroid name Aselomaris michaeli Berrill, 1948.

Which Michael(is) is honoured in the aspidogastrean name Cotylogaster michaelis Monticelli, 1892? Possibly a tribute to the British Oribatidae researcher Albert Davidson Michael, 1836-1927, who also published on marine larvae at SW Britain, but perhaps more likely a tribute to a Michaelis and Dr. Leonor Michaelis, (16 Jan. - Berlin) 1875-1949 (8 Oct.), was publishing e.g. on "Befruchtung der Tritoneneier", but is most likely too young.

Ellis LeRoy Michael, (26 Aug. - La Porte, Indiana) 1881-1920 (30 Aug.), marine ecologist.

Lacking information about Michaela in the octocoral name Lobophytum michaelae Tixier-Durivault, 1956.

Prof. Dr. Johann Wilhelm Michaelsen, (9 Oct. - Hamburg) 1860-1937 (18 Feb. - Hamburg), Hamburg annelidologist (mainly specialized on oligochaetes, but worked also on polychaetes). Curator of the invertebrate department of the Zoological Institute und Zoological Museum between 1887?-1923. He was also the leader of the German South West Australian expedition [Amphiporus michaelseni Bürger, 1895, Micrurina michaelseni Stiasny-Wijnhoff, 1942, Alaonemertes michaelseni Stiasny-Wijnhoff, 1942, Isochaetides michaelseni (Lastochkin, 1937), Campopera michaelseni Schellenberg, 1922, Calliopiella michaelseni Schellenberg, 1925, Cryptoplax michaelseni Thiele, Archibonellia michaelseni Fischer, 1919, Enoplus michaelseni von Linstow, 1896, Bunodactis michaelseni Pax F., 1920 Chorizocarpa michaelseni (Sluiter, 1900), Clavelina michaelseni Millar, 1982].

André Louis Gaspard Michaud, (3 Dec. - Sornac (Corrèze) 1795-1880 (4 Apr. - Lyon (Rhône)), French malacologist, son of a teacher. Careeer military (Captain Michaud), who had started in the army in 1813 and kept on until 1844, professor at lyceum, geology (Hauterives > Hauterivien), French and Algerian malacology ; made the Complément of the Draparnaud's book. Mainly several nan-marine mollosk names are in honour of his name. (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided much of this information)

Lacking information about Michel in the polyclad name Notoplana micheli Marcus, 1949, but likely the first name of a São Paulo zoologist.

Jean Louis Hardouin Michelin de Choisy, (25 May) 1786-1867 (9 July - Versailles), French naturalist and 'Inspecteur des Finances', who published on e.g. fossils and cnidarians between at least 1832-62 [Heteropsammina michelini Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848, Encope michelini L. Agassiz, 1841, Stephanocoenia michelini Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848].

The amphipod name Hyale michelini Krapp-Schickel & Bousfield, 2002 was named for Aldo Michelini, 19??-2003, who probably was carpenter emeritus at the Verona Museum, and a special friend of the first author. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

O. Giovanni Michelotti, 1812-98, Italian (Torino) lawyer and naturalist (originally an amateur-palaeontologist), mainly working in the Caribbean Sea [Dentalium michelottii Hörnes, 1856, Arcoscalpellum michellottianum (Seguenza, 1876)], often together with Duchassaing (q.v.), befriended by Michelotti, when he stayed in the West Indies during 3 months in 1855, where Duchassaing de Fontbressin was practizing his medicine (in the Virgin Islands).

Mickmin : (see Charuchinda).

Prof. Dr. Heinrich Micoletzky, (Graz) 1883-1929 (Innsbruck), nematodologist, active in Innsbruck. [Micoletzkyia Ditlevsen, 1926, Draconema micoletzkyi Kreis, 1928, Chromadorina micoletzkyi Inglis, 1962, Paracanthonchus micoletzkyi Schuurmans-Stekhoven, 1943.].

Prof. Dr. Alexander Theodor (Aleksandr Fyodorovich) von Middendorff, (18 Aug. - St Petersburg) 1815-94 (16 Jan. - Hellenurme, Liveland, Russia (now Valga county, Estonia)), Russian naturalist of German origin, who had studied first in Dorpat (now Tartu), then in Berlin, Erlangen, Breslau & Kiev (MD in June 1837) and in 1840 joined von Baer (q.v.) in a trip to Lapland and the Arctic Sea and in 1842-45 travelled in Siberia. In 1845 he became an official in the St. Petersburg Academy of Science, advanced to extraordinarius in 1850 and ordinarius in 1852, left in 1865, but became a honorary member the same year. [Strombella middendorfii Dall, 1891, Mopalia middendorffii Von Schrenck, 1867, Turbonilla middendorfii Bartsch, 1927, Macoma middendorffii Dall, 1884, Middendorffia Dall, 1882 ex Carpenter MS, emend Fischer, 1885, Gonatus middendorffi Kubodera & Okutani, 1981, Pagurus middendorffii Brandt, 1851, Volutopsis middendorffii (Dall, 1891), Pseudanodonta middendorffii (Siemaschko, 1849)].

Hakon Mielche, (21 Oct. - Fensmark) 1904-79 (22 Oct.), who was drawing artist on the "Galathea" expedition and who wrote "Round the World with GALATHEA" (1953), may likely be the person honoured in the actinian name Daontesia mielchei Carlgren O., 1956. (... according to kind information from Pat Matyot, Island Conservation Society, Seychelles). (Here is the artist outside his villa in a canoe in 1947 and here is a water colour picture by this artist).

Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Walter Otto Mielck, (24 Nov. - Hamburg) 1878-1933 (5 Oct. - Helgoland), a disciple of Heincke (q.v.), was between 1920-33 director of Biologische Anstalt, Helgoland ["Tornaria mielcki" Stiasny, 1925 (the Glossobalanus marginatus larva), Monoposthia mielcki Steiner, 1916].

Dr. Wolfgang Mielke, 19??-, harpacticoid researcher (who has published about such animals from Panama) at II Zoologisches Institut und Museum der Universitat Göttingen, is honoured in the harpacticoid name Paramesochra mielkei Huys, 1987 and Mielkiella George, 1997.

The gastropod name Tornus mienisi van Aartsen, Carrozza & Menkhorst, 1998 is honouring Hendrik Klaas ("Henk") Mienis, born in Berkhout the Netherlands, (5 Apr.) 1941-, but living as a permanent foreign resident in Israel since 1970. Originally an elementary school teacher (in the Netherlands), he is working in Israel on a part-time base as a plant pest consultant in the field crops of his kibbutz, as acting curator of the Mollusc Collection at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (since 1971) and as advisor/curator of the Mollusc Collection at the Tel Aviv University (since 1999). He is an honorary associate of the Dept. of Malacology at the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. The following four marine mollusc taxa have been described in his honour: Eunaticina (Gennaeosinum) mienisi Kilburn, 1988, Tornus mienisi van Aartsen, Carrozza & Menkhorst, 1998, Mienerita Dekker, 2000 and Trivia mienisi Fehse & Grego, 2006 (and in addition one insect and five non-marine mollusc taxa). (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida, kindly provided part of this information, but Mienis has himself kindly added some information).

Edward John Miers, (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1851-1930 (15 Oct. - Burchetts Green, near Maidenhead, Berkshire), was in Apr./May 1872 appointed as an amanuensis for J.E. Gray (q.v.) at the Natural History Museum in London. (In 1869 Grays right arm was paralyzed after a stroke). He was mainly a carcinologist and resigned from the museum during the autumn 1885, leaving his museum duties to J. Bell (q.v.), who however soon left them to R.I. Pocock (q.v.). [Miersia Kingsley, 1880, Anchistus miersi (de Man, 1888), Metapenaeopsis miersi Holthuis, 1952, Paraceradocus miersi Pfeffer, 1888, Parthenope miersi (A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1898), Clorida miersi Manning 1968, Pseudidothea miersi (Studer, 1884)]. Miers' younger brother Sir Henry Miers, 1858-1942, became a professor of mineralology at Oxford.

Constantine Mifsud, 19??-, Malta, is doing research on Mediterranean molluscs and worldwide Polyplacophora. So far some Maltesian coleoptera are name for him.

Dr. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels, (5 July - Parsonsfield, Maine) 1795-1861 (16 Sep. - Norway, Maine), US physician and malacologist, who e.g. in 1842 wrote an article together with C.B. Adams (q.v.) about New England shells [Onoba mighelsi (Stimpson, 1851), Turbonilla mighelsi Bartsch, 1909, Conus musicus mighelsi L. C. Kiener, 1849].

Prof. Jean-Pierre Mignot, 19??-, must be the honoured French protistologist in the protoctist name Bicosoeca mignoti Moestrup, Thomsen & Hibberd in Vørs, 1992.

Lacking information about Migot in the copepod name Enhydrosoma migoti Monard, 1926, but very likely a tribute to A.M. Migot, who in 1926 published on French fresh water halacaridae.

Lacking information about Miguel in the bivalve name Glycymeris migueliana Dall, 1916.

Prof. Emil Friedrich August Walter Migula, (4 Nov. - Zyrowa) 1863-1938 (23 June - Eisenach), German pioneer in bacteriology, working in Karlsruhe.

Mikado : (see Hirohito).

Prof. Dr. Tofik Karrarhoglu Mikailov (15 Jan. - Agdam, Azerbaijan) 1931-, parasitologist, DSc, Professor. Head of laboratory in the Institute of Zoology, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku. Scientific interests: parasites of fish (systematics, ecology, zoogeography, epizootology); more than 200 publications, including 7 monographs and 2 textbooks. Described 2 new genera and 20 new species of parasites. [Coccidia Eimeria mikailovi Agayeva, 1981; trypanosome Trypanosoma mikailovi Houseinov, 1988; myxosporea Myxobolus mikailovi Abdullayeva, 1982; monogenea Gyrodactylus mikailovi Ergens & Ibrahimov, 1976, Dactylogyrus mikailovi Timofeeva, Gerasev & Gibson, 1996] (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information).

The crinoid name Holopus mikihe Donovan & Pawson, 2008 is in honour of 3 persons. The trivial name mikihe, is derived from the first two letters of the surnames of colleagues who were involved in the 1983-1989 echinoderm research on the Johnson-Sea-Link I and II. The first syllable, "mi-", is from Rev. John Engle Miller III, 19??-, Harbor Branch Foundation Inc., Florida (and living in Melbourne, Fl.), who later became a bishop in the Anglican Church, serving (from 2008) in Rwanda. The second syllable, "-ki-", is from the originally British invertebrate palaeontologist Dr. Porter M. Kier, 1927- , PhD at Cambridge Univ. in 1954, & and the 3:rd "-he" from Dr. Gordon Hendler. (q.v.). (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindlöy provided this informatin).

Kokichi Mikimoto, (10 Mar.) 1858-1954 (21 Sep.), is known as the "father of pearl culturing," not because he alone invented the technique, but because of his promotional efforts and the prestigious Japanese pearl company that bears his name today. Mikimoto first patented his pearl culturing technique in 1896, and ultimately purchased all other major patents associated with the fledgling industry. He was a shrewd businessman who worked aggressively to convince the gemological community and the buying public that his cultured pearls were as "real" as more expensive natural pearls. He ultimately won, and went on to establish pearl culturing ventures in countries throughout the southwest Pacific. All of today's cultured pearls, now produced in over 30 countries, are initiated using this technology. Strangely, Mikimoto is honored by the name of a dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium mikimotoi Miyake & Kominami ex Oda, 1935. Dinoflagellates produce dissolved toxins that color the water red-brown, a phenomenon known as red tide. These toxins can become concentrated in filter-feeding organisms, including pearl oysters, and have the potential to decimate entire crops of pearl oysters in culture. The Mikimoto Pearl Research Laboratory at Ago Bay currently monitors water conditions, including concentrations of lethal dinoflagellates at several water depths on a daily basis, and advises other pearl farmers on conditions and the need to evacuate their crops from the bay. (Dr. Paula Mikkelsen, kindly provided all this information, taken from "Pearls: a Natural History", of which she is a co-author).

Dr. Paula M. Mikkelsen, 1953-, malacologist (chiefly opisthobranch & bivalve researcher) at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA, is honoured in the gastropod name Coccopigya mikkelsenae McLean & Harasewych, 1995 and in the shrimp name Pontoniopsis paulae Gore 1981 from off Florida Keys.

Miklucho-Maklaj (or Miklouho-Maclay) (see Mac Leay).

Miko : (see Cataldo).

Dr. Kirill Mikrjukov, (26 Sep.) 1969-2000 (29 Apr.), very gifted Russian Protoctist researcher at the Biological Faculty of the Moscow State university (Chair of Zoology of Invertebrates), who during his short life (he died in a tragic accident less than 2 weeks after having defended his PhD at the Moscow University) managed to publish 44 articles, mainly on Heliozoans, a group, which according to his studies is polyphyletic - he subdivided this taxon into 8 different groups. (Dr. G. Vinogradov, Moscow, kindly corrected Dr. Mikrjukov's institutional belonging, which initially was cited wrongly).

Ernst Mikula, 1900-70, Austrian Malacologist.

Lacking information about K.Os. Milaschewitch, 18??-19??, in the gastropod name Microhedyle milaschewitchii (Kowalewsky, 1901). He published about Pontian mollusks at least until 1916 and may likely be identical with Constantin Milaschewitch, who published on palaeontological corals already in 1875 (together with Ewald Becker), because his first name may usually have been spelled with an initial K.

The bivalve name Caribachlamys mildredae (F.M. Bayer, 1943) is in honour of Mrs. W.A. (Mildred) Royce, 1???-, 19??, who first collected the species.

Lacking information about Mildred in the gastropod name Murexiella mildredae Poorman, 1980.

Simeone Abramovitch Mileikovsky, (Leningrad) 1935-80, Russian marine biologist, who during the most insulative period of the 'cold war' kept contact with western colleagues.

Manly Miles, (Homer, N.Y.) 1826-98 (Lancing, Mich.), physician, who was more interested in natural science than medicine and in 1861 published a list on molluscs of Michigan, is honoured in the gastropod name Conus milesi E. A. Smith, 1887.

Is Mili in the Australian Elephant fish name Callorhinchus milii (Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1823) a person's name?

