Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. N & O

The algal genus Naccaria Endlicher, 1836 is named for the Italian philosopher, librarian and natural history professor Fortunato Luigi Naccari, (6 Feb. - Chioggia) 1793-1860 (3 Mar. - Padua) who i.a. published on algae. Also the fish name Acipencer naccarii Bonaparte, 1836 is named for him..

The South Californian deep water bivalve name Xyloredo naceli Turner, 1972 is not in honour of a person's name but for an acronym: Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California.

Mitra nadayaoi Bozzetti 1997 is named for Mr. Daniel Nadayao, 19??-, who collected it's types.

Lacking information about Nadia in the Red Sea polyclade name Stylochoplana nadiae (Melouk, 1941).

Prof. Georgii Adamovich Nadson, (11 May) 1867-1939 (15 Apr. (executed because of his opposition of Lysenkoism)), Russian cryptogam botanist, is honoured in the green algal name Ulvella nadsonii (Rochlina) Gallardo & al.

Dr. Adolf Naef, (1 May - Niederhelfenschwil) 1883-1949 (11 May), zoologist and palaeontologist of Swiss origin, working on Cephalopoda. He had studied under Arnold Lang (q.v.) in Zürich. PhD in Jena in 1909. Worked in Zürich from 1915, became Prof. in Zagreb in 1922, in Kairo in 1927.

The tanaid name Apseudes nagae Shiino, 1963 is not in honour of a person's name, but was reported in a publication named "Tanaidacea collected by Naga Expedition in the Bay of Nha-Trang, South Viet-Nam".

The Japanese amateur crab collector Seiji Nagai, 19??-???? (named the late Mr. Seji Nagai in 2003), from the Wakayama Prefecture, is honoured in the crab name Dicranodromia nagaii Guinot, 1995.

Sachiko Nagasawa, 1942-, Japanese researcher, who works on epibionts of e.g. copepods. The namesake Prof. Dr. Kazuya Nagasawa, 19??-, PhD in 1981, at the Hiroshima Univ. from 2005 (earlier e.g. at the Hokkaido Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station between 1981.1991), is a parasitologisst.

Lacking information about the Egyptian? Hussein Foad Nagaty, 1903-, who published on helminths from Red Sea fishes during the 1940s and at least until the beginning of the 1960s, in the digenean name Paragyliauchen nagatyi Rizk, Tanha & El-Rahman, 1996.

L.F. Nagibina , 19??-, has published on Monogenea at least since the 1950s and is honoured in the monogenean name Diplectanum nagibinae Oliver & Paprena, 1984.

Dr. James Stewart Nagle Jr., 1931?-2000 (26 Sep., from cancer, around 59 years old), from the Houston area, Texas, published on epibiota of macroepibenthic plants in 1968 [Rudilemboides naglei Bousfield, 1973]. Nagle collected amphipods for Bousfield in the Hadley Harbor region and later i.a. published on citrus growing.

The monogenean name Gyrodactylus najdenovai Malmberg, 1970 was named for Nonna N. Najdenova, 1938-, who worked at the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Sevastopol, in 1962-2001. She named the nematode Spinitectus tamari Najdjenova, 1966 in honour of her mother, Tamara (although correctly the name form should be tamarae) (Prof. Albina V. Gaevskaya kindly provided this information).

The Japanese Professor of Botany, Takenoshin Nakai, (9 Nov. - Gifu) 1882-1952 (6 Dec. - Tokyo), is possibly honoured in the harpacticoid name Attheyella nakaii Brehm, 1927 or possibly Zinziro Nakai, 1901-84, who worked on distribution and chemical composition of copepods.

Mr. Masao Nakamura, 18??-19??, Japanese naturalist [Chloea nakamurae Jordan & Richardson, 1907]. The Japanese naturalist Kiyoo Nakamura, 1855-1930, is a namesake.

Prof. Yositeru Nakamura, 1910-94, red algae taxonomist in Hokkaido, Japan.

Niso nakayasui Habe, 1976 was named for Mr. Kiyoshi Nakayasu, 19??-, as was likely the gastropod name Benthovoluta nakayasui Habe, 1976.

The isopod name Pentias namikawai Nanomura, 2006 may possibly be a tribute to Dr. Hiroshi Namikawa, 19??-, of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, a well-reputed Hydrozoan and Octocoral researcher, who also has published on other marine organisms.

Nancy (in bivalve names) : see Plumb.

About the hagfish name Eptatretus nanii Wisner & McMillan, 1988, the authors say: "We are pleased to dedicate this species to Professor Alberto Nani Caputo", 19??-, "formerly of the Department of Oceanography, University of Chile, Vifia Del Mar, for his early work on the Myxinidae of Chile, for his considerable aid to us via correspondence with Carl L. Hubbs, and for providing specimens".

Nansen : (see G.O. Sars).

General Charles Marie Étienne Champion, comte de Nansouty, (20 Feb. - Dijon) 1815-95 (15 Mar. - Dax (Landes)), French soldier, Malacologist and Mineralologist, also much interested in meteorology.

Neolineus narchi Santos 1974 is honouring  Walter Narchi, 1929-2004, Brazilian malacologist. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Giovanni Domenico (Giandomenico) Nardo, (4 Mar. - Chioggia) 1802-77 (7 Apr. - Venetzia), Italian physician and naturalist, who during some years was assistant to Renier (q.v.) in Padua [Odostomia nardoi Brusina, 1869].

Sir George Strong Nares, (24 Apr. - Llansenseld, close to Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, Wales) 1831-1915 (15 Jan. - Surbiton), English naval officer, oceanographer and polar researcher, Commander on the "Challenger" expedition (1872-76). Was also the leader of the "Alert" and "Discovery" expedition towards the north pole west of Greenland in 1875-76, but failed to reach this goal [Urechinus naresianus A. Agassiz, 1881, Lophiodes naresi (Günther, 1880)].