Lacking information about the collector Dr. Millar, 18??-1???, (from North Atlantic "Lophohelia") in the sponge name Alectona millari Carter, 1879. No Millar published about sponges at that time. The South African amateur naturalist and lawyer Alfred Duchesne Millar, (Durban) 1858-1911 (10 May - Durban, from blood poisoning), (at the Durban Natural Science Museum), mainly with ornithological and entomological (Lepidoptera) interests and his like minded younger brother Harold Martel Millar, (29 July - Durban) 1865-1962 (24 July), who also mostly was bird interested, are not possible candidates, but who was this Dr. Millar, who evidently had a connection with the Porcupine Expedition 1869, perhaps not taking part in it, but evidently getting access to its coral material, so possibly a palaeontologist?

Dr. Robin H. Millar, 1916-2002 (22 May), PhD in Glasgow under C.M. Yonge (q.v.), ascidian specialist and member of the staff at the Marine Station, Millport since 1947 until around 1970, when he moved to the Dunstaffnage Marine Research Laboratory at Oban, Scotland [Abyssascidia millari F. Monniot, 1971, Hexadactylus millari Monniot & Monniot, 1990, Aplidium millari Monniot & Monniot, 1994, Molgula robini Monniot & Monniot, 1983].

The Papua New Guinean polychaete name Hololepidella millari Britayev, Doignon & Eckhaut, 1999 is dedicated to the Papuan technician Millar Magat, 19??-1997, who tragically died on the road between Laing Island and Madang.

Naomi A.H. Millard, 1914-97, hydroid researcher from South Africa, is honoured in the South African sea anemone (Ptychodactiarian) Preactis millardae England & Robson, 1984.

Sandra V. Millen, 1945-, Opisthobranch researcher in British Columbia [Proloy millenae Martynov, 1994, Cuthona millenae Hermadillo & Valdes, 2007].

Lacking information about H. Miller, who in 1947 collected the type of the gastropod Trigonostoma (Extractrix) milleri J.Q. Burch, 1949 in Costa Rica.

Michael Miller : (see Rudman).

Capt. Walter Bernard Miller, (23 Aug.) 1918-2000 (10 July), US malacologist, who collected specimens of Lucapinella milleri Berry, 1959. He was born in Paris. His father, an American pilot in the Lafayette Escadrille, died in battle shortly before his birth. Miller and his French mother moved to the USA in 1929. He flew dive bombers in the North African and Pacific theaters during WW II. Fortunately, his carrier as a military aviator lasted longer than his father's did. Miller returned to the US in 1945, where he became an aeronautical engineer and eventually a malacologist. His main interest was in terrestrial gastropods [ Millerelix Pratt, 1981, Helminthoglypta milleri Reeder, 1986, Sonorella milleri Christensen, 1981, Xerarionta waltmilleri Roth, 1984, Lucapinella milleri Berry, 1959]. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about the Miller family? in the harpacticoid name Cletodes millerorum Hamond, 1973.

Lacking information about Miller in the polyplacophoran name Chiton milleri Reeve, 1847, ex Gray MS?. The British geologist Hugh Miller, (10 Oct.) 1802-1856 (24 Dec.), may possibly be the honoured person? The Curator at the Bristol Institution John Samuel Miller (born Johann Samuel Müller), (Danzig) 1779-1830, who had arrived to Britain (Bristol) as a refugee after Napoleon's invasion, published his book "A Natural History of the Crinoidea, or lily-shaped animals" is likely too old (if not Gray's MS name was from long before?).

The ascidian name Styela milleri Ritter, 1907 may likely be a tribute to Prof. Dr. Loye Holmes Miller, (13 Oct. - Minden, Louisiana) 1874-1970 (6 Apr.), who worked under Ritter at the growing Scripps laboratory, but mainly worked on palaeo-ornithology.

Lacking information about Miller in the fish name Bathylagus milleri Jordan and Gilbert in Jordan and Evermann, 1898, but possibly a tribute to Samuel Almond Miller, 1836-97, US paleontologist?

Miller : (see also Hubbs).

Miller in echinoderm names : (see the species name mikihe)

The gastropod name Clavatula milleti Petit de la Saussaye, 1851, named for "d'Angers, conchyliogiste de XIXe sieècle", must be a tribute to the French palaeontologist Pierre-Aimé Millet de la Turtaudière, 1783-1873, who was "Secrétaire Général de la Société d'Agriculture d'Angers" and i.a. published on invertebrates.

Fortescue William Millett, 1833-1915 (8 Feb.), who - at least partially - lived in London, where he was a founding member of the Quekett Club (q.v.), published on Malayan foraminiferans during the last decade of the 19:th and the first decade of the 20:th century and is honoured in the foraminiferan names Rosalina millettii Wright, 1911 and Textularia milletti Cushman, 1911. His name has also been used for 3 new foraminiferal genera: Millettia Schubert (1911), Millettiana Banner, Pereira & Desai (1985), and Millettella Rhumbler (1904) (but now regarded as a testate amoeba). The name milletii has been used for species, subspecies and varieties no fewer than 33 times, whilst Millett himself erected 55 species and varieties of foraminifera during his life. A paper "The life and works of Fortescue William Millett (1833-1915), foraminiferologist" was published in 2006 in Journal of Micropalaeontology by Dr Whittaker's colleague Richard L. Hodgkinson and Dr. Whittaker himself kindly provided much of the information above.

Milliganius Erséus, 1992 is named for Mr. Michael R. Milligan, (1 Aug.) 1951-, "(Mote Marine Laboratory, Florida - later Director of the Center for Systematics & Taxonomy, Sarasota, Florida), who has contributed considerably to the taxonomic knowledge of marine Tubificidae from Florida and other parts of the Caribbean area".

Dr. Joseph Milligan, (Dumfriesshire, Scotland) 1829-1884 (London), in the polyplacophoran name Ischnochiton milligani Iredale & May, 1916 was physician and Secretary of the Royal Society of Tasmania. He also worked closely with R.C. Gunn (q.v.) and collected botanical items for W.J. Hooker. He arrived to Tasmania in February 1831 and sailed back to Europe in 1860 (together with his 16 years old son, while his wife had died when the son was born). Beside natural history, he is best remembered for his studies of Aboriginal languages.

The holothurian name Holothuria (Thymiosycia) milloti Cherbonnier, 1988 and the Indian Ocean crab name Macrophthalmus milloti Crosnier, 1965 are possibly honouring Prof. Norman Millott, 1912-90 (24 Feb.), British echinoderm researcher. Another, perhaps more likely possibility, is the French physician and naturalist (mainly spider researcher) Prof. Dr. Jacques Millot, (9 July) 1897-1980 (23 Jan.), a friend of Lwoff (q.v.).

Dr. Claudia Eileen Mills, (Seattle) 1950-, US medusae and ctenophore researcher at Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington. Discovered her love of invertebrates in a summer class at the Bodega Marine Laboratories with Dr. Ralph Smith (q.v.), and was subsequently encouraged to begin independent studies by Dr. Cadet Hand (q.v.). She made her M.S. under R. Mariscal (q.v.) and her PhD under G. Mackie (q.v.). She has been in residence at The Friday Harbor Laboratories from 1977, where she has also kept alive her interest in terrestrial natural history. Her outside interests include music, art, and dance - she sometimes plays chamber music with other scientists including G. Mackie, M. Strathmann and E. Kozloff. The trachymedusa Crossota millsae Thuesen 2003 is named for Dr. Mills, (who kindly enough herself sent this information).

Prof. Dr. Eric Leonard Mills, (7 July - Toronto) 1936-, oceanography and marine biology historian in Halifax, Canada, who worked on amphipods during the 1960s [Axiokebuita millsi Pocklington & Fournier, 1987 (Scalibregmatidae), Acanthohaustorius millsi Bousfield, 1965].

William Milne, 18??-19?? (seems to have lived in 1927). MA, BSc & FRSE - who also published on Rotifera during the 1880s (and in 1904) - published on ciliates in Glasgow 1886 and is honoured in the ciliate names Holosticha milnei Kahl, 1932 and Amphisiella milnei Kahl, 1932. He may possibly be identical with a schoolmaster / mathematician by that name, living between 1854 and 15 Dec. 1946.

Lacking information about Milne in the sponge name Katiba milnei de Laubenfels, 1954.

Prof. Dr. Henri Milne Edwards, (23 Oct. - Bruges, Belgium) 1800-85 (29 July - Paris), the large name within French zoology during the middle of the 19:th century. He was the 27:th of the 28 (certain sources say 29) children of the Englishman William I. Edwards, who had been a planter and colonel in the militia in Jamaica. His mother was Elizabeth Vaux, Williams 2:nd wife and Henri was her 2:nd child, (so she was just responsible for a few of the children). His parents returned from this island to England, but moved rather soon to Bruges, Belgium (at that time part of France), where Henri was born. Henri was brought up in Paris by his older brother William Edwards, who was a well reputed physiologist there, because his father was prisoned for several years, after having helped some englishmen to escape from Belgium during the war. After the fall of Napoleon, the father was released and then the rest of the family also moved to Paris, where Henri took a MD in the beginning of the 1820s. He was, however, more interested in zoology and became a disciple of Cuvier (q.v.) together with i.a. Audouin (q.v.). In 1823 - the same year his father died - he married Mlle Laura Trézel, who bore him 9 children and also assisted him by illustrating several of his works. Henri was the father of Dr. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, (13 Oct. - Paris) 1835-1900 (21 Apr. - Paris), who during the last decade of the 19:th century was director of the Paris Natural History Museum and a specialist on (especially deep sea) decapod crustaceans; Henri was appointed professor of hygiene and natural history in 1832 (the year efter he became a French citicen) at ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, but moved to the chair of entomology at the Paris Museum in 1841, after the decease of his predecessor, friend and coauthor Audouin. Twenty years later he was transferred to the mammological chair, which long had been vacant after the decease of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (q.v.). Alphonse studied medicine (MD in 1860) and biology (D.Sc. in 1861) and was appointed assisting naturalist at the Paris Museum in 1862. In 1865 he was appointed professor of zoology of the School of Pharmacy in Paris, but succeded his father at the division of Mammalia and Aves at the Museum 11 years later and became eventually director of the museum in 1891. The name Milne was originally one of Henri's first names, but Henri put it to his family name in order to be discriminated from all his relatives. He usually did not use a hyphen between Milne and Edwards, but his son Alphonse always did and in literature references (including taxon authorship) the name of both father and son is most often hyphened, although perhaps only the name of the son should be [the actiniarian genera Edwardsia de Quatrefages, 1841, Edwardsiella Andres, 1883 (the rod lile bacterial genus Edwardsiella R. Sakazaki & al., 1962 is instead named after Philip R. Edwards, 1901-1966, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, Ga.), the sea star genus Henricia J.E. Gray, 1840, Myrianida edwardsi (de Saint-Joseph, 1887), Lophoura edwardsi Kölliker, 1853, Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus (Johnson, 1867), Plesionika edwardsii (Brandt, 1851), Dynamene. edwardsi (Lucas, 1849), Grapsicepon edwardsi Giard & Bonnier, 1888, Glossocephalus milneedwardsi Bovallius, 1887, Onisimus edwardsii (Krøyer, 1846), Diastylis edwardsi (Krøyer, 1841), Neoamphitrite edwardsii (de Quatrefages, 1865), Colpaster edwardsi (Perrier, 1882), Milnesium Doyère, 1840, Jasus edwardsii (Hutton, 1875), Odontozona edwardsi (Bouvier, 1908), Milneedwardsia Bourguignat, 1877, Boeckosimus edwardsii (Krøyer, 1846), Lithophyllon edwardsi (Rosseau, 1850), Goniastria edwardsi Chevalier, 1971, Fedora edwardsi Jullien, 1882, Ciona edwardsi (Roule, 1886), Maasella edwardsi (de Lacaze-Duthiers, 1888), Forskalia edwardsi Kölliker, 1853, Costa edwardsii (Roemer, 1838), Colobomatus edwardsi (Richiardi, 1876), Salmincola edwardsi (Olsson, 1869), Aristaeopsis edwardsianus (Johnson, 1867), Sergestes edwardsii Krøyer, 1855, Odontozona edwardsi (Bouvier, 1908), Alphaeus edwardsii (Audouin, 1826), Ebalia edwardsii Costa, 1838, Fedora edwardsi Jullien, 1882, Teuchopora edwardsi (Jullien, 1882), Calliostoma milneedwardsi Locard, 1898, Ocinebrina edwardsii Payraudeau, 1826, Discodoris edwardsi Vayssière, 1902, Tergipes edwardsii Nordmann, 1844, Sadayoshia edwardsii (Miers, 1884), Periclimenes edwardsi (Paulson, 1875), Ocenebra edwardsi Payraudeau, 1826, Conus milneedwardsi F. P. Jousseaume, 1894, Montipora edwardsi Bernard, 1879, Goniastrea edwardsi Chevalier, 1971, Pagurus edwardsi (Dana, 1852), Chirostylus milneedwardsi (Henderson, 1885), Pisoides edwardsi Bell, 1835, Cancer edwardsi Bell, 1835, Haploblepharus edwardsii Voigt, 1832, Diogenes edwardsii (de Haan, 1849), Styracaster edwardsi Perrier, 1885 (a synonym of S. armatus Sladen, 1883)].

The bivalve name Milneria Dall, 1881 is a tribute to the US ichthyologist Dr. James Wood Milner, 1841-79.

Lacking information about Milton in the scleractinian name Oulangia stokesiana miltoni Yabe & Eguchi, 1932.

Milton : (see also Milton Foster).

Lacking information about Minard in the cirripedian name Verum minardi (Weltner, 1???). The author died in 1917, so this Minard was likely born during the 19:th century (if the name is not a toponym named after Minard Islands in Scotland or a similar name location).

Professor Edward Alfred Minchin, (22 Feb. - Weston-super-Mare, Somerset) 1866-1915 (30 Sep. - Selsey, Sussex), British zoologist, Prof. of Protozoology at the Univ. of London, working i.a. on calcareous sponges and anatomy of sponges. From his birth he suffered from a constitutional weakness. He grew stronger with age, yet the premature close of his career was no doubt due to the physical disabilities against which he had so bravely struggled to the very end. [Halichondria minchini (Topsent, 1896), Pleraplysilla minchini Topsent, 1905, Minchinella Kirkpatrick, 1908].

Ralph "Roy" Waldo Miner, (24 Feb. - North Adams, Berkshire, Massachusetts) 1875-1955 (Dec. - Stonington, New London, Connecticut), US marine biologist, who at age 30 joined the American Museum of Natural History in New York. [Metapenaeopsis mineri Burkenroad, Gnathophylloides mineri Schmitt, 1933].