The gastropod name Narrimania Marco Taviani, 1984 must likely be named for Narriman Taviani, 19??-, like the author interested in malacology, likely a relative (son?) of Marco.

Prof. Dr. Nikolai Victrovich Nasonov (Nassonov), 1855-1939, Russian platyhelminth worker.

Lacking information about Nasu in the gastropod name Conus nasui S. Kosuge, 1971.

Prof. Alfred Gabriel Nathorst, (7 Nov. - Bergshammars Socken outside Nyköping) 1850-1921 (20 Jan. - Stockholm), Swedish geologist, botanist and polar researcher at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (where he was curator of the fossil herbs dep.) [Leucon nathorstii Ohlin, 1901, Nematostella nathorstii (Carlgren, 1921)].

The gastropod name Hemitoma natlandi Durham, 1950 must be a tribute to the palaeontologist Dr. Manley Leonard Natland, (4 Dec. - Hawley, Minnesota) 1906-1991 (11 Aug. - California), who mainly published on Foraminifera during the time of description,.

Johann Natterer, (9 Nov. - Laxenburg) 1787-1843 (17 June - Wien), made collecting expeditions for the Wien (Vienna) Museum in Brazil between 1817-36. His brother Joseph Natterer, (7 Oct. - Laxenburg) 1786-1852 (28 June - Wien), had similar interests and the brothers were curators at the Natural History Collections in Wien (Vienna). They were sons of an imperial falconeer with the same name as his oldest son.

The red algal name Porphyra naumannii (Askenasy) Askenasy (described by Prof. Dr. Eugen Askenasy, (5 May - Tarnopol) 1845-1903 (24 Aug. - Sölden)), is most likely a tribute to the Dresden botanist Dr. Arno Naumann, 1862-1932, than to the mineralogist Prof. Georg Amadeus Karl Friedrich Naumann, (30 May - Dresden) 1797-1873 (26 Nov. - Leipzig), from Köthen, professor of Crystallography in Freiburg (and from 1842 in Leipzig), who when young had travelled and collected in Norway, or his son, the naturalist Edmund Naumann, 1821-98, or Karl Friedrich's father, the ornithologist / farmer Johann Andreas Naumann, (13 Apr. - Ziebigk) 1744-1826 (15 May - Ziebigk)). K.F. Naumann's older brother Carl Andreas Naumann, (14 Nov. - Ziebigk) 1786-1854 (12 Mar. - Ziebigk), became an ornithologist, like his still older brother Dr. h.c. Johann Friedrich Naumann, (14 Feb. - Ziebigk) 1780-1857 (15 Aug. - Ziebigk), considered to be the founder of scientific ornithology in Europe.

Donat Vladimirovitch Naumov, (Leningrad) 1921-84, Russian cnidariologist. Director of the Zoological Museum in Leningrad (now again St Petersburg) 1961-84 [Bonneviella naumovi Antsulevich & Regel, 1986, Rosalinda naumovi Antsulevich & Stepanjants, 1985, Scoloplos (Leodamas) naumovi Averincev, 1982, Naumovia Stepanjants, Pena Cantero, Sheiko & Svoboda, 1997].

The gastropod name Odostomia navarettei Baker, Hanna & Strong, 1928 is named for the Spanish historian and hydrographer Martin Fernández de Navarette y Ximénez de Tejada, (9 Nov. - Abalos) 1765-1844 (8 Oct. - Madrid), who i.a. compiled Spanish historical documents about early expedition travels.

Ignacio Navarro, 19??-, of Vigo, Spanish shell collector [Conus navarroi Rolán, 1986].

The Balearic foraminiferan name Cribrospirolina navarroi Colom Casasnovas, 1935 and likely Cruciloculina navarroi Colom, 1964 is a tribute to Don Francisco Paula de Navarro Martin, 1899 (or 1898?)-1960, "Director del laboratorio Oceanografico de Palma" after whom also the 30 m long R/V Francisco Paula de Navarro must be named.

The coral name Acropora navini Veron, 2002 is in honour of Kim Francis Navin. (12 Sep.) 1954-, in recognition of his help with the work "Corals of the World".

About he copepod name Chondracanthus neali Leigh-Sharpe, 1930, the author wrote "The host, Malacocephalus laevis, was taken in deep water from S.W. Ireland by the fishing fleet of M. H. Neale," 18??-19??, "Esq., the eminent Cardiff naturalist, after whom this species is named".

Prof. Dr. John William Neale, (19 Nov. - Burton-on-Trent) 1926-2006 (20 Jan.), British ostracodologist and palaeontologist, at the dept. of Geology, Univ. of Hull [Paradoxostoma nealei Horne & Whittaker, 1985].

Marie Catherine Neal, (7 Dec. - Southington, Conn.) 1889-1965, botanist / malacologist, working at the Bishop Museum for 35 years, who found the first specimens of Elysia nealae Østergaard, 1955 at Waikiki in 1923.

Needler : (See Berkeley & Arai).