Dr. Yu. S. Minichev, 19??-97, malacologist and comparative anatomist at the Leningrad State University and Zoological Institute, Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) during the 1970s and -80s (and a disciple of A.V. Ivanov (q.v.)), is honoured in the gastropod name Minicheviella Starbogatov in Likharev, 1983. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

The amphipod name Atylus minikoi (A.O. Walker, 1905) is likely named for the Minikoi Island (among - but a bit away from the Laccadives) rather than for a person's name.

The eponym of Macrocypris minna (Baird, 1850) is likely not honouring a living person, but named for the Shetlander Magnus Troil's daugther Minna in Sir Walter Scott's novel "The Pirate" from 1821. This species was collected in the Shetland area by MacAndrew (q.v.) together with i.a. Philomedes brenda (Baird, 1850) and Brenda (likely derived from the Nordic male name Brand - known at least since the 12:th century) was the sister of Minna in the novel. After the publication of this novel, Brenda became a very popular name of girls also outside of the Shetlands, because she stayed home with her lover Mordaunt Mertoun, while Minna followed the pirate captain Clement Cleveland on his ship and therefore was less accepted by the readers, so Minna is still today a rather uncommon name of girls. (In P.G. Moore, 2005. Dr Baird and his feminine eponyms; biographical considerations and ostracod nomenclature. Archives of Natural History 32(1): 92-105, Prof. Moore elucidates also Baird's names Cylindroleberis mariae (Baird, 1850 and Cypris joanna Baird 1835, suggesting that these names may honour Maria Edgeworth, (1 Jan. - Blackbourton, Oxfordshire) 1767-1849 (May - Edgeworthstown, Ireland), and William and John Hunter's (q.v.) niece Joanna Baillie, (11 Sep. - Bothwell, Lanarkshire) 1762-1851 (23 Feb. - Hampstead, the London area), i.e. two well-known feministically radical writers of plays, poetry and novels in Ireland and Scotland and prominent associates of W. Scott, although in the case of the first of these names of course Baird's own wife Mary may have been the primarily honoured person).

Dr. Takashi Minoda, 1932-, Japanese, who published on distribution of copepods.

Miranda : (see Niel Bruce).

Dr. Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, (21 Feb.) 1874-1939 (8 Jan.), Brazil ichthyologist, from 1894 curator at the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro, in 1929 (until his decease) Prof. at the Drep. of Zoology there.

Dr. Alexander N. Mironov, 19??-, Russian (Shirshov Institute, Moscow) biogeographer and echinoderm taxonomist [Hyalopomatus mironovi Kupriyanova, 1993, Hymenasterides mironovi Dilman, 2008].

Who is Miroslav in the harpacticoid name Miroslavia Apostolov, 1980?

Edith Ronald Mirrielees, (10 Sep. - Pittsfield, Illinois) 1878-1962 (3 June - Stanford, Calif.), teacher at the Stanford Univ., California.

The gastropod name Conus miruchae D. Röckel, E. Rolán & A. A. Monteiro 1980 is in honour of the Spanish shell collector Casimira Garrido Montes, 19??-, known to friends as Mirucha.

Lacking information about Misara in the tanaid name Apseudes misarai Bacescu, 1980.

Cynthia Mischler, 19??-, US geologist at Florida Atlantic Univ. [Melongena cynthiae Petuch 1990].

Lacking information about Miscowich in the gastropod name Ocinebrina miscowichi Pallary, 1920, changed to O. miscowichae by Houart 1997, so the honoured person must be a female.

The ostracod species Eucytherura mistrettai Sissingh, 1972 has been named in honour of Francesco Mistretta, 19??-, who in 1967 had described the new species as Eucytherura ruggierii from Quaternary sediments near Palermo, Sicily. That species name, however, turned out to be a primary junior homonym of Eucytherura ruggierii Van den Bold, 1958, so that a nomen novum was necessary. Nowadays the species is known as Renicytherura (Neocytherura) mistrettai (Sissingh, 1972) Malz & Jellinek, 1984. (Prof. Dr. Eugen Karl Kempf, Frechen, Germany, kindly provided this information)

The actinian name Mesacmaea mitchellii (Gosse, 1853) is not a tribute to Mr. Philip Mitchell, (Devonport) 1814-1896, who had settled in Plymouth around 1845, - member of the New Water Colour Society - who i.a. sketched some of the vignettes in Bate & Westwood's "British sessileyed Crustacea" from 1863, but to the illustrator (of mainly birds) David William Mitchell, 1813-1859 (Paris), Secretary of the Zoological Society of London between 1847-59 and during the end of his life working as director of the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris, but died rather soon after his arrival there.

Lacking information about Margaret O. Mitchell, 18??-1??? (still publishing in 1892), in the brown algal name Hincksia mitchelliae (Harvey) P..C. Silva in P.C. Silva, Meñez & R.L. Moe, 1987.

The gastropod name Amaea mitchelli (Dall, 1896) and the bivalve name Macoma mitchelli Dall, 1895 are honouring Joseph Daniel Mitchell, (22 Oct. - Mitchell's Point, Calhoun County, Texas) 1848-1922 (27 Feb. - San Antonio, Texas), farmer and naturalist, who first found these species.

Lacking information about Mitsui in the polyclade name Ilyplanoides mitsuii Kato, 1944 and in the nudibranch name Diaphorodoris mitsuii (Baba, 1938).

The polyplacophoran name Ischnochiton mitsukurii H. A. Pilsbry, 1898, the echiuroid name Protobonellia mitsukurii Ikeda, 1908, the dogfish name Squalus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder, 1903 and the shark genus Mitsukurina Jordan, 1898 and the ctenophore name Coeloplana mitsukurii Abbott, 1902 are likely honouring the Japanese holothuroid researcher Prof. Dr. Kakichi Mitsukuri, (Edo) 1858-1909 (16 Sep. - Tokyo), who i.a. worked at the Naples Zoological station and also published a Japanese-English dictionary. He had achieved his PhD in 1883 at Johns Hopkins Univ., USA and founded the Misaki Marine Laboratory in 1887.

Prof. Dr. Tomoyuki (Tomo) Miura, 1951-, Japanese polychaetologist at the Kagoshima University, who has made essential contributions to unusual polychaetes and deep-water families of that group [Miura Blake, 1993, Eunice miurai Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998]. A namesake is the copepod researcher Yoshifumi Miura , 1923-, of Tatsuno High School, Japan.

Prof. Dr. Denzaburo Miyadi, 1901-1988, Kyoto Univ., Japanese malacologist working on Alaskan material, is honoured in the bivalve name Maorithyas miyadii T. Habe, 1951.

Prof. Sadayoshi Miyake, 1908-1998 (30 Sep.), Japanese crustacean researcher at Kyushu Univ., who had been a disciple of Prof. Hiroshi Ohshima, is honoured in the anomuran names Sadayoshia miyakei Baba, 1969, Tomopaguropsis miyakei McLaughlin, 1997, in the hermit crab name Aniculus miyakei Forest, 1984 and in the stomatopod name Miyakea Manning, 1995. A namesake is the Japanese biologist Kiichi Miyake, 1875 (or 1876?)-1964, who i.a. worked at the Naples Zoological station.

The giant isopod name Bathynomus miyarei Castro 1978 is honouring Acisclo Miyares del Valle, 19??-, who sent the material to the author for description. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Miyoko in the gastropod name Pterynotus loebbeckei miyokoae S. Kosuge, 1979.

The copepod name Haplostoma mizoulei Monniot, 1962, described from an interstitial ascidian, may likely be a tribute to the French crab researcher Dr. Robert Mizoule, 19??-, Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls-sur-Mer.

Dr. Erik Georg Mjöberg, (6 Aug. - Ås, Halland) 1882-1938 (8 July - Stockholm), Swedish entomologist and travelling collector. PhD in Lund in 1912, working at SMNH in Stockholm 1914-16, directed the zoological research at the Deli station, Sumatra between 1919-21 and between 1922-24 he was director of the Sarawak museum, Borneo. He also collected much in Australia for SMNH [Cyanea mjoebergi Stiasny, 1921, Conopea mjobergi (Broch,1916), Archibonellia mjoebergi Fischer, 1921, Ogyrides mjobergi (Balss, 1921), Sigillina mjoebergi Hartmeyer, 1919].

The Kenyan marine nematode Aponema mnazi Muthumbi & Vincx, 1999 is not in honour of a person's name, but mnazi is the Kishwahili name for coconut. (In the same paper the authors also described Microlaimus pwani for the Kishwahili word for coast and Bolbolaimus bahari for the Kishwahili word for sea).

The amphipod name Eriopisa mochimae v.d.Ham & Vonk, 2003 is named for Bay of Mochima, thus a toponym rather than an eponym. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

Adolph Modéer, (15 Apr. - Karlskrona) 1739-99 (16 July - Stockholm), Swedish surveyor, economical, pedagogical and natural history writer, who during the 1790s wrote some educational papers, e.g. about worms (including some shell-less molluscs). He was a liberal writer supporting equality between the sexes, free trade (& freedom of trade), education of the people, etc. [Modeeria Forbes, 1846].

Hans Modell, 1898-1969, German Malacologist.

Lacking iunformation about Moe in the triclad name Probursa moei Corrêa, 1960.

Prof. Dr. Øjvind Moestrup, 1941-, Danish aquatic botanist, working particularly on protoctist unicellular algae.

John Traherne Moggridge, (8 Mar. - Woodfield) 1842-1874 (24 Nov. - Mentone, France), British botanist, entomologist and spider researcher [Amphithoe moggridgei Bate, 1855 (a synonym of Gamarellus homari (Fabricius, 1779))]

Blanchard's & J. Richard's 1891 publication was about the fauna of the Salt Lakes of Algeria, 380 km from the Mediterranean coast. The authors described a series of harpacticoid copepods giving species names suggestive of North Africa. Only one of these was defined, and the others were left to the reader's imagination. One was Laophonte mohammed, an especially interesting species because all others of the genus are from true marine localities. Most likely this species name was inspired by Mohammed, ((Mecca) 570-632 (8 June)), the Prophet and Founder of Islam. A second new species was Dactylopus jugurtha, certainly named for Jugurtha ((Cirta) around 160-104 BC (Roma, after starving to death)), a Libyan name meaning "(he) is greater than them", the King of Numidia (ancient Algeria), who became defeated by the Roman army (Lucius C. Sulla) and brought to Rome in chains after beeing betrayed by his father-in-law. A third, Canthocamptus yahiai, we are told, was named for a holy man (marabout), the founder of Sidi Yahia (where the copepod was collected) and the Algerian town of Tougourt, an imam named Sidi Yahia Tadelsi or Sidi Yahia Al Andalusu. The last was Mesochra lybica, probably after Libya (notwithstanding the spelling error), the ancient Greek name for North Africa, and Libycus, an inhabitant of the same. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Vøringen : the ship, which the summers 1876-78 was used for "Den Norske Nordhavsexpeditionen" (the Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition) in the Norwegian Sea under direction of the meteorologist Prof. Dr. Henrik Mohn, (15 May - Bergen) 1835-1916 (12 Sep. - Oslo) and the zoologist G.O. Sars (q.v.) [Mohnia Friele in Kobelt, 1878 mohni (Friele, 1877)].

The amphipod names Paramoera mohri J.L. Barnard, 1952 and Protohyale mohri Bousfield & Hendrycks, 2002 are honouring the colourful Prof. Dr. John Luther Mohr, 19??-, Hancock Foundation, Univ. of Southern California, who also is honoured in the copepod name Dorypygus mohri Illg, 1958. He i.a. worked on Limnoria and their unicellular commensals, with whale lice and with several other items. He started publishing already during the 1940s (or possibly the 1930s) and has kept publishing at least as late as 2007. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

Dr. h.c. Erna Mohr, (11 July - Hamburg) 1894-1968 (10 Sep.), German ichthyologist.

Lacking information about Moign in the amphipod name Oediceros moigni Lagardère, 1968. There is at least one A. Moign and one Y Moign, who has worked on marine biology and also a T. Le Moign.

Mr. Todd Lopez Moise, 1876-1954, US Malacologist, owner of the yacht "Escape", is honoured in the gastropod name Vexillum moisei McGinty, 1955.

Prosper-Antoine Moitessier, 1807-67, from Montepellier, French organ builder and malacologist [Moitessieria Bourguignat, 1863].

The scleractinian name Lithophyllon mokai Hoeksema, 1989 must be a tribute to Dr. Willem Moka, 19??-, who has published together with Hoeksema on corals.

Species names mokari from Australia may be named for Aborig. mokari meaning "new" and not for a person.

The hagfish name Paramyxine moki Charmion, McMillan & Wisner, 2004 is in honour of Prof. Dr. Michael Hin-kiu Mok, 19??-, PhD at City Univ. New York in 1978, of National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Taiwan for his many outstanding contributions to the knowledge of hagfishes.

Oleg Borisovich Mokievsky (Mokyevsky) (Ukraine) 1921– 1972 (Moscow; fatal accident), candidate of biological sciences (1947), specialist on littoral and its typology. Theme of his dissertation "Quantitative register of coastal zoobenthos of Western Crimea". He is honoured in the sipunculan name Thysanocardia mokyevskii (Murina, 1964). (Prof. A. Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Arvid Ragnar Molander, (21 Mar. - Tranemo) 1886-1965 (21 Apr. - Lysekil), Swedish zoologist (PhD in 1916), who began working on Anthozoans, later on with soft bottom communities and fisheries biology, eventually (1948-54) director of the Sea Fisheries Laboratory in Lysekil, where he had worked since 1929, after having spent the period 1913-15 at the Bornö hydrographical station in the Gullmar Fjord and the period 1915-29 at the Kristineberg Marine Biological Station [Kophobelemnon molanderi Pasternak,1975]. He is the father of i.a. Märta Arvidsdotter Molander, (20 Dec. - Fiskebäckskil) 1919-, (researcher - Fil. Lic. - on Gobiidae and marine pollution), who married Bertil Swedmark (q.v.).

Prof. Dr. Raphael (Raffaele) Molin, 1825-1887, physician, zoologist and parasitologist is honoured in the acanthocephalan name Telosentis molini Van Cleave, 1923. Molin published much from Wien on parasitical nematodes during the 1850s-60s, usually in Latin or Italian. Evidently he had published several species descriptions regarding fishes before this time. He was Professor at the Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia dell'Università di Padova between 1851-66. His biography was published in 1911.