Prof. Dr. Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck, (14 Feb. - Schloss Reichenberg) 1776-1858 (16 Mar.), South Preussian botanical systematist (had originally worked as physician for a few years), who wrote well-made floras of the Cape Land and Brazil, but also interested himself in mosses, fungi and algae. He was a professor from 1817 in Erlangen, three year later in Bonn, and from 1831 in Breslau. He succesively developed a romantic, eventually ultraradical natural philosophy, inspired by Schelling and Goethe; his enthusiasm for reformation of the church, free marriages (which he applied himself), etcetera, suffered him dismissal and a decease in destitution, only followed to his grave by the workers union in Breslau, for which he had been chairman after having been politally active from 1848 (and in 1851 being deprived of his professorship and pension). He had been a member of the prestigeous German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina from 1816 and its president from 1818 to the end of his life and his last act there was to admit Charles Darwin as a member. Anders Sandøe Ørsted did not explain the taxon names, which he described, so the connection between name and person for Paranemertes neesi (Örsted,1843) should be seen as a good guess in lack of other candidates. Considering Ørsted's social position, with one uncle as celebrated physicist, another as prime minister, the paying of honour to a rabid radical may seem strange, but this happened before Nees became a social Paria and Ørsted's interest in botany was later on manifested in a professorship in this science and the other possible candidate, Nees von Esenbeck's younger brother, Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck, (26 July - Schloss Reichenberg in Reichelsheim (Odenwald)) 1787-1837 (12 Dec. - Hyères), was likely too much of a pure botanist, interested in medical properties of plants, to be honoured in a marine invertebrate name, but has the plant genus Neesia Carl Ludwig Blume named for him.

The British naturalist J.T. Neeve, 18??-19??, is honoured in the red algal genus name Neevea Batters, 1900. His / her field notes manuscripts are in the Folkstone Museum.

The Kinetoplastid flounder parasite Cryptobia neghmei Khan & al, 2001 is in honour of Prof. Amador Neghme Rodríguez, (Huara) 1912-87 (26 July - Santiago), "in recognition of his contributions to parasitology in Chile".

Dr. Patrick Neill, (25 Oct.) 1776-1851 (3 Sep.), of Edinburgh, British naturalist and printer, who i.a. published on a tour to the Orkneys and Shetlands and wrote a biographical sketch on Linnaeus.

E. (or K.?) Neizwestnowa- Shadina, 1???-19??, wrote in 1935 an article about rheophilic (Gr. rheo = flow, rheos = stream) microbenthic organisms [Rheomorpha neizvestnovae (Lastochkin, 1935)].

Lacking information about Dr. Bindo Nelli, 18??-19?? (still living in 1914), Roma, in the zoanthid name Protopalythoa nelliae Pax, 193?. Nelli published in Italian about fossil Anthozoa in 1903.

The amphipod name Liropus nelsonae Guerra-Garcia, 2003 is named for Elizabeth Harrison-Nelson, 19??-, assistent at the Crustacean dept. at Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and a good helper of all guests working there. (Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø, kindly provided this information).

The hagfish name Quadratus nelsoni (Kuo, Huang & Mok ,1994), may possibly be a tribute to Prof. (emeritus since 2002) Dr. Joseph S. Nelson, 19??-, Univ. of Alberta, Canada, the author of "Fishes of the World".

Nelson : (see also Annandale & see Terra Nova expedition, 1910-).

Mrs. Patricia Nelson Ware, 19??, Florida, was the first person to collect Conus patae Abbott, 1971.

Dr. Francisco Nemenzo Sr., 19??-19?? (named the late in 1997), the father of Philippine coral taxonomy, publishing about such creatures between 1955-88 (and father of Dr. Francisco "Dodong" Nemenzo Jr., the left wing political scientist)

Mr. László Németh, 19??-, Hungarian malacologist [Roseniella nemethi].

Dr. Takahisa Nemoto, (28 Oct. - Tokyo) 1930-90 (22 Aug. (pulmonary cancer)), Japanese biological oceanographer working on copepods and euphasiids as food for whales.

Dr. Valeria Neppi, 18??-19??, Verona, published on hydromeduseae i.a. together with Stiasny (q.v.), but published e.g. "I Sifonofori dei Golfo di Napoli" on her own in 1921 [the flatworm genus Neppia Ball, 1974].

Dr. Eugen Robert Neresheimer, 1876-19??, Wien, PhD in Jena in 1903 on ciliates, Austrian-Jewish assistant secretary, fisheries science expert and poet, interested in parasitic copepods and protozoans, however chiefly in fresh water, although also publishing on Mesozoans, when active in München (Munich) during the first years of the 20:th century.

Monsieur Louis François Ferdinand Guillebot de Nerville, 1858-1931, "ingénieur des télégraphe", shell collector who collected shells in the Gulf of Gabés, when placing telegraph wires [Littorina nervillei Dautzenberg]. (A photograph of him from 1878 is found in the obituary of his father).

Dr. Kir Nazimovich Nesis, (9 Jan. - Moscow) 1934-2003 (8 Jan.), Russian hydrobiologist and well-known cephalopod specialist at the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mocow [Kirnasia (from Kir Nasimovich) nesisi Burukovsky, 1988, Cholidyella nesisi Avdeev, 1986, Heterocarpus nesisi Burukovsky, 1986, Amigdoscalpellum nesisi (Zevina, 1972), Asperoteuthis nesisi Arkhipkin & Laptikhovsky, 2008]. Some older "nesis" names like Nesis Mulsant, 1850 (Insecta Coleoptera), Nesis Stael, 1860 (Insecta Hemiptera), Nesis Conrad, 1871 (Mollusca) and Nesis Locard, 1899 (Mollusca) were of course not named after him, but after a tiny volcanic island near Naples, Italy (Nesis in Greek is - "small island") (as kindly remarked from Dr. Nesis himself, less than a year before he sorrily passed away on his way home from work).

The gastropod name Alvania nestaresi Oliveiro & Amati, 1990 is in honour of Ignacio Nestares Pleguezelo, 19??-, shell collector from Granada, Spain.

The nematode name Phocascaris netsiki Lyster, 1940 is likely not named for a person's name, but for the ringed seal Pusa hispida, which also is called the Netsik or Nattiq by the Inuits.

Heinrich Hans Neuenhaus, 1875-1945, German Malacologist.