Juan (Giovanni) Ignacio (Ignazio) Molina, (24 June) 1740-1829 (12 Sep.), Natural history researcher, born in Talca, Chile, deceased in Bologna, Italy. He studied languages and natural history in a Jesuit college, and was appointed librarian at the college after becoming a member of this order. Because jesuits were not longer allowed in Spanish controlled areas, he left Chile for Italy in 1768, where he 1774 was appointed professor of Natural History in Bologna. His natural history notes were lost during the emigration and most of his works from Chile was later on written from memory. The grass genus Molinia is named for him.

Raphael Arango y Molina, 1837-96, Spanish-Cuban malacologist.

The algal name Audouinella molinieri (Coppejans & Boudouresque, 1976) Garbary, 1979 was named for Prof. Dr. René Molinier, (1 June - Paris) 1899-1975 (20 June), father of the French biologist Prof. Roger Molinier, (16 Apr. - Dieupentale) 1927-1991 (1 Apr. - Marseille), with the same occupation.

The bivalve name Teredo molli Felix Roch, 1931 is in honour of Dr. Moll. In 1929 Moll co-authoured a work on Teredinids with Roch. Of course Baron Karl Marie Ehrenbert von Moll, (21 Dec. - Thalgau) 1760-1838 (31 Jan. - Augsburg), German geologist and physicist, who also was active i.a. as entomologist (and had a very large library - 80 000 volumes, which partly went to the University library of Moscow, partly to the British Museum) can not be this person, because he lived long before Roch. Instead the honoured person must be Dr. Friedrich Rudolf Heinrich Carl Moll, (31 Jan. - Culm, Germany) 1882-1951 (8 May - Berlin), who published with Roch about the Teredinidae of the Zoological Museum in Berlin and Hamburg and in 1952 published about the same family in African waters. He worked as an engine operator on English trawlers in the beginning of the century, but became more and more interested in preserving of wood, especially from shipworms and achieved his PhD on this item in Berlin in 1920.

Isabelle Mollaret, 19??-, French monogenean researcher.

Dr. Tina N. Molodtsova, 19??-, Cnidarian worker in P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, in Moscow, who is primarily a specialist in Ceriantharia and Antipatharia, but also works on other groups, like e.g. octocorals.

Dr. Albert Monard, (2 Sep. - Ponts-de-Martel) 1886-1952 (27 Sep. - La Chaux-de-Fonds), was Swiss, working in Chaux-de-Fonds. He made six collecting trips to Africa between 1928 and 1947 and wrote many valuable papers on copepods, but also was known for work with reptiles and other groups. Monard's standing among copepodologists is noted by the 19 species named for him, even up to our time [Amonardia Lang, 1948, Robertsonia monardi (Klie, 1937), Ameiropsyllus monardi Bodin, 1979 & Laophontopsis monardi Huys & Willems, 1989, Peltidium monardi Pesta, 1935, Diosaccus monardi Sewell, 1940, Schizopera monardi Petkovski, 1955, Eurycletodes monardi Smirnov, 1946, Enhydrosomella monardi Por, 1967, Metamphiascopsis monardi (Lang, 1934), Halectinosoma monardi Soyer, 1973]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly supplied this information).

Father Moncet, French missionary in Africa. This must be Father Auguste Moncet, 1849-1889, who together with his associate Father Moinet, worked in the area of Lake Tanganyika during the 1880s. [Moncetia Bourguignat, 1885].

Paul Robert Monfils, 1945-, US medical histologist and amateur conchologist [Cotonopsis monfilsi W.K. Emerson, 1993].

Lacking information about Monica in the isopod name Bellibos monicae (Chardy, 1975).

Dr. Romain Louis Moniez, (17 Feb. - Quesnoy) 1852-1936 (5 Jan. - Bordeaux), French physician and parasitologist, who studied in Lille, best-known for his work on cestodes. He also published on lower crustaceans, marine mites, and insects [Portunion moniezi (Giard, 1878)]. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly supplied much of this information).

The Madeira gastropod name Alvania moniziana Watson, 1873 is in honour of Sr. J.M. Moniz, 18??-1???, who published on terrestrial gastropods from this Island.

The gastropod name Fusinus monksae (Dall, 1915) is likely honouring Sarah Preston Monks, (9 Oct. - Cold Springs, N.Y.) 1846-1926 (10 July - San Pedro, California), (the suggested birth date is one of several possible dates), A.B. Vassar 1871, A.M. 1876. Listed in "Woman's who's who of America... 1914-1915. (David Hollombe kindly suggested who the honoured person was, also providing all the information about her).

Lacking information about Monnat in the mesozoan name Stoecharthrum monnati Kozloff, 1993.

Prof. Dr. Claude Monniot, (Fontenay/sous/Bois (Val de Marne)) 1936-2008 (12 July - stroke), and Françoise Monniot, 1936-, French family at the MNHN, Paris; C. Monniot was early interested in marine biology and learned SCUBA diving after studies at Banyuls in his military service. Prof. Delamare-Deboutteville (q.v.) inspired him to study ascidians and while teaching at the Univ. of Nancy during 1961-63, he married his colleague, who also collected ascidians at Banyuls. After military service in Brazzaville during 1963-64, he was back in Paris in 1965, where he achieved his PhD. A few years before his death, he had another stroke, which affected his ability to speak, but kept on researching together with his wife. [Phallodrilus monnioti Erséus, 1987, Agnezia monnioti Young & Vazquez, 1997, Microcharon monnioti Bocquet, 1970, Hastigerella monniotae (Guille & Soyer, 1966), Nolella (Franzenella) monniotae d'Hondt 1975, Eccliseogyra monnioti Bouchet & Warén, 1986, Acarromantis monnioti Morselli, 1970, Rhynchothorax monnioti Arnaud, 1974, Pontonia monnioti A.J. Bruce, l990, Leptanthura monnioti Negoescu, 1994, Heterogenys monnioti Crosnier, 1987, Scaptognathus monnioti Newell, 1984].

Prof. André Théodore Monod, (9 Apr. - Rouen) 1902-2000 (22 Nov.), French zoologist working on crustaceans, fishes and geography of the Sahara (and also spermatophytes), probably best known as the discoverer of the first species of Termosbaenacea, which Seurat (q.v.) had collected in a hot spring in Tunesia. He started as an assistant at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, later director of the Institut Français d'Afrique Noire in Dakar for 25 years. The names of 3 genara and 48 species of crustaceans is honouring him [Monodella Ruffo, 1949, Lernanthropus monodi, Lekanesphaera monodi (Arcangeli, 1934), Amphiascus monodi Monard, 1952, Diagoniceps monodi Chappuis & Kunz, 1955, Afrolaophonte monodi Chappuis, 1960, Alcyonium monodi Tixier-Durivault, 1955, Bomolochus monodi (Brian, 1924), Plesiopontonia monodi A.J. Bruce, 1985, Bradya theodori Soyer, 1973, Leptomesochra theodoridis Soyer, 1966, Neocallichirus monodi (de Saint Laurent & Le Loeuff, 1979), Paranchiphimedia monodi Ruffo, 1949, Heterocressa monodi Nicholls, 1938, Elaphognathia monodi Bacescu, 1960, Ichthyanisakis monodi Gendre, 1928, Paranisakis monodi (Gendre, 1928), Haploniscus monodi Chardy, 1974, Bathygnathia monodi Cals, 1974, Ixa monodi Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1956, Paractaea monodi Guinot, 1969, Afropinnotheres monodi Manning, 1993, Gyrostoma monodi Carlgren, 1927, Paratanais monodi Makkaveeva, 1971, Cynoglossus monodi Chabanaud, 1949, Erythrocles monodi Poll & Cadenat, 1954, Petrolisthes monodi Chace, 1956, likely Natica monodi Marche-Marchad, 1957].

Dr. Charles Carmichael Arthur Monro, (14 Sep. (christened: 25 Oct. in Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu, India)) 1894-1968? (an obituary seems to have been published in June 1968), British polychaetologist. Head of the Annelida section at the Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist) between 1922-42 [Sabellaria monroi Kirtley, 1994].

The gastropod name Colubraria monroei McGinty, 1962 is in honour of Henry H. Monroe, 1???-, "whose extensive collecting in Cuba and the West Indies has brought together an outstanding collection from this area".

The monogenean name Pseudomazocraes monsivaisae Caballero & Bravo Hollis, 1955 must be a tribute to one of its collectors, Guadalupe Monsivais Aguilar, 19??-,.

The military physician and botanist Dr. Jean Pierre François Camille Montagne, (15 Feb. - Vaudoy, Seine-et-Marne) 1784-1866 (5 Dec. - Paris), who i.a. published on phycology, is honoured in the algal names Dermocorynys montagnei Crouan frat., 1858, Cystoseira montagnei J. Agardh, Sarcodia montagneana (J. Hooker & Harvey) J. Agardh and Erythrocystis montagnei (Derbès & Solier,) P.C. Silva and in the gastropod name Cerithidea montagnei (d'Orbigny, 1837).

The harpacticoid name Triathrix montagni Gee & Burgess, 1997 must be a tribute to Dr. Paul A. Montagna, 19??-, PhD at the Univ. of South Carolina in 1983, i.a. harpacticoid researcher.

George Montagu, (18 June) 1753-1815 (20 June), (year of birth varying in different sources, one giving 1751 and a few giving 1755, but he was baptised in Lacock Church on July 9, 1753 and in 1897 his crypt with the inscription of birth and decease days as above was found in the Kingsbridge parish church), prominent English amateur naturalist from Wiltshire. (The name Montagu originates from a French place: Mont Aign). He enlisted himself - as was customary for the 2:nd son of a family (having an older brother and 5 sisters) - 1770, married Anne (usually spelled Ann), 17??-1816 (10 Feb. - Bristol Hotwells), (the eldest daughter of William Courtenay and Lady Jane Stuart; Ann was a granddaughter of the Earl of Bute, Prime Minister to George III) after a few years, but his regiment was 1775 moved to the rebellious transatlantic colonies, where he and the regiment successfully served for a few years. (One of his relatives, Admiral John Montagu, 1719-95, (the late Lady Diana Spencer's 6-Great Grandfather), was in command of the British navy there and also Commander-in-chief of all British soldiers on the Atlantic coast of North America). George Montagu was now a captain and at the return to England he left the army and eventually was promoted to Liuetenant-Colonel at the Wiltshire militia in 1791, a rank he kept until 1799, when he was deprived his insignias after he had been brought before a war tribunal, accused of supposed "womenkind affaires" (he had wearied of his wife and her demands of society life and had affairs on the side for several years; eventually he, however, left those side affairs during the late 1790s, after he had found a new life companion (they had first met in London in 1889 or 1890), a like-minded spirit, Mrs. Elizabeth Dorville (née Wolff - from Balham and daughter of the Christiania (Oslo) born merchant and Danish Consul in England Georg Wolff, 1736-1828, who had established a trading company (in reality established by Georg and his two years older brother Ernst already in 1767 after that Georg having practiced in 1859 with a Norwegian merchant in London, but in 1792, Georg's son Jens and his son in law John Dorville got responsibility in the company, which from that time was named Wolff & Dorville) and he was a very good friend of John Wesley, 1703-1791, the founder of the Methodist church), 176?-1844, (with whom Montagu got a son Henry (see Dorville) and several daughters, Isabella, Georgina and Arabella (born in 1801), except the three children (John William, Elizabeth & George Philip) which Mrs Dorville had from her marriage to Mr. Dorville, her father's and brother's partner in the trading firm), who helped him with drawings of natural history objects, but he was unwilling to divorce his first wife - the latter perhaps partly because of religious motives). The verdict of the tribunal implied that he could spend all his time studying the nature, which gradually had attended his interest already during the war in America, albeit an ornithological interest had been in his mind since childhood. His new life together with Mrs Dorville, who had divorced her husband John, became happy and he wrote several articles about marine life along the South Devon coast, one book about birds and the mollusc work "Testacea Britannica" 1803-08 (which includes foraminiferans, which were considered to be small molluscs by Montagu). His favourite "hunting-ground" was Salcombe Harbour. Tetanus, achieved from a rusty nail, which he tread on by mistake and penetrated his heal three days before he died, when having his house repaired, in the summer 1815, became his Fate, although he had suffered from gout the last decades of his life. His father James had died 25 Apr. 1790 (born Jan. 1713) (his mother Eleanor, née Hedges, had died when he was very young) and his oldest brother James, born 1749, died in Sep. 1797, but in 1800 George Montagu moved to Knowle House close to Kingsbridge, where Mrs. Dorville had resided since Dec. 1797 and there he stayed for the rest of his life, while his eldest son George Conway Montagu, 1776-1847, partly lived at the Manor of Lackham in Wiltshire (James' residence) during his younger days, where his father had grown up (but later partly had lived in his maternal grandfather's estate Alderton, Gloucestershire). The younger George had a few siblings, Eleanora Anne, born 1780, Frederick Conway Courtenay, born 1883 (died in the battle of Albuera 1811 - a Memorial poem is directed to the memory of Major Frederick Augustus Montagu, so perhaps he himself used this name instead of the one he got when he was christained) and Louisa Matilda Jane, (27 Sep.) 1787-1857, who in 1822 married the barrister Matthew Crawford, Staindrop, Durham and moved with her husband to London. Louisa published "The commonplace Book" and later "The Battle of Culloden". (See also his friend and employee John Gibbs, his friend and relative Charles Prideaux and his friend John Cranch). [Pandalus montagui Leach, 1814, Montacuta Turton, 1822, Astarte montagui Dillwyn, 1817, Polinices montagui (Forbes, 1838), Raja montagui Fowler, 1910, Liparis montagui (Donovan, 1808), Chthamalus montagui Southward, 1976, Isaea montagui Milne-Edwards, 1830, Gymnangium montagui (Billard, 1912), Orchestia montagui Audouin, 1826, Jujubinus montagui W.Wood, 1828].

de Montano : (see Howard de Montano).

António Monteiro, (15 Aug. - Lisboa) 1951-, Lisboa, Portuguese mathemathics teacher, collector and conchologist, co-author in a part of the Iconography on Conidae of West-Africa. [Stomatella monteiroi  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Tommaso Allery di Maria, marchese di Monterosato, (27 June - Palermo) 1841-1927 (1 Mar. - Palermo), Italian malacologist. He was married to Teresa, enjoyed good company and is said to hve had great humour. [Melanella monterosatoi Monterosato, 1890, Allerya Bourguignat, 1876, Lymanaea alleryi Bourguignat, 1881, Helix alleryana Crosse 1869, Allerychiton Dell'Angelo & Oliverio, 1997, Lepidochitona monterosatoi P. Kaas & R. A. Van Belle, 1981, Rugulina monterosatoi van Aartsen & Bogi, 1987, Rissoa alleryi Nordsieck, 1972, Spirotropis monterosatoi Locard, 1897, Heliacus alleryi G. Seguenza, 1876, Chrysallida monterosatii Clessin, 1900, Acteon monterosatoi Dautzenberg, 1889, Philine monterosati Vayssière, 1885, Roxania monterosatoi Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1896, Evalea alleryi Nordsieck, 1972, Turritella monterosatoi Kobelt, 1887].

The west American Gastropod name Cerithiopsis montezumai A. M. Strong & J. G. Hertlein, 1939 is likely named for the Aztec ruler Montezuma II (or rather Montecuhzoma Xocoyotzin), (Tenochitlan, now named Mexico City) ca 1466-1520 (June, aged around 54), who likely was killed by Hernán Cortés' troops.

Pierre Dénys de Montfort, 1766-1820, French naturalist, who published "Conchyliologie systematique, et classification methodique des coquilles...," in 1808-10 [Montfortia Récluz, 1843, Typhis montforti A. Adams, 1863, Chrysallida (Trabecula) montforti (Corgan, 1972)].

Mr. Charles Tom Montgomery, 1908-????, of Maple Creek, Canada, amateur malacologist, who collected the holotype of Terebra montgomery R.D. Burch, 1965.

Dr. Stephen K. Montgomery, 18??-19??, FLS (in 1913), physician, who treated the Australian crabs from the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Abrolhos in a work from 1931.

Monticellina Laubier, 1961 is likely named for Count Prof. Francesco Saverio Monticelli, (5 Sep. - Napoli) 1863-1928 (5 Sep. - Napoli, from a serious pulmonary disease), helminthologist in Naples, who published between around 1888-1910 and is i.a. credited for having first detected the Placozoan Treptoplax. [Monticellia La Rue, 1911, Monticellius, Benedenia monticelli (Parona & Perugia, 1895), Diesingiella monticellii (Moniez, 1892), Acanthocotyle monticellii Scott, 1902, Bothriocephalus monticelli Ariola, 1899, Trigonocotyle monticellii (Linton, 1923)], less likely for Prof. Dr. Teodoro Monticelli, (5 Oct. - Brindisi) 1759-1846 (Pozzuoli), naturalist (mainly mineralogist) in first Salerno, then Naples, then Rome.

The gastropod name Conus montillai D. Röckel, 1985 is in honour of Manuel O. Montilla, 1928-98, conchologist and shell dealer from the Philippines. (Mildred M. Montilla, the honoured person's widow, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Pierre Charles Georges Montouchet, 1936-89, French-born marine zoologist of the Instituto Oceanographico de Sao Paulo, Brazil, is honoured in the polyplacophoran name Lepidochitona montoucheti G. Righi, 1973, in the caprelloid name Falotritella montoucheti Quitete, 1971 and in the holothuroid name Thyone montoucheti Tommasi, 1971. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information and André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided the rest).

Reverendus Pater (R.P.) Jean Xavier Hyacinthe Montrouzier, (3 Dec. - Montpellier) 1820-97 (16 May - Saint-Louis (New Caledonia)), a missionary, who worked on i.a. molluscs from the Calédonie archipelago and was a pioneer student of the natural history of these islands, is honoured in the gastropod names Haliotinella montrouzieri Souverbie, 1875, Ancilla montrouzieri (Souverbie, 1860) & Thorunna montrouzieri Rudman, 1995. The buttefly Papilio montrouzieri Boisduval, 1859 is also very famous. (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided much of this information).

Dr. Richard Mooi, 1958-, Californian Academy of Science, Echinoid researcher, who got his education at the Univ. of Toronto, Canada.

Robert Gerard Moolenbeek, (15 Nov.) 1949-, born in Curacao (N.A.), curator of mollusca at Zoological Mus., Amsterdam, is honoured in the gastropod names Chrysallida moolenbeeki Amati, 1987, Haplocochlias moolenbeeki de Jong & Coomans, 1988, Alvania moolenbeeki de Jong & Coomans, 1988 & Folinella moolenbeeki van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998.

Donald Richard Moore, (16 Feb. - West Palm Beach, Florida) 1921-97 (19 Oct.), US malacologistat the University of Miami Marine Laboratory [Cypraea donmoorei Petuch,1979, Murex donmoorei Bullis,1964, Weedingia mooreana Kaas, 1988, Olivella moorei Abbott, 1951]. An earlier English malacological namesake was John Edmund Sharrock Moore, 1870-1947, who i.a. coined the term "meiosis".

Dr. Emmeline Moore, (29 Apr. - Batavia, New York) 1872-1963 (12 Sep.), US Ichthyologist.

Prof. P. Geoffrey Moore, 1947-, marine ecologist at the University Marine Biological Station Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland. Beside marine ecological work, he has also worked much on amphipod taxonomy. See e.g. eponyms like judithae, ruperti, rodericki, penelope and dixoni. During later years he has also become very interested in the history of Natural History and published on such items.

Dr. George Thomas Moore, (23 Feb. - Indianapolis, Indiana) 1871-1956 (27 Nov. - St Louis, Missouri), used another (wrong) name in 1900, when writing about the alga later known as Halochlorococcum moorei (N.L. Gardner, 1917) Kornmann & Sahling.

Henry Frank Moore, 1867-1948, was working for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and was chief naturalist from the US Fish Commission Steamer Albatross [possibly Solariorbis mooreana Vanatta, 1904].

Dr. John Percy Moore, (Williamsport, Pennsylvania) 1869-1965, US polychaetologist working in Philadelphia (mainly with N Pacific material), who also published on hirudineans (and oligochaetes) [Mooreonuphis Fauchald, 1982, Microspio moorei (Gravier, 1911), Cirriformia moorei J.A. Blake, 1996, Sabellaria moorei, Terebellides moori Hessle, 1917, Axionice moorei (Caullery, 1944), Pista moorei Berkeley & Berkeley, 1942, Pectinaria (Amphictene) moorei Annenkova, 1929, Mooresamytha Williams, 1987, Melinnopsis moorei (Hartman, 1960)], partly together with Sir Arthur Everett Shipley, (10 Mar. - Walton-on-Thames, Surrey) 1861-1927 (22 Sep.), at the Univ. of Cambridge, who e.g. also published on "Gephyrea" [Acanthohamingia shiplei Ikeda, 1910].

Lacking information about Moore in the polyplacophoran name Weedingia mooreana Kaas, 1988. It is not likely a tribute to George Mitchell Moore, 1906-68, who studied nudibranchs of New England and Massachusetts, and not to Merrill Moore, 1903-57. Perhaps the founder of the "Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology" Dr. Raymond Cecil Moore, (20 Feb.) 1892-1974 (16 Apr.), may be the honoured person? He was born in Roslyn, Washington, achieved a PhD at the Univ. of Chicago in 1916, accepted a position in Kansan and stayed there for the rest of his life.

Henry Moores, 1812-96, US shell collector. The Ohio State Univ, purchased the collection around 1890.

Dr. Mohammad Kasim Moosa, (25 Feb. - Jakarta) 1937-, in 2002 formally retired Indonesian marine biologist at the Indonesian Institute of Science, a specialist in crabs and mantis shrimps, with family connections in Singapore (via his wife), where he was a disciple of Dr. Raoul Serène (q.v.), is honoured in the anomuran names Trizocheles moosai Forest, 1987 and Diogenes moosai Rahayu & Forest, 1995, in the shrimp name Solenocera moosai Crosnier, 1984, in the crinnoid name Saracrinus moosai Ameziane, 1997, in the gastropod name Gemmuloborsonia moosai Sysoev & Bouchet, 1996 and in the brachyuran name Trachycarcinus moosai Guinot, 1989.

Christian Horace Bénédict Alfred Moquin-Tandon, (7 May) 1804-63 (15 Apr.), French medical Dr. and marine biologist (mainly malacologist), who also used the pseudonym Alfred Frédol. He was Prof. of Zoology in Marseille between 1829-33, then Prof. of Botany in Toulouse until 1850, when he studied the flora of Corsica, but moved in 1853 to Paris, where he i.a. became Director of Jardin des Plantes.

Lacking information about Mor in the Californian bivalve name Lima (Acesta) mori Hertlein, 1952.

Lacking information about Morais in the stomatopod name Neogonodactylus moraisi (Fausto Filho & Lemos de Castro 1973).

Dr. František (Frank) Moravec, (1 Jan.) 1939-, born in North Moravia, Czechoslovakia, studied at the Masaryk Univ, at Brno, defending his PhD thesis on parasitical fish nematodes in 1970. Many nematodes or other parasites of fishes dedicated to him, but it seems that all are from fresh waters. However Goezia moraveci De & Dey, 1992 is found in a fish host, which also may be found in brackish water (Prof. Jean-Lou Justine, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, kindly provided a copy of a biographical note in Systematic Parasitology (1996) 34: 153-154).

Dr. Peter Bennett Mordan, 1946-, malacologist, mainly interested in terrestrial pulmonates, at the Brit. Mus. of Nat. Hist., London [Mordania Bank & Neubert, 1998].

Prof. Alexandr Konstantinovich Mordvilko, (3 Feb. - Stolovichi, Minsk province) 1867-1938 (12 July), entomologist and parasitologist in St Petersburg, Russia.

Dr. Tamara Nikolaevna Mordvinova, (29 Nov.) 1940-, helminthologist; until 2004 she worked in the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol. Main interest: the helminths of decapods, mainly from the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. [trematode: Pseudolepidapedon mordvinovae Parukhin, 1978]. Now she is retired. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this informmation).

Mrs. Elsie M. Morehouse, 1884-1969, English Malacologist.

Dr. Plinio Soares Moreira, (8 Aug. - Sâo Paulo) 1932-88 (1 Mar. - Sâo Paulo), was a Brazilian marine biologist, mainly an isopod specialist; he is honored in Xanthocalanus soaresmoreirai Björnberg, 1974, Bradyidius plinioi (Campaner, 1978), Banthana moreirai Castro, 1985, Paramyodagnus moreirai Carvalho, 1965. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

José Eduardo de Alencar Moreira, 1953-, malacologist from Brazil [Connexochiton moreirai G. Righi, 1973].

John M. Moreland, 193?-, ichthyologist from New Zealand [Aethon morelandi Hewitt, 1968].

The French malacologist Pierre Marie Arthur Morelet, (26 Aug. - Lays, Doubs) 1809-92 (9 Oct. - Dijon), who was a member of the Commission to Algeria, primarily as a natural artist and i.a. published from the Azores (and in 1850 discovered Crocodylus moreleti in Guatemala), is honoured in the gastropod names Onoba moreleti Dautzenberg, 1889 and Conus moreleti H. Crosse, 1858. He married the sister of Marquis de Folin (q.v.), Noémie, so they became brothers in law. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

Doris morenoi Ortea, 1989 and Crisilla morenoi Templado & Rolan, 1993 are named for Dr. Diego Moreno Lampreave, (Madrid) 1964-, of Cabo de Gata, Spain, malacologist and marine biologist.

The ciliate names Prorodon morgani Kahl, 1930 and Morgania Kahl, 1934 must honour Walter Campbell De Morgan, (1 Mar. - chr. 1 May the same year at Marylebone) 1852-1927 (13 Oct. - in the west of Ireland), Worked in Indian Telegraph Office. But no further info on the site ?Descendants of John de Morgan? However he is in The India list: {DE MORGAN WALTER CAMPBELL MICE Madras. Public Works Dept suptg engr Trained at RlE Coll joined the service 1st Oct 1874 as asst engr exec engr May 1885 suptd engr Feb 1901}. He must have retired sometime around 1905; from then on he was a zoologist? see Allen, E.J. (1928) Walter Campbell De Morgan. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 15(1). pp. 362-364 [pdf available]. He presumably was the author of names of echinoderms if he described any new species beside ciliates. He was on council of Plymouth Marine Lab. 1919-1920 at least [but see below]. This from National Marine Biological Laboratory website: DE MORGAN, WALTER CAMPBELL . Plankton drawings 1910-1920. Drawings on card [PDM1]. Note: Visiting worker 1906-1926; Acting Deputy Director 1909-1910; Council 1917-1918. Material deposited by G.M. Spooner, 1973. Letters to E. T. Browne 1906-1913: 12 letters [PBR9]. Note: Envelope wrongly labelled "De Morgan, William". Summary: From Plymouth apart from one from Galway. Mainly scientific, with comments on work and people at the MBA. His papers include [fuller list in obituary just noted]. On the Experimental Hybridization of Echinoids. Cresswell Shearer, Walter de Morgan and H. M. Fuchs Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character, Vol. 204, (1914), pp. 255-362. Some Marine Ciliates Living in the Laboratory Tanks at Plymouth W DE MORGAN - Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc. of U.K., 1925. Some marine ciliates living in the laboratory tanks at Plymouth, with a description of a new. W De Morgan - Marine Biol. Assoc. U.K., ns, 1923. On Paternal Characters in Echinoid Hybrids. C SHEARER, W DE MORGAN, HM FUCHS - Journal of Cell Science, 1912. His father Campbell Greig De Morgan ( 22 Nov.) 1811-76 (12 Apr.), was a British surgeon who first speculated that cancer arose locally and then spread, first to the lymph nodes and then more widely in the body. His name is used to describe the non cancerous Campbell de Morgan spot; bright red spots that may appear on the skin in later life and which he was the first to note in medical literature. [see Wikipedia]. There is an entry for him in Oxford dictionary of national biography - elected FRS. His cousin was the novelist and potter William de Morgan. (On the Structure and Functions of the Hairs of the Crustacea. Campbell de Morgan Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 148, (1858), pp. 895-903). The namesake and Nobel laureate, the US researcher in genetics and embryology Prof. Dr. Thomas Hunt Morgan, (25 Sep. - Lexington, Kentucky) 1866-1945, published on tunicates during the end of the 1880s until at least 1910 and also worked on platyhelminths. (Dr. E. Charles Nelson, kindly provided all the information about De Morgan).

Dr. Gary John Morgan, (18 Mar. - Innisfall, Queensland, Australia) 1957-, Western Australian Museum, Perth, is honoured in the hermit crab name Calcinus morgani Rahayu & Forest, 1999.