The sponge name Pozziella neuhausi Diaz-Agras, 2008 is in honour of Dr. Birger Neuhaus, 1960-, (curator of "Vermes" at Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin), PhD on Kinorhyncha in 1991 under Prof. Ax (q.v), who collected the specimens on board the RV Sonne and provided them to authors for this study. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

The Antarctic echinoderm name Sterechinus neumayeri (Meissner, 1900) is not directly named for a person's name, but for a locality, the Neumayer Channel, separating Anvers Island from Wiencke Island and Doumer Island. This channel was named so by the Belgian expedition led by Gerlache after Georg Balthasar von Neumayer, (21 June - Kirchheimbolanden, Palatinate) 1826-1909 (24 May - Neustadt an der Weinstraße), German geophysicist and meteorologist, who had travelled in South America and Australia and later organized the Gazelle Expedition (1874-76) and also inspired the Gauss Expedition in 1901.

The isopod name Tytthocope neupokoevi (Gurjanova, 1946) is likely not named dirictly for a person's name, but for a locality, either Neupokoev Island, Kara Sea, Russia or Cape Neupokoev in the same area, both likely named for Liutenant Konstantin K. Neupokoev, 1884-1924, who was in charge of the chartographic work during the beginning of the 20:th century, when the Russian Arctic area was charted, and published about it “Материалы по лоции Сибирского моря” in 1922.

Wim Hendrik Neuteboom, 1920-2000, Dutch Malacologist.

Antonio Neviani, 1857-1946, Italian bryozoologist, who published at least between 1896-1939 [Nevianipora Borg, 1944].

Mr. Geoffrey Nevill, (Holloway, England) 1842?-1885 (10 Feb., in his 42:th year - Davos Platz), of the Indian Museum, Calcutta . Before settling in Calcutta, he had collected shells at Mauritius, the Isle of Bourbon, and the Seychelles, some of which were described by H. Adams in 1868 [Bathybembix nevilli E.A. Smith, 1906]. His father William was interested in mineralology and had a famous collection of meteorites and his brother Hugh Nevill, 1847-1897 (10 Apr. - Hjeres, France), a British civil servant in Sri Lanka from 1865 and 32 years after that, was also i.a. a shell collector (although H. Nevill also collected several other natural history objects and had not least a very large collection of Singalese manuscripts). An auction of H. Nevill's shell collection was held May 10 1904. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided the year of decease).

The gastropod name Gregorioiscala nevillei E.F. Garcia, 2003 is honouring Bruce Neville, 1955-, Albuquerque, New Mexico, who is working on wentletraps and i.a. has published on such creatures together with Art Weil (q.v.) and Lenny Brown (q.v.).

Dr. Wesley Newcomb, (New York) 1818-92 (26 Jan. - Ithaca, New York), US physician and amateur conchologist, mainly interested in land molluscs. Practised medicine in Albany, New York. Curator, Cornell Museum, 1870-88 [Mitra newcombii Pease, 1896, Ischnochiton newcombi H. F. Carpenter in H. A. Pilsbry, 1892, Algamorda newcombiana (Hemphill, 1876), Scabricola newcombii (Pease, 1869), Amygdalum newcombi W. H. Dall, P. Bartsch & H. A. Rehder, 1938].

Dr. Charles Fredéric Newcombe, (15 Sep. - Newcastle upon Tyne) 1851-1924 (19 Oct. - British Columbia, by pneumonia), Physician, who emigrated to North America (initially Oregon) with his family in 1884, added much to the knowledge of the fauna of British Columbia [Rissoina newcombei Dall, 1897, Kurtziella newcombei (Dall, 1919), Turbonilla newcombi Dall & Bartsch, 1907, Cadulus newcombei H. A. Pilsbry & Sharp, 1898].

The cowry name Staphylaea limacina clarissa Lorenz, 1989 is in honour of Clarissa Newman, 1886-1977, Vice President of the International Council of Women.

The flatworm name Maritigrella newmanae Bolaños, . Quiroga & Litvaitis, 2007 is named in honor of Dr. Leslie Newman, 19??-, who described the genus Maritigrella. She is Research Associate in the School of Environmental Science & Management at Southern Cross University in New South Wales, Australia. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Irwin "Irv" Mayer Newell, (15 Sep. - Coeur D'Alene, Idaho) 1916-1979 (2 July - Riverside, California), PhD at Yale Univ. in 1945, published e.g. in 1947 "A Systematic and Ecological Study of the Halacaridae of Eastern North America". After a year as Research Associate at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, he and his wife moved back to the northwest. He was Assistant Professor of Biology and Associate Entomologist at the University of Oregon from 1946 to 1948; from 1948 to 1953, he was Associate Professor of Entomology and Associate Entomologist at the University of Hawaii. In 1954, he became one of the original staff of the Division of Life Sciences (later the Department of Biology) when undergraduate instruction began in the new College of Letters and Science at Riverside [Atelopsalis newelli Bartsch, 1973]. (more info).

Prof. Dr. William Anderson Newman, (13 Nov. - San Francisco) 1927-, Univ. of California, Berkeley, later Prof. at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, cirriped researcher [Newmaniverruca Young,1998, Newmanella Ross, 1969, Newmania Anders, 1992, Newmanilepas Zevina & Yakhontova, 1987, Acasta newmani Van Syoc & Winther, 1999, Cryptophialus newmani Tomlinson, 1969, Utinomia newmani Tomlinson, 1963] (The Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library, Peter Brueggeman, kindly provided the information about Newman's recent position and his date).

The gymnamoeba name Gibbodiscus newmani Sawyer, 1975 is in honour of Mr. William Newman, 19??-, National Marine Fisheries Service, Washington, D.C.