Takamochi Mori, (5 May) 1902-45 (6 Aug.), instructor in mathemathics at the Hiroshima City Commercial School and hobby copepodologist, with essential contributions regarding pelagic copepods. He was one of all those who were instantly killed by the atom bomb in Hiroshima [Cymbasoma morii Sekiguchi, 1982].

Yasuhiro Morioka, 1939-, Japanese worker on copepod distribution.

Lacking information about Moris in the cephalopod name Abraliopsis morisii (Vérany, 1839). Possibly a tribute to the botanist, Prof. Giuseppe Giacinto Moris, (Orbassano) 1796-1869 (Torino)?

Lacking information about Morisaki in the gastropod name Favartia morisakii T. Kuroda & T. Habe, 1961, but likely a tribute to Shu'ichi Morisaki, 18??-19?? (still living in 1953), a malacologist, who was familiar with Hirase (q.v.) and one of the authors (Kuroda) was Hirase's assistant.

Mr. Chikago Morishima, 1904-89, Japanese shell collector [Notoseila morishimai Habe, 1970, Ischnochiton morishimai Is. Taki, 1962].

Lacking information about Morisson in the fish name Callionymus morissonii Risso, 1827.

The digenean name Macvicaria mormyri (Stossich, 1885) and in the monogenean names Atrospinum mormyri (Lorenz, 1878), Microcotyle mormyri Lorenz, 1878 & Lamellodiscus mormyri Euzet & Oliver, 1967 is likely not honouring any person, but is likely derived from Greek. mormyros, i.e. a sparoid fish. This word also is the etymological root to the mainly fresh water living African fish family Mormyridae

Lacking information about Morov in the Myxozoan name Coccomyxa morovi Léger & Hesse, 1907. Possibly it may be the Bulgarian biologist Theodor Morov, 18??-19??, who is honoured?

Lacking information about F.N. Morosov / Morozov in the digenean name Stictodora morosovi Leonov, 1957.

Mr. Earl Leonard Morris, (30 Aug. - Reeve, Franklin County, Iowa, USA) 1871-1946 (26 Nov. - Los Angeles), US ichthyologist, who also (in 1912) published on horticultural entomology. In 1907 he published together with Starks (q.v.) on a survey of the fishes of southern California. Later he worked at the forerunner of the Department of Entomology at UC Davis [Atherina morrisi Jordan & Starks, 1906].

John Morris : (see Bowerbank).

Solen solenae Cosel, 2002 is honouring Mrs. Solene T. Morris, 19??-, former curator of bivalves in the British Mesuem Nat. Hist. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Joseph Paul Morrison (born Eldred, but became foster son of Dr. & Mrs Hugh Tucker Morrison after his parents' decease in 1912 and 1913, when they were missionaries in Belgian Congo), (17 Dec. - South Bend, Indiana) 1906-1983 (12 Dec.), is likely the person honoured in the gastropod names Morrisonella Bartsch, 1945 & Conus morrisoni Massilia, 1991 and in the bivalve name Thracia morrisoni R. Petit, 1964. PhD at Univ. of Wisconsin in 1931. He worked as a zoology researcher at the Illinois State Museum, the Mount Desert Island, Maine, Biological Survey and the Wisconsin State Natural History Survey, but was also associated with the Smithsonian Institution. In 1971 he published about Western Atlantic Donax.

Mr. Hugh Morrison, 1951-, from Perth, Western Australia, owner of a diving business and a keen amateur shell collector (and dealer) specialising in Volutidae. He is honoured in the gastropod name Pyrene morrisoni Willan, 2001 (Dr. Richard Willan kindly provided this information on 11 September 2005).

Dr. h.c. Edward Sylvester Morse, (18 June - Portland, Maine) 1838-1925 (20 Dec - Salem, Mass.), a disciple of L.Agassiz (q.v.), who was one of the founders of the American Naturalist magazine and i.a. published on New England gastropods (but perhaps is more known for his brachiopod studies), is likely the person honoured in the cephalopod name Euprymna morsei Verrill, 1881.

Lacking information about Morstatt in the nematode name Rhabdotoderma morstatti Marion, 1870.

Lacking information about Mortens in the brown algal name Litosiphon mortensii S. Lund, 1959.

Ole Theodor Jensen Mortensen, (22 Feb.) 1868-1952 (3 Apr.), Danish professor of zoology. Founded the publishment of "Danmarks Fauna", and was the great echinoderm guru of his time, but was in younger days travelleng over wide areas collecting animals for himself and others, e.g. in the New Zealand area during the summer 1914-15 on the government ships Hinemoa and Amokura. {a younger Mortensen} [Cnemidocarpa mortenseni Hartmeyer, 1912, Rossella. mortenseni Burton, 1928, Microstomum mortenseni Riedel, 1932, Echinocardium mortenseni Thiéry, 1909, Pylocheles (Pylocheles) mortensenii Boas, 1926, Oestergrenia mortenseni (Heding, 1931), Asteropella mortenseni Poulsen, 1965, Alveopora mortenseni, Callochiton mortenseni N. H. J. Odhner, 1924, Thalassema mortenseni Fischer, 1923, Truncatoflabellum mortenseni Cairns & Zibrowius, 1997, Myzostoma mortenseni (Jägersten, 1940), Gibbula mortenseni Odhner, 1924, Staurocaudina mortenseni (Deflandre-Rigaud, 1946), Antrechinus mortenseni (David & Mooi, 1990), Hoekia mortenseni Ross & Newman, 1995, Periclimenaeus mortenseni A.J. Bruce, 1994, Demania mortenseni (Odhner, 1925), Eiconaxius mortenseni Sakai, 1992, Sporadopora mortenseni Broch, 1942, Urechinus mortenseni David & Mooi, 1990, Acoetes mortenseni (Monro, 1928), Synalpheus mortenseni Banner & Banner, 1985, Goniocidaris mortenseni Koehler, 1900, Pentagonaster mortenseni Koehler, 1909, Labidoplax mortenseni Heding, 1931, Micropora mortenseni Livingstone, 1929, Parabopyrella mortenseni (Nierstrasz & Brender a Brandis, 1929), Taimanawa mortenseni Henderson & Fell, 1969, Gigantione mortenseni Adkison, 1984, Ascothorax mortenseni Grygier, 1983, Ischyromene mortenseni (Hurley & Jansen, 1977), Trochostilifer mortenseni Warén, 1980, Opopaea mortenseni Brignoli, 1980, Cryptodromiopsis mortenseni Kensley, 1978, Discodoris mortenseni Marcus & Marcus, 1963, Epizoanthus mortenseni Carlgren, 1934, Vorticella mortenseni Dons, 1922, Xymene mortenseni N. H. J. Odhner, 1924, Epiactis mortenseni Carlgren, 1924, Anthopleura mortenseni Carlgren O., 1941, Acontiophorum mortenseni Carlgren O., 1938, Austromacrostomum mortenseni (Marcus, 1950), Notoplana mortenseni Bock, 1913, Mysidopsis mortenseni Tattersall, 1951, Pseudoleptochelia mortenseni Lang, 1973, Pseudotanais (Akanthinotanais) mortenseni Sieg, 1973, Glossobalanus mortenseni van der Horst, 1932, Callionymus mortenseni Suwardji, 1965, Monosyringa mortenseni Brøndsted, 1924, Chiridota mortenseni Pawson, 1962, Mortensenenus Manning, 1990, Neocallichirus mortenseni Sakai, 2006]. His son Helge Fasmer published at least one paper on echinoderms.(in 1930) and may likely be the person honoured in the ascidian (Polycitoridae) name Hypsistozoa fasmeriana (Michaelsen, 1924) from New Zealand.

Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet, (29 Aug. - Meylan (Isère)) 1821-98 (25 Sep. - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Yvelines)), French archaeologist, anthropologist, specialist of prehistory, geologist and malacologist, conservator at the MNHN of Genève, subseq. of Annecy, political person (socialist deputy). (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided much of this information ).

Actedrilus mortoni Erséus, 1984 is named for Prof. Brian Morton, 193?-, "(University of Hong Kong), who invited me to Hong Kong and encouraged me to investigate the oligochaete fauna ...". Morton's main interest is bivalves and in 2003 he is retireing after 33 years in Hong Kong, returning to Britain [Anthopleura mortoni England K.W., 1992, likely Apseudes mortoni Bamber, 1997]. An older namesake was John Morton, 1671-1726, who published on Northamptonshire mollusca in 1712.

The bivalve name Laevicardium mortoni (Conrad, 1830) is likely honouring Dr. Samuel George Morton, 1799-1851, US physician, naturalist and anthropologist. His teaching about human races is considered very suspect nowadays.

Prof. Haakon Mosby, (10 July - Kristiansand) 1903-89 (18 Oct. - Bergen), Norwegian physical oceanographer, who began his career as an assistant of Nansen (q.v.) and later became an amanuensis (lecturer) under Harald Ulrik Sverdrup (q.v.). He was culturally engaged and music was his hobby, self a good violinist, playing in e.g. string qartets together with other university employed persons. The R/V "Haakon Mosby" (47 m long and belonging to the university of Bergen) was named after Sverdrups former amanuensis, who during his life took part in (and published on the results of) several Norwegian marine expeditions. This vessel e.g. found the Haakon Mosby mud volcano off NW Norway, where Oligobrachia haakonmosbiensis Smirnov, 2000 was found. (See also Rustad).

Moseley : (see Bourne).

Lacking information about Moser in the gastropod name Splendrillia moseri (Dall, 1889) and in the sea star name Hyphalaster moseri Ludwig, 1905, but possibly (at least likely the last of these names) tributes to Jefferson Franklin Moser, 1848-1934, Commander of the US Navy, who took part as nautical commander in the Albatross cruise 1899-1900.

Dr. Fanny Moser, (27 May) 1872-1953 (24 Feb.), Swiss biologist, working on ctenophores in the beginning of the 20:th century. She became interested in deep- and parapsycology, corresponded with Freud, Jung, etc. and published some standard works in this area: "Das grosse Buch des Ockultismus" in 1935 and "Spuk - Ein Rätsel der Menschheit" in 1950. As a patient of Freud, she is known in the psycological literature as "Frau Emmy von N.", wrongly diagnosed by him as suffering from hysteria, while she actually probably suffered from Tourette's syndrom [Moseria Ghigi, 1909].

The fish name Sebastes moseri Eitner 1999 is named for Dr. H. Geoffrey Moser, 1938-, ichthyologist (specialized in fish larval ecology and taxonomy), with US National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Science Center; retired in 2002. (Peter Brueggeman, SIO Library kindly provided this information).

Phymorhyncus moskalevi Sysoev & Kantor 1995 is named for Dr. Lev I. Moskalev, 19??-, malacologist at the Russian Academy of Sciences, who collected the species [Phascolion moskalevi Murina, 1964].

Lacking information about Moskvitin in the Sakhalin amphipod name Dogielinotus moskvitini (Dershavin, 1930), but perhaps likely a tribute to the Russian geographical explorer Ivan Yuryevich Moskvitin, (probably Moscow) 1???-16?? (after 1647), the first European, who reached the Sea of Okhotsk (in 1639), when leading a group of around 20 Cossacks.

The meteorologist and writer Robert Cockburn Mossman, (7 Nov. Edinburgh) 1870-1940 (19 July - Argentina), took part in the Scottish "Scotia" expedition 1902-04 to Antarctic waters [Paraphyllopodopsyllys mossmani (T. Scott, 1912)].

B. van der Most, 1904-80, Dutch malacologist, is honoured in the gastropod name Ondina mosti van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998.

Prof. Dr. Constantin Motas, (8 July - Vaslui) 1891-1980 (15 Jan. - Bucharest), Roumanian zoologist, who achieved his PhD in 1928 (after i.a. studies abroad, in Basel, Switzerland under i.a. Zschokke and then in Grenoble under Léger (q.v.)) and i.a. published on the biology of interstitial organisms in central Roumania [Nitocrella motasi Petkovski, 1976].

Lacking information about Mote in the oligochaete name Tubificoides motei Brinkhurst, 1986, but possibly not in honour of a person's name, but the Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida?

Lacking information about Motilon in the Venezelan crab name Chaceus motiloni Rodriguez, 1980.

James Motley, (Leeds) 1814-59, was a mining engineer in Aberafon, Glamorgan, who in 1852 went to Labuan, Malaysia, later to Borneo and in cooperation with Dillwyn (q.v.) published about mainly bird fauna there. He was killed in Borneo.

Prof. Dr. S(h)igeru Motoda, (10 Jan. - Tokyo) 1908-95, Japanese planktonic copepod worker at the Hokkaido University, Tokyo, who has published on distribution and diurnal migration.

The cephalopod name Octopus mototi Norman, 1993 is not named for a person, but from the Rapa Island expression fe'e mototi, meaning the poison octopus because of its poisonous bite.

The French botanist Jean Motte, 1897-19??, is honoured in the red algal name Polysiphonia mottei Lauret, 1967.

Lacking information about Suzanne Motz-Kossowska, 18??-19??, likely from Poland, who published some articles on hydroids in the first decade of the 20:th century, in the hydroid name Eudendrium motzkossowskae Picard, 1951.

Lacking information about Mouchet, 1???-19??, in the flatworm name Echeneibothrium moucheti Dollfus, 1931. Despite the male ending of the species name it may perhaps be Simone Mouchet, 1???-19??, who in 1931 published on Brachyura and Anomura, who is honoured?

Lacking information about Mouchez in the scleractinian name Phyllangia mouchezii (Lacaze-Duthiers, 1897). Possibly, however, it may be the French naval officer and astronomer Amédée Ernest Bartélemy Mouchez, (24 Aug. - Madrid (born to French parents)) 1821-92 (25 June - at his country seat at Wissous, near Antony), who is honoured.

The W tropical Atlantic skate name Breviraja mouldi McEachran & Matheson, 1995 is in honour of B. Mould, 19??-, "who brought the nomenclatural problem to our attention".

The copepod names Mourephonte Jakobi, 1953, Longipedia mourei Jakobi, 1954 and Robertsonia mourei Nogueira, 1961, are likely tributes to Prof. Dr. Father Jesus Santiago Moure, (2 Nov. - Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo) 1912-, entomologist (retired) at the Zoology Department of the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, who of course also have several entomological eponyms honouring his name.

Lacking information about Mourlan in the fish name Carapus mourlani (Petit, 1934).

Louis Brooke Mousley, 1904-1981, of Yucaipa, California, shell collector [Melampus mousley Berry, 1963].

Prof. Joseph Robert Albert Mousson, (17 Mar. - Solothurn) 1805-90 (16 Nov.), Swiss professor of physics (in Zurich) and Malacologist, specializing on non marine species.

Ron Moylan , 19??-, Australian shell collector, is honoured in the W Pacific gastropod name Conus moylani Delsaerdt, 2000.

Lacking information about Msangi in the Tanzanian mysidacean name Gastrosaccus msangii Bacescu, but likely it may be a tribute to Prof. Abdulrahman S. Msangi, 19??-, University of Dar-es-Salaam.

Baron Sir Dr. Ferdinand Jakob Heinrich von Mueller, (30 June - Rostock) 1825-96 (10 Oct. - Melbourne), German born Australian botanist, PhD at Univ. of Kiel in 1847, explorer and general naturalist. He had arrived in Australia in 1848 for health reasons. Director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens between 1853-73 and naturalist in the North Australian Exploring Expedition in 1855-56. He was knighted by queen Victoria.

Mugga : (see Oldevig).

Ms. Edith H. Mugridge, 1906?-2004 (8 Apr., aged 98), Sanibel Island, Florida, USA, one of the benefactors of the Bailey-Matthews Shell Museum of Sanibel Isl. She had been a teacher before moving to Sanibel Island, where she opened a shell shop and was often travelling for collecting purposes, but retired in 1992 at the age of 86, when her eye sight began to fail. [Terebra mugridgeae E.F. Garcia, 1999].

Alexander Ian Muir, 1952-, at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is working on polychaetes.

Helen Marguerite Muir-Wood, (Feb.) 1895-1968 (16 Jan.), British brachiopod worker at the British Museum (Nat. Hist)..

Chrysallida gabmulderi Van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 2000 was named for Mr. Gabriel Mulder, 1951-, Dutch fellow malacologist (and interested in Eurupean crabs as well) from Zoetermeer.

Prof. Dr. Michael (Mike) Mahlon Mullin, (17 Nov. - Galveston, Texas) 1937-2000 (19 Dec. - La Jolla, Cal.), US plankton researcher. (Obituary in Monoculus 41)

The nudibranch name Nembrotha mullineri Gosliner and Behrens 1997 is in honour of David Mulliner, 19??-, founding president of the Western Society of Malacologist (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palerma, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Étienne Antoine Marie Mulsant, (2 Mar. - Marnand, near Thizy (Rhône)) 1797-1880 (4 Nov.), essential French coleopterologist and chief librarian of the library of Lyon ; who published a colossal history of Coleoptera with Claudius Rey, (2 Sep. - Lyon (Rhône)) 1817-1895 (31 Jan. -Lyon (Rhône)). (Cédric Audibert, Muséum, CCEC, Lyon, kindly provided this information).

Bankia annamariae Munari, 1976 was named for the author's wife.

Rafael Muñiz Solis, (20 Oct.) 1929-, bookseller and malacologist from Malaga, Spain [Turbonilla rafaeli Penas & Rolan, 1997, Turria munizi Vera Pelaez, Vega Luz & Lozano, 2000].

The Sakhalin amphipod name Haustorioides munsterhjelmi Oldevig, 1958 must be a tribute to the Finnish zoology journalist Rudolf Ludvig Munterhjelm, (5 Feb. - Tuulos) 1880-1955 (19 July - Tuulos), who visited Sakhalin in 1914.

Lacking information about the eponym in the octocoral name Sinularia muqeblae Verseveldt & Benayahu, 1983.

Lacking information about Murano in the copepod name Thompsonopia muranoi (Ohtsuka, 1992), but possibly a tribute to the mysidacean researcher Dr. Masaaki Murano, 19??-, Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries.

Lacking information about J. Murat in the brown algal name Ecklonia muratii Feldmann, 1937.

Louis Murbach, 1864-19??, head of the biology department, Central High School, Detroit, Michigan, mentioned as investigator at MBL, Woods Hole , between 1900-10, but already in 1895 he published an article in Journal of Morphology, Boston Vol. 11 page 439, about a medusa, Gonionemus sp., from the Eel-pond in the center of Woods Hole, which later was named G. murbachii Mayer, 1901 (a synonym of G. vertens A. Agassiz, 1862).

Dr. Robert A. Murchelano, 19??-, US fish and shellfish disease researcher, is likely the person honoured in the gymnamoeba name Platyamoeba murchelanoi Sawyer, 1975.

Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, (19 Feb. - Tarradale, Scotland) 1792-1871 (23 Oct. - London), began his career as a soldier between age 15 to 23. In 1824 he took up geology as a hobby, attending science lectures at the Royal Institution. This was the starting point of a reputed life-long career as geologist / palaeontologist (see also Wallich).

Mr. R. Murchland, 18??-19??, who collected specimens of Gibbula murchlandi G.B.Sowerby, 1905 in Cape Verdes. Possibly he may be identical with the Scotchman Robert Murchland, 1879-19??.

The polyplacophoran name Placophoropsis murdochi H. Suter, 1905 (& probably the gastropod name Lora murdochiana (Dall, 1885)) is likely honouring R. C. Murdoch, 18??-1925, who co-authored at least one article on the polyplacophora. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information). (Another R.C. Murdoch of the Portabello Marine Laboratory, New Zealand, published on Polyplacophora in 1982). Another, but less likely possibility may be John Murdoch, 1852-1925, who published on the Crustacea and birds of the Point Barrow Expedition to Alaska in 1885 and for a few years was librarian at the Smithsonian Institution.

Lacking information about Muriel in the gastropod name Anabathron muriel Bartsch & Rehder, 1939.

Murielle : (see Willox).

The isopod name Rocinela murilloi R.C. Brusca and E.W. Iverson, 1985 is in honour of Dr. Manuel M. Murillo, 19??-, Vice President for Research, Universidad de Costa Rica.

Dr. (from 1999 Professor of Hydrobiology) Galena-Vanzetti V. Murina, (Moscow) 1927-, is honoured in the sipunculid name Apionsoma murinae (Cutler, 1969). She was initially a disciple of the Moscow State University (where she started her work in zoology in 1952 and defended a thesis on sipunculids in 1960), and another thesis regarding the same taxon in 1980 in Leningrad and retired formally around 1992, but has obviously not stopped working and moved in 1983 to Sevastopol, Ukraine, where she has worked on mariculture and e.g. free living flat worms [Bolbolaimus murinae (Sergeeva, 1976), possibly Heterokrohnia murina (Casanova, 1986)]. (Another picture).

Dr. h.c. Robert Cushman Murphy, (29 Apr. - Brooklyn, New York) 1887-1973 (20 Mar. - Old Field, New York), US zoologist, ornithologist and oceanographer at the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute between 1911-17 and later (1917-73) at the American Museum of Natural History.

The ostracod name Callistocythere murrayi Whittaker, 1978 may likely be a tribute to Prof. Em. Dr. John W. Murray, (London) 1937-, National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton.

The cephalopod name Sepia murrayi W. Adam & W. J. Rees, 1966 was published in Scientific Reports of the John Murray Expedition1933–1934, so it must be in honour of this expedition rather than directly to John Murray (q.v. - below).

Andrew Dickson Murray, (19 Feb. - Edinburgh) 1812-1878 (10 Jan. - Kensington), British lawyer and naturalist, mainly entomologist and botanist [Dendrobeania murrayana (Bean, in Johnston, 1847)].

Attiliosa gretae Vokes, 1999 is honouring the female member of the family Andrew Lee Murray and Greta P. Murray, fossil shell collectors from Bradenton, Florida. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided this information).

George Robert Milne Murray, (11 Nov. - Arbroath) 1858-1911 (16 Dec. - Stonehaven, Kincardineshire), published "An introduction to the study of seaweeds" in London & New York in 1895.

Sir John Murray, (3 Mar. - Coburg, Ontario, Canada) 1841-1914 (16 Mar. - Kirkliston, Scotland (died in a car accident, when he crossed a street)), Scottish oceanographer and biologist [Trachyrhynchus murrayi Günther, 1887, Phallonemertes murrayi (Brinkmann, 1912), Murrayona Kirkpatrick, 1910, Stellitethya murrayi Sarà & Bavestrello, 1996, Triglops murrayi Günther, 1888, Munneurycope murrayi (Walker, 1903), Lanceola murrayi Norman, 1900, Potamethus murrayi (M'Intosh, 1916), Mesothuria murrayi (Théel, 1886), Bythotiara murrayi Günther, 1903, Anthoptilum murrayi Kölliker, 1880, Sophrosyne murrayi Stebbing, 1888, Millepora murrayi Quelch, 1886, Phascolion murrayi Stephen, 1941, Munnopsurus murrayi (Walker, 1903), Cirrothauma murrayi Chun, 1911, Culeolus murrayi Herdman, 1881, Deltocyathus murrayi Gardiner & Waugh, 1938, Bathyraja murrayi (Günther, 1880), Psammastra murrayi Sollas, 1886, Lithodes murrayi Henderson, 1888, Pythonaster murrayi Sladen, 1889], who i.a. participated in the Challenger Expedition (see also Gatty) and wrote the 'classical' book "The Depths of the Ocean" 1912 together with the Norwegian Prof. Dr. Johan Hjort, (18 Feb. - Kristiania) 1869-1948 (7 Oct.), PhD at the Univ. of München in 1892 [Balaenanemertes hjorti Brinkmann, 1917, Ophlitaspongia hjorti (Arnesen, 1920), Prionoglossa hjortii (Bonnevie, 1913), Mastigoteuthis hjorti Chun, 1913, Saccopharynx hjorti Bertin, 1938], after having participated in the "Michael Sars" expedition in the North Atlantic in 1910, together with Koefoid (q.v.), Gran (q.v.) and the Norwegian hydrographer Bjørn Helland-Hansen, (16 Oct. - Oslo) 1877-1957 (7 Sep. - Bergen), who in 1906 succeeded Nordgaard as head of the biological station at Puddefjorden (Bergen area) and in 1917 became professor of Oceanography in Bergen [Sphaeromyxa hellandi Auerbach, 1909]. From 1897 Hjort became head of the Drøbak biological station in the Oslo Fjord, which had been started in 1894 after initiatives from Nansen (q.v.) and others. There Hjort in 1898 discovered large stocks of Pandalus borealis and constructed a prawn trawl, introducing the prawn fishing after this species (see also Wollebæk). In 1900 the Fisheries Directorate moved to Bergen and Hjort became head of it's scientific section. In 1921 he succeeded G.O. Sars (q.v.) as zoology professor in Oslo and retired in 1939, when he was succeeded by Johan Tiedemand Ruud, 1903-70.

The bivalve names Parvamussium musorstomi Dijkstra, 2001 and Delectopecten musorstomi Poutiers, 1981 are not named for any person, but after "MUSORSTOM" a contraction of Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) and the Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le developpement en cooperation (now IRD) wich organize cruises to explore bathyal fauna of the Indo-West Pacific.

The polychate name Lumbrineris mustaquimi Carrera Parra, 2006, is in honour of Dr. Javed Mustaquim, 19??-, Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, in recognition of his publications on polychaetes of Pakistan.

The trematode name Lecithocladium (=Colletostoma) muthiahi Sahai & Srivastava, 1978 is named after Mr. C. Muthiah, 19??-, research assistant, Central Marine Fisheries Station, Bombay, India, for his help in obtaining fishes for examination. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Bent Jørgen Muus, (15 July - Bragernæs, Drammen, Norway) 1926-2006 (12 July), Danish cephalopod worker. (Dr. D. Eibye-Jacobsen kindly provided the birth date).

The US rotiferan worker Frank Jacob Myers, 1874-1954 (11 Dec.), is honoured in the rotiferan name Encentrum myersi (Wulfert, 1936) and the medusa name Cladonema myersi Rees, 1949. His rotifera collection is found at the Academy of Nat. Sci. in Philadelphia and is also available via CD. (Dr. Christian D. Jersabek, Salzburg, kindly provided the dates).

Lacking information about Myers in the echiuroid name Ochetostoma myersae Edmonds, 1963.

The stegocephaloid genus Alania Berge & Vader, 2001 is honouring Prof. Alan A. Myers, 1941?-, Cork, Ireland, in recognition of his "valuable and significant contribution to the Amphipoda in general" [Jassa myersi Conlan, 1990, Paramicrodeutopus myersi (Bynum & Fox 1977), Gibberosus myersi (McKinney 1980), Megaluropus myersi McKinney, 1990]. His daughter Lindsay Myers, 19??-, is honoured in the amphipod name Maera lindsae Myers, 1989.

Prof. Dr. George Sprague Myers, (Jersey City, New Jersey) 1905-85 (4 Nov.), US ichthyologist and museum curator at the Stanford University, who cooperated much with Dr. William Thornton Innes III, (2 Feb.) 1874-1969 (27 Feb.),. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided some of this information).

Lacking information about Mygak in the Réunion gastropod name Joculator mygaki Jay & Drivas, 2002.

Mühlfeld : (see Megerle von Mühlfeld).

About the gastropod name Bursa muehlhaeusseri M. Parth, 1990, the author wrote "Ich widme die neue Art meinem Freund Heinrich Mühlhäusser", 19??-, "Freiburg".

Paul Mühling, 18??-1???, German? helminthologist, is honoured in the digenean name Apophallus muehlingi (Jägerskiöld, 1899). Mühling published about helminths during the last part of the 19:th century, but after 1898 no more publications seems to have arrived.

The sponge name Myliusia Gray, 1859 may possibly be a tribute to Pierre Bernard Milius, (Jan. - Bordeaux) 1773-1829 (11 Aug - Bourbonne-les-Bains), who took part in the Baudin expedition as liutenant on the Naturaliste and when Baudin had died he took the Geographe home, because some of his contemporaries spelled his family name Mylius. Later he sent fishes from Réunion and Cayenne to the Paris museum, so maybe he also collected some sponges? He was paralyzed at the occasion of his death.

Ludwig Mylius-Erichsen, (15 Jan. - Viborg)1872-1907 (25 Nov. - Greenland), Danish West Greenland explorer, who succumbed during his second expeditition together with the cartographer Høeg Hagen and the inuit Jørgen Brønlund..

The Myxozoan name Myxobolus muelleri Bütschli, 1882 is probably a tribute to Johannes P. Müller (see below), who already in 1841 had studied this group and named them "Psorospermien".