The ostracod name Cypridopsis newtoni Brady & Robertson, 1870 may possibly honour the British malacologist Richard Bullen Newton, (23 Feb. - London) 1854-1926 (Jan.), palaeontologist at the British Museum of Nat. Hist. and nephew of the palaeontologist Edwin Tulley Newton, (May - London) 1840-1930 (28 Jan.), who from 1865 had been appointed assistant to T.H. Huxley (q.v.), or possibly the British zoologist and ornithologist Prof. Alfred Newton, (11 June - in a palace close to Geneva, during the way home in a family trip to Italy) 1829-1907 (7 June - Cambridge), who became a convinced Darwinist as fast as he had read Darwin's 1858 paper, but possibly of course another another bearer of this name?

The monogenean names Macrouridophora nezumiae (Munroe, Campbell & Zwerner, 1981) and Polycliphora nezumiae Lambert & Euzet, 1980 is likely found in the the genus Nezumia Jordan, 1904 (Macrouridae), and that fish name is not in honour of a person's name, but is derived from the Japanese word nezumi, meaning rat tail and this kind of grenadier fishes are somtimes named rat tails also in English.

Prof. Dr. Peter Ng Kee Lin, 1960-, decapod researcher at the School of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, director of the Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, is honoured in the crab name Harrovia ngi Chen & Xu, 1992.

Lacking information about Thalassinidea researcher Dr. Nguyen Ngoc-Ho, 19??-, at the MNHN, Paris, in the Callianassid name Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999.

Lacking information about Nichof in the banded eagle ray name Aetomylaeus nichofii (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

Dr. Aubrey Gordon Nicholls, (21 Nov.) 1904-1986 (14 July), was a member of the famous Calanus-trio of Marshall (q.v.), Nicholls, and Orr (q.v.). His early work took him between the Plymouth and Millport labs, but before WWII he left for Australia where he continued his fine and numerous taxonomic works on copepods of all kinds. He worked for the Australian and Tasmanian fisheries and retired in Tasmania. His library was left to Monash University, Victoria. He is memorialized by the names of 11 copepod species [Eucyclops nichollsi Brehm, 1950, Amphiascoides nichollsi Lang, 1965, Leptastacus nichollsi Krishnaswamy, 1951, Peltidium nichollsi Geddes, 1968, Parapeltidium nichollsi Ummerkutty, 1970, Entomopsyllus nichollsi McKinnon, 1988 ]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided this information).

The flatworm name Prudhoeus nicholsi Bray & Gibson, 1980 is a tribute to Mr John H. Nichols, 19??-, fisheries scientist, MAFF Lab. Lowestoft and the copepod name Telson nicholsi Causey, 1960 may possibly honour the same person (or A.G. Nicholls above)? (Dr. Rod Bray kindly provided this information).

Lacking information about Nichols in the gastropod name Bittium nicholsi Bartsch, 1911, but possibly Dr. George Elwood Nichols, (12 Apr. - Southington, Connecticut) 1882-1939 (20 June - New Haven, Connecticut), PhD in 1909 at Yale, who was president of the Ecological Society of America during 1932, may be the honoured person, but perhaps more likely a tribute to the US ichthyologist Dr. John Treadwell Nicholls, (11 June - Jamaica Plain, Boston, Massachusetts) 1883-1958 (10 Nov. - Garden City, Long Island, New York), who i.a. published together with Bartsch about "Fishes and shells of the Pacific world" in 1945.

The shrimp name Hippolyte nicholsoni Chace, 1972 is named for Desmond Vernon Nicholson, (9 July - Southsea, Hampshire) 1925-2006 (24 Jan.), English Harbour, Antigua, retired Museum Director at Nelson's Dockyard Museum, who in Sep. 2005 found the Internet question about who the honouree in this eponym could be, and after that kindly sent the following message: "In 1956 & 1958, I was in command of the schooner "Freelance", which the Smithsonian had chartered for the two Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean Expeditions under Dr. Waldo Schmidt. Descriptions of these expeditions were published under Smithsonian pubs # 4285 & 4366, 1957 and 1959. At this time, masks and snorkels were rarely used and were certainly not used by the scientists in collecting marine organisms on these expeditions. So you can understand by using mine, I was quite a 'star' disappearing underwater and turning up with exciting finds. One of the most interesting was the observation of decapods living amongst the nematocysts of sea anemonies in a commensal relationship. As I remember, H. nicholsoni was collected in a small handnet from a violet seafan gorgonian off the Hammond house on Nonsuch Bay, Antigua". He later added "I am very tall at 6ft 3 ins; goodness knows why they ever used my name for a SHRIMP!" He sorrily passed away just a few months later. The Nicholson family (including his brother, his fathar (originating from Cork) with families) was on their way to New Zealand with the 70 feet schooner Mollihawk in 1948, but abandoned the plans to sail further when they reached Antigua, because they found out that they had reached the place, where they would live.

Dr. Lois Nickell, 1965-, University Marine Biological Station, Millport, Scotland, later Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban , Argyll, Scotland, collected type material at Tobago of Neocallichirus nickellae Manning, 1993.

Patella nicklesi F. Nordsieck, 1975, Aequipecten nicklesi Dijkstra 1998, Ischnochiton nicklesi P. Kaas & R. A. Van Belle, 1990 and Gadila nicklesi (Dell, 1964) were named for Maurice Charles Dominique Nicklès, 1907-???? (active at least until 1965), Ingénieur Géologue, à Dakar, (son of the founder Dr. René Toussaint Joseph Nicklès, (23 May - Nancy) 1859-1917, of Association des Ingénieurs Géologues de l’Université de Nancy), French collector of natural history objects (in Africa) and malacologist, active during the mid part of the 20:th century.

The foraminiferan name Rectuvigerina nicoli R.D. Mathews, 1945 is of course not a tribute to Dr. Edith A. Traquair Nicol, Univ. of Edinburg, who in J.M.B.A.U.K. published on the feeding habits of Galatheidae in 1932 (because of the male ending of the name -i), but more likely, because the author was active at Stanford Univ., a tribute to David Nicol, 19??-, because he worked on Foraminifera at that university by that time (and e.g. was honoured in the palaeontological name Globorotalia nicoli L.T. Martin, 1943).

Lacking information about Nicol in the Californian gastropod name Borsonella nicoli Dall, 1919 (a synonym of Borsonella bartschi (Arnold, R., 1903)).

Nicolai : (see Knipovitsch).

Opalia cerigottana nicolayi F. Nordsieck, 1974 and Anachis nicolayi F. Nordsieck, 1974 is honouring Mrs. Kety Nicolay (Catherine Nicolaidou), Italian collector borne in Greece and editor of La Conchiglia. (See also Angioy) [Zoila marginata ketyana (Raybaudi, 1978), possibly Prolixodens nicolayae Jay & Drivas, 2002].

Lacking information about Nicolay in the gastropod name Ocenebra nicolayi T. A. di Monterosato, 1884.

The nematode name Neochromadora nicolae Vincx, 1986 is in honour of Dr. Nicole Smol, 19??-, fellow marine nematologist in the Institute of Zoology, Gent.

Lacking data about Dr. William Nicoll, 18??-19??, Lecturer on Helminthology, Royal College of Science, London, who during the very first years of the 20:th century (before becoming a PhD) had worked at the Gatty Marine Laboratry and in 1912 was appointed as parasitologist in Townsville, Australia and published some papers from Queensland, but during the 1920s published a few papers about helminths of british birds and amphibians, the last one in 1926, so possibly was he back in Britain during the 1920s. [Pellamyzon nicolli (Issaitscikow, 1928), Paravortex nicolli Szidat, 1965 ('turbellaria')]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaja, Sevastopol, kindly added the last eponym and mentioned that he was working in Plymouth and published some papers on trematodes of marine fishes). A person bearing this name, possibly the same man, born 1882, is mentioned as bacteriologist.

Carsten Niebuhr : (see Forskål).

Niel : (see Niel Bruce).

Claus Nielsen, 1938-, Danish entoproctologist interested in phylogeny within the zoological kingdom [Prionospio nielseni Hylleberg & Nateewathana, 1991].

The late Mr. Tom Nielsen, 19??-1986, a noted trawler fisherman and amateur malacologist from Yeppoon, Queensland. [Graptcame nielseni Lamprell & Healey, 1998, Voluta nielseni McMichael, 1959]. The gastropod name Conus nielsenae Marsh, 1962, first found by him, was named for his wife Mollie Nielsen.

Lacking information about Nielsen in the cephalopod name Octopoteuthis nielseni Robson, 1948, but possibly a tribute to E. Nielsen, 18??-19??, who published on Faeroese cephalopods in 1930.

Prof. Hugo Frederik Nierstrasz, (30 June - Rotterdam) 1872-1937 (17 Apr.), was assistent of Weber (q.v.) at the Amsterdam University and took (as a student recommended by his teacher in Utrecht, Hubrecht (q.v.)) part in the Siboga expedition 1899-1900. He became a specialist in marine isopods and was lecturer 1904-10, later professor 1910-37 of Zoology at the Utrecht University (succeding his former teacher Hubrecht and also becoming Rector Magnificus of this University) [Argeia nierstraszi Shiino, 1958, Parabopyrella nierstraszi (Chopra, 1930), Paracepon nierstraszi Pillai, 1954, Loxothylacus nierstraszi Boschma, 1938, Octolasmis nierstraszi (Hoek, 1907), Psammocora nierstrazi Van der Horst, 1921, Leptochiton nierstraszi Leloup, 1981, Dichelaspis nierstraszi Hoek, Acanthochites nierstraszi Thiele, Hypomenia nierstraszi Lummel, 1930, Hapalochlaena nierstraszi (Adam, 1938)]. An exact namesake, living between (30 Oct. - Utrecht) 1904-2000, was also a zoologist and these namesakes were father and son, because H.F. Nierstrasz sr. had married a 5 years younger girl, Bernhardina Cornelia, on 21 Aug. 1902 and they got one daughter in 1903 and two twin sons the following year, who both became Dr.:s and lived long (became 92 resp. 95 years old).

Prof. Dr. Edward Feliks Lubicz-Niezabitowski, (30 May - close to Miloslaw Bugaj) 1875-1946 (5 Nov. - Poznan), physician & Rektor magnificus of Univ. of Poznan, zoologist from Poland, published on Thalassomyces in 1913 [Thalassomyces niezabitowski Hoenigman, 1960, Hippolyte niezabitowskii D'Udekem d'Acoz, 1996].

Lacking information about Nigel in the fish name Monognathus nigeli Bertelsen & Nielsen, 1987.

Mrs. Dr. Chingis M. Nigmatullin, 19??-, Russian (Kaliningrad) cephalopodologist, who has published from the 1970s on [Nigmatullinus Burukovsky, 1991].

Lacking information about Niino in the coral name Crispatotrochus niinoi (Yabe & Eguchi, 1942).

The nematode names Nijhoffia Allgén, 1935 & Viscosia nijhoffi Allgén, 1935 may possibly be tributes to Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, publishing company, which i.a. published some nematode works.

Sven Nilsson, (8 May - Asmundtorp, off Landskrona) 1787-1883 (30 Nov.), Swedish naturalist (mainly zoologist) and archaeologist, from the county of Skåne. See also Lovén [Menigratopsis svennilssoni Dahl, likely Halirages nilssoni Ohlin, 1895].

Nilsson-Cantell : (see Cantell).

Nina (in Nanaspis ninae) : (see Lützen).