The South American penaeid name Hymenopenaeus muelleri (Bate, 1888) must likely be a tribute to Fritz Müller (see below).

Which Müller is honoured in the isopod name Leptanthura muelleri Negoescu, 1980? However, likely a tribute to Dr. Hans-Georg Müller, 19??-, isopodologist at the Labor für Tropische Ökosystemforschung, Wetzlar, Germany.

Which Müller is honoured in the bryozoan names Tanganella muelleri Kraepelin, 1887 & Victorella muelleri (Kraepelin, 1887)?

Lacking information about Müller in the scleractinian name Polycyathus muellerae (Abel, 1959).

Dr. Johann Friedrich "Fritz" Theodor Müller, (31 Mar. - Windischholzhausen, near Erfurt) 1822-97 (21 May - Blumenau, Brazil), German biologist (a brother of the cryptogamic (moss) botanist Prof. Dr. Heinrich Ludwig Hermann Müller, (23 Sep. - Mühlberg, Thüringen) 1829-1883 (25 Aug. - Prad, Stilfserjoch),; all his family was interested in natural history), an eccentric disciple of Johannes Müller (q.v.) (despite their common family names, their families were not related), Müller had achieved his PhD in Berlin in 1844 and later worked as a teacher in Erfurt and studied medicine in Greiswald but was refused a MD, because of his left wing sympaties, supporting of free love and atheism, so he gave up Germany and moved in 1852 to South America (southern Brazil) together with his family (he had married a a labourers daughter with whom he got several daughters, because his sister insisted that his partner Caroline's life in Brazil otherwise would be ruined), where he went as a merchant (he had already in school learned 6 languages fluently) and worked there for the rest of his life; one of Darwin's first foreign supporters; "Für Darwin" arrived in 1864 and he was named "Prince of observators" by Darwin (generally German naturalists quickly accepted the Darwinism). In Brazil, he farmed, then taught mathematics and held some other civil posts until 1876, when he became a traveling naturalist for the museum in Rio de Janeiro, until 1891, when he was fired because of his keeping of liberal political views from his youth and the death of his wife and a daugther during hist last years also darkened his last time. During his time in Brazil, he was visited by a much younger cousin Dr. Alfred Möller, 1860-1922, also he a biologist, whe eventually became Müller's biographer. [Armina muelleri (von Ihering, 1886), Entoniscus muelleri Giard & Bonnier, 1886, Mytilus muelleri Dunker, 1875, Synalphaeus fritzmuelleri Coutiere, 1909, likely Pleoticus muelleri (Bate, 1888), possibly Turbonilla muelleri von Maltzan, 1885, possibly Renilla muelleri Kölliker, 1872, possibly Amphiura mulleri Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1887, possibly Darwinella muelleri Schulze, 1865]; also remembered in eponymic names such as Müllerian mimicry, Müllerian association and Müller-Haeckel law of biogenetics; among the few, who kept half-hearted to Darwinism - because of his view about different descents of the human "races" - was August Cristoph Carl Vogt, (5 July - Giessen) 1817-95 (5 May - Genève), professor in Giessen, who had been compromized because of his involvments in revolutionary movements and because of this he had must escape to a professor asylum in Geneva after a short 'guest appearance' in Bern. He was one of the primary propagators of Darwin's evolutionary theory. (see also)) [Cerianthus vogtii Danielssen, 1890, Vogtia Köllicker, 1853, Peachia vogtii (Müller, 1860)]. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided some eponyms and some other information).

Prof. Dr. Christian Gustav Wilhelm Müller, 1857-1940, German scientist in Greifswald (succeded Gerstæcker (q.v.) in 1895 and was likely a much younger half-brother of Fritz Müller above), who wrote the ostracod monograph in Fauna Flora Golf. Neapel 1894 and the ostracod part in Das Tierreich 1912. He retired in 1923 but continued to work long after this time. The harpacticoid name Itunella muelleri (Gagern, 1922) is possibly honouring him [Parasterope muelleri (Skogsberg, 1920), Gigantocypris muelleri Skogsberg, 1920, Muellerina Bassiouni, 1965, Sclerochilus gewemuelleri Dubowsky, 1939, Cytheridea muelleri Münster, 1938, Cytherura muelleri Puri, 1963, likely Heteromysis muelleri Bacescu, 1976, possibly Anathelges muelleri Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1931].

Prof. Johannes Peter Müller, (14 July - Koblenz) 1801-58 (28 Apr. - Berlin), professor of anatomy and physiology in Berlin, who i.a. in 1846 described the "genus" Actinotrocha. He also described several other marine larvae and the development process of some of them [Doliolum (Doliolina) muelleri Krohn, 1852, Phoronis muelleri Selys-Longchamps, 1903, Typhloscolex muelleri Busch, 1851, Leptasterias (Leptasterias) muelleri (M. Sars, 1846), likely Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri Diesing, 1851, likely Pontonema muelleri Diesing, 1861].

Dr. Max Müller, 1829-96, physician, but interested in marine biology and - when grown up - sometimes helping his father Johannes P. Müller, (q.v.), but also doing essential research of his own in this field of science [Maxmuelleria Bock, 1942].

Otto Frederik (or Friderich) Müller, (11 Mar.) 1730-84 (26 Dec.), The son of a poor court trumpeter, i.e. a trumpeter in the Royal Opera (Joachim Nicolaus (Nikolaj) Müller, ca 1686-1763, - of German descent) and his wife Margrethe Henriette, née Udsen, in København (Copenhagen). Due to the family's poor financial circumstances he moved to Ribe in western Denmark at age 12 and was brought up by his maternal uncle, the cantor and teacher in the Ribe church Niels Laurids Udsen for a little more than a year, because his uncle died when O.F. M. was a little more than 13 years old, but a female friend of his uncle, Sophie Astrup, née Pedersdotter Stoud, 1715-92, very recent widow after the hospital priest Niels Astrup Hygum, 1703-44, took up O.F. M. in her family (she had then two own very young daughters born 1741 and 1743) and had the pleasure to live long enough to find out that this gifted child, who she had loved became a famous person, while her own two daughters died at age 24 and 22. He studied history and music. Later he returned to Københamn, where he studied theology and jurisprudence at the university. In 1753, however, he became a tutor, for the son Frederik Ludvig Schulin, 1747-1781, of the widow of king Christian VI:s former minister (of e.g. foreign affairs and also brother in law of the king) count Johan Sigismund Schulin, (18 Aug.) 1694-1750 (13 Apr.), the countess Catharine Marie von Möesting Schulin, (23 Oct. - København) 1714-1770 (2 June), during 17 years. He lived with this family in Østergade, central København during winters (in a house with an excellent wine cellar) and in a small castle (Frederiksdal) close to Lake Furesø NW of København during summers. In this environment he was inspired to study the nature, especially as he undertook extensive European journeys with his pupil and the countess also asked Müller to study the nature around Frederiksdal. During these trips through Germany, Switzerland, Italy, France and the Netherlands, he i.a. met several scientists, like B. de Jussieu (see Lamarck), Adanson (q.v.), E.L. Geoffroy (q.v.), the natural history interested philosopher Voltaire, 1694-1778, etc. After the decaese of the countess he happened to be married (May 1773) to Anna Carlsen, 1735-1787, daughter of Niels Paludan, bishop of the Christansand diocese in Norway and also the wealthy widow since two years after the merchant Christen Carlsen, 1701-71, from Drøbak (this is perhaps not so strange, because by his contemporaries he was described as a man with charming social talents, kind-hearted, but perhaps a bit vain (and could be rather polemic if provoked or feeling unjustly treated), although their common interest in music is said to have united them, likely when he played on a small organ (perhaps in the Frogn church) and the first church organ in the Drøbak church is likely a gift from this couple). The rest of his life he spent with natural studies, mainly in and around Själland (Zealand) and along the coasts of South Norway (the summers 1773, 1774, 1775 and 1778), because his wife had her home in Dröbak in the Oslo Fjord (while O.F. Müller continued to live in the somewhat milder climate in København during the winters, because of his severe gout pains). When having been rich through his marriage O.F. M. also became a partial owner of a cargo ship. He constructed the first modern dredge for collecting species and discovered and described many small animals and protoctists, mainly ciliates, long before other researchers interested themselves in these (in his 1773 work: Vermium terrestrium et fluviatulum, seu Animalium Infuscriorum, Helminthicorum et Testaceorum, non marinorum, succinta Historia). He also was the first person to study bacterians with sufficient clarity to be able to divide them into categories, coining the terms bacillum and spirillum. When returning from collecting excursions to Norway, the by that time wealthy and well-fed Müller - who suffered considerably from rheumatism or perhaps rather gout - used to seek recreation in sleep, leaving what he had collected to his brother Christian Friderich Müller, (28 Feb. - København) 1744-1814 (1 Mar.), a poor copper-engraver (had learned this art from J.M. Preisler), who had to spend evenings and parts of nights with drawing the organisms, but enthusiastically shared his brothers interests (often taking part in the field work as well) and was the main reason why the publication of Zoologia Danica could continue after O.F. Müller's very sudden death. (C.F. Müller married in April 1775 and got a daughter - Lise, who 1804 married the concert master and opera singer Jean Baptiste Édouard Louis Camille Du Puy, (Closelles, close to Neuchâtel) 1771-1822 (3 Apr. - Stockholm)). These two brothers also had a third brother, Henrich Jacob Müller, (16 Apr. - København) 1736-1804 (22 Nov. - Bergen), who became an organist in Trondheim, Norway, but moved to Bergen, where he married a daugther of Prof. Gram and got a son, Joachim Nicolai (after his grandfather) becoming a vice admiral in Norway (and one of J.N. M:s daughters married the police commissioner in Bergen, Johan Henrik Staman Friele, 1765-1823, so possibly Herman Friele (q.v.) may be a relative) and they also had a sister, Sophia Charlotta, but not much is known about her. In 1776 O.F. Müller published a nomenclatorially essential forerunner "Zoologiae Danicae prodromus, seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae, indigenorum Characteres, Nomina, et Synonyma imprimis popularium" (with more than 3000 short organism descriptions) of a planned illustrated main work "Zoologia Danica seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae rariorum ac minus notorum Descriptiones et Historia", 1780-1808, of which he himself only experienced the publishing of the first two (of four) volumes, but Müller, beside his most famous works in Latin, did also publish several works in Danish, German and French [Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin, 1788), Pentapora ottomulleriana (Moll, 1803) likely Cirroteuthis muelleri (Eschricht, 1836), likely Geodia muelleri (Fleming, 1828), possibly Proclymene muelleri (M. Sars, 1856), possibly Ophiactis mulleri Lütken, 1856]. The last parts were later published by younger colleagues, like the Danish druggist, later on physician and professor of veterinary science Dr. Petrus Christianus (Peter or Peder Christian) Abildgaard, (22 Dec.) 1740-1801 (21 Jan.) and the Norwegian Jens Rathke, (26 Feb. - Kristiania (Oslo)) 1769-1855 (28 Feb.), partly educated at the University of København (Copenhagen), where he had been primarily inspired by professor Vahl (q.v.), with whom he cooperated for several years. Later he studied in Paris under Cuvier. Rathke became the first professor of natural history in Christiania betweeen Jan. 16 1813 until Aug. 19 1845 (after a short professorship in natural history in Copenhagen), publishing less than he wanted, because of responsibility for teaching in zoology, minaralology as well as botany, succeded by Rasch (q.v.). (Prof. Jean-Lou Justine, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, kindly provided a copy of a biographical note in Systematic Parasitology (1996) 33: 155-156. See also Jonas Collin's article about him in Dansk biografisk leksikon (in Danish)).

Dr. Peter Erasmus Müller, (25 Oct.) 1840-1926 (5 Oct.), from Denmark, wrote a couple of works about cladocerans, but left this area and worked then as a forest ecologist.

Prof. Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller, (25 Apr. - Esens, Ostfriesland) 1725-76 (5 Jan. - Erlangen), Professor of Natural Sciences, Erlangen, Germany. He had studied theology and translated Linnaeus' Systema Naturae to German, became mainly an ornithologist and entomologist, but also described several marine species, i.a. mollusks.

Myra : (see Keen).

Prof. Karl August Möbius, (7 Feb. - Eilenburg) 1825-1908 (26 Apr. - Berlin), German marine zoologist in Kiel, who in 1863 in Hamburg had opened the first German marine aquarium, later active in Berlin. He coined the word biocenose. [Rhynchonereella moebii (Apstein, 1900), Pterosperma moebii (Jørgensen) Ostenfeld in Ostenfeld & Schmidt, 1902, Turrisipho moebii (Dunker & Metzger, 1874), Anelassorhynchus moebii (Greeff, 1879), Eufolliculina moebiusi (Kahl, 1932), Prorodon moebiusi Kahl, 1930, Euplotes moebiusi Kahl, 1932]; wrote i.a. a malacological work together with the wholesale trader Dr. Heinrich Adolf Meyer, (11 Sep. - Hamburg) 1822-89 (1 May - Forsteck, close to Kiel), from Hamburg, who also was partly active in Kiel.

Otto Franz von Möllendorff, 1848-1903, German Malacologist.

Hans Peter Christian Møller, (10 Nov. - Helsingør) 1810-45 (18 Oct. - Roma, Italy, where he had traveled to visit a conference, but died after a weeks fever), Danish governor of East Greenland. Eager malacologist [Moelleria Jeffreys, 1865, Moelleriopsis Bush, 1897, Mysella moelleri (Mørch, 1875), Rossia moelleri Steenstrup, 1856].

Otto Andreas Lowson Mørch, (17 May) 1828-78 (25 Jan.), Swedish/Danish (born in Scania, Sweden) publisher of malacological works and conchyliological catalogues at the Zoological Museum, København, where he worked as an assistent of Steenstrup (q.v.) and was head of the malacological department. He had become interested in molluscs already as a child, beginning collecting shells already at age 11, and he obtained the honorary doctor's degree of Göttingen University in 1868. However, he suffered long time from tuberculosis and died during a recuperation trip to Nice [Pileolaria moerchi (Levinsen, 1883), Alvania moerchi Collin, 1886, Lora morchi Leche, 1878, Turbonilla morchi Dall & Bartsch, 1907, Phragmatopoma moerchii Kinberg, 1867, Amauropsis moerchi A. Adams & G. F. Angas, 1864, Aspella morchi Radwin & D' Attilio, 1976]. Jonas Collin published a 38 pp. biography in Danish: " O.A.L. Mrch. En biografisk Skizze".


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