All the author of the copepod name Chondracanthus ninnii Richiardi, 1882, said about the name is that it is named for "Count Dr. Ninni of Venice, the charismatic naturalist.". During this time there is an Italian ichthyologist Conte Alessandro Pericle Ninni, (Venice) 1837-1892 (10 Jan. - Venice), Museo Civico di Venezia, so he must be identical. A later person, publishing about Adriatic fishes in the beginning of the 20:th century, named Count Emilio Ninni, 1868-1945, was his son. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided the citation).

Is there a person named Ninon or a similar name dwelling in the polychaete name Amphicteis ninonae Jirkov, 1985?

The Lithodid name Lithodes nintokuae Sakai ,1978 is not named for a person's name, but for the Nintoku Seamount.

The polychaete name Lumbrineris nishii Carrera Parra, 2006 is in honour of Eijiroh Nishi, 19??-, Associate Professor, Yokohama National University, in recognition of his publications on polychaetes of Japan. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Dr. Shuhei Nishida, 1950-, Japanese copepod morphologist and taxonomist.

Prof. (Em.) Dr. Moritaka Nishihira, 1939-, Japanese coral researcher, is honoured in the scleractinian name Echinophyllia nishihirai Veron, 1990.

The polychaete name Tomopteris (Tomopteris) nisseni Rosa, 1908 was named for its collector Gap. (Captain?) H. Nissen, 18??-19??, who found it at 20° S, 27° W in the Atlantic.

The German naturalist Prof. Hinrich (sic!) Nitsche, 1845-1902, Professor at the Königlich Sächsiche Forstakademie Tharandt, near Dresden, who published on fresh water bryozoans in 1868, is honoured in the entoproct name Loxosomella nitschei (Vigelius, 1882).

Prof. Christian Ludwig Nitzsch, (3 Sep. - Beuda, near Grimma) 1782-1837 (16 Aug.), Professor of Natural History at the University of Halle, Germany (Prussia). Nitzsch was primarily an ornithologist, but he wrote a monograph on infusorians (1817) that included some diatoms, giving Hassall (q.v.) (1845) good reason to name the diatom genus Nitzschia. One of Nitzsch's students, and his successor at Halle, was Hermann Burmeister (q.v.). (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided this information).

Dr. Giuseppe Nobili, (Feb. - Omegna) 1877-1908 (4 Dec. - Omegna), Italian zoologist at the University of Turin [possibly Eurycope nobili Richardson, 1911, Periclimenaeus nobilii A.J. Bruce, 1974, Paranchistus nobilii Holthuis, 1952].

Prof. Dr. Elmer Ray Noble, (16 Jan. - Pyongyang, Korea) 1909-2001 (8 Mar., by pneumonia), Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, US parasitologist, is honoured in the myxozoan names Myxidium noblei Zubchenko & Krasin, 1980 and Myxobolus noblei (Sarkar, 1982). He has published together with Glenn Arthur Noble, 1909-2001 (died 3 months after his twin brother), his identical twin brother, both born in Korea, where their parents were missionaires, and they lived there until 1927 when they entered the Univ. of California. Together, they co-authored the book "Parasitology: The Biology of Animal Parasites". (David Hollombe, Los Angeles, kindly provided much of this information).

Dr. Gladwyn Kingsley Noble, (20 Sep. - Yonkers, New York) 1894-1940 (9 Dec. - Englewood, New Jersey, Hospital, of Ludwig's quincy), PhD at Columbia Univ. in 1922, US collector of natural history objects, mainly interested in herpetology. [likely Gnorimosphaeroma noblei Menzies, 1954].

Professor Dr. Augusto Pereira Nobre, (23 June - Porto) 1865-1946 (13 Sep. - Foz do Douro), Portugese marine biologist and brother of the poet António Nobre, 1867-1900, who died young from pulmonary tbc. After studies in Portugal, he stayed some time in Paris as a disciple of Edmond Perrier (q.v.), later at the Mediterranean Station de Biologie Marine de Sète at the Univ. of Montpellier, but returns to Porto in 1890, where he becomes a full professor in 1915. He was from early age especially interested in malacology. [Conus nobreiTrovão, 1975].

Vexillum (Costellaria) nodai H. Turner & R. Salisbury, 1999 is named for Mr. Kazutaka Noda, 19??-, (Gobo Town, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan) whose extensive molluscan collection has yielded several new species of Costellaridae. (Dr. Hans Turner, Casa La Conchiglia, Rovia, Switzerland, kindly provided some of this information). Hirokuni Noda, 19??-, Japanese tardigrade taxonomist supervised by Tatsunori Ito (q.v.) at the Seto Marine Laboratory, is a partial namesake.

The decapod worker Dr. Pierre Yves Noël, 1947-, at the MNHN, Paris, is honoured in the decapod name Balssia noeli Bruce, 1998.

Dr. Ella Mae Noffsinger, (16 Mar. - Colorado) 1934-, "Senior Museum Scientist, Davis, California" (retired in 1991) is honoured in the nematode name Noffsingeria Decraemer & Jensen, 1982.

Italo Nofroni, (7 Mar.) 1949-, malacologist from Roma (Italy). President of Centro Italiano di Studi Malacologici (Cisma) [Turbonilla nofroni Peñas & Rolan, 1997, Choristella nofronii McLean, 1992, Cerithiopsis nofronii Amati, 1987, Anekes nofronii Aartsen & Bogi,1988 (now considered to be a synonym of Lissotesta turritum (Gaglini, 1977)].

The US plankton researcher Dr. Thomas T. Noji, 19??-, PhD in Kiel, Germany in 1987, is likely the person honoured in the nematode name Southerniella nojii Jensen,1991.

Nolan in the cowry name Erosaria staphylea nolani Lorenz, 1989 : (see Nolan Webb).

Prof. Dr. Lowell Evan Noland, (15 July - Lee, Indiana) 1896-1972 (3 Jan. - Madison, Wisconsin), U.S. protistologist [Nolandia Small & Lynn, 1985 nolandi (Kahl, 1930), Nolandella Page, 1983].

Frank Nolf, 19??-, Belgian (Oostende) collector who played a major role in the development of post-war conchology in Belgium. [Cantharidus nolfi  Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this infoprmation).

Prof. Dr. Ernst Ferdinand Nolte, (24 Dec. - Hamburg) 1791-1875 (13 Feb. - Kiel), German physician and botanist, Prof. of Botany at the Univ. of Kiel, interested in Zostera [Zostera noltii Hornemann].

The venomous giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai Kishinouye, 1922 (for some time in the genus Stomolophus) is a tribute to Mr. Kanichi (Kan-ichi) Nomura, 18??-19??, who was the Director General of the Fukui Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station and sent in early December 1921 a specimen in a 72 l wooden tank to Kishinouye, who found that it was unknown and spent some time at the station during his winter vacation in order to study living specimens. Nomura later (mid 1930s) became known as an orgaizer of a Japanese fishery coordination committee. Some other zoologists sharing his family name were the malacologist Shichihei [Sitihei] Nomura, 1892-1945, who is honoured in the cardiid name Trifaricardium nomurai Kuroda & Habe, 1951 and the oligochaete worker Ekitaro Nomura, 1887?-19??, at Tohoku Imperial Univ. [Dr.s Toyokawa Masaya & Kensuke Yanagi kindly informed about Kanichi Nomura]

Dr. Edmundo Ferraz Nonato, 1920-, dean of polychaetologists in Latin America and factual leader of many Brazilian taxonomists and invertebrate ecologists [Eunice nonatoi Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998, Costasiella nonatoi Marcus & Marcus, 1960, Spiochaetopterus nonatoi Bhaud & al., 2001, Spermothamnion nonatoi Joly, Itanemertes nonatoi Corrêa, 1958, Kinbergonuphis nonatoi da Cunha Lana, 1991, Antarcturus nonatoi Pires & Sumida, 1997, Magelona nonatoi Bolivar & Lana, 1986, Nonatus A.C.Z. Amaral, 1980 (Capitellidae)]. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided the date and some of the eponym names)

The bivalve names Xyloredo nooi Turner, 1972 and Xylopholas nooi Turner, 1972 are not in honour of a person's name, but are derived from the US Navy Oceanographic Office, NOO, because John R. DePalma of the NOO, had exposed wood into deep water, in which these species were found.

Professor Dr. Wolfram Noodt, (29 June - Fürstenwalde (close to Berlin)) 1927-1991 (17 Feb. - Kiel), German copepodologist (harpacticoida) and Bathynellacean worker in Kiel, where he under Remane (q.v.) received his PhD in 1953. Noodt himself supervised arund 50 PhD students, among them were Sieg (q.v.), Anger, Wägele, Schriever, etc. [Noodtiella Wells, 1965, Noodtorthopsyllus Lang, 1965, Micropsammis noodti Mielke, 1975, Stenhelia (Delavalia) noodti Schriever, 1982, Interleptomesochra noodti Galhano, 1968, Haloschizopera noodti Bodin, 1968, Schizopera noodti Rouch, 1962, Forficatocaris noodti Jakobi, 1969, Sigmatidium noodti Kunz, 1975, Hastigerella noodti (Rao & Ganapati, 1969), Cubanocleta noodti Petkovski, 1977]. He began his studies for Remane just after World War II.

The Pacific algal name Bonnemaisonia nootkana (Esper) Silva is not named for the Nootka people - a tribe of north American "indians", but at least Silva thought that the type locality was Nootka Sound by Vancouver Island, Canada.

Nop : (see Bussarawit).

Baron Dr. Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, (18 Nov. - Helsinki) 1832-1901 (12 Aug. - Dalbo (close to Lund, Sweden)), Finnish-Swedish geologist (later leader of the Swedish "Vega" expedition around the NE passage); he was a ship-mate of Malmgren (q.v.) during some arctic expeditions [Lanassa nordenskioeldi Malmgren, 1866, Aega nordenskjoeldi (Bovallius, 1885), Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii Cleve, 1873, Canthocamptus nordenskioeldi Lilljeborg, 1902, Cladorhiza nordenskioeldi Fristedt, 1887, Pseudotanais (Pseudotanais) nordenskioldi Sieg, 1973, Styela nordenskioeldi Michaelsen, 1898]. A. Nordenskiöld was uncle (fathers brother) of Dr. Nils Erik Nordenskiöld, (23 Nov. - Frugård, Nyland, Finland) 1872-1933, acarina researcher, humanist and publisher of "The History of Biology". A. Nordenskiöld also was uncle (mothers brother) of Dr. Nils Otto Gustaf Nordenskjöld, (6 Dec. - Hässelby, Småland) 1869-1928 (2 June - died after being hit by a car in a calm street outside his home in Gothenburg), who spelled his family name with the letter j instead of i. He took part in a Danish expedition to E Greenland during 1900 and the larger Antarctic expedition in 1901-03 onboard the Swedish ship "Antarctic", which cooperated with the simultaneous Antarctic expeditions with the British ship "Discovery" under Scott and the German ship "Gauss" under von Drygalski. He had started his academic career in Uppsala as a geologist and geographer, but in 1905 he achieved a professorship in Göteborg (Gothenburg) in geography including commersial geography and ethnography and stayed in this city for the rest of his career, except for a few more expedititions to West Greenland, Peru and Patagonia [Methalimedon nordenskjoeldi Schellenberg, 1931, Golfingia nordenskjoldi (Théel, 1911)]. The giant penguin Anthropornis nordenskjoldi Wiman, 1905, the largest penguin who ever lived on this planet, extinct for around 45 million years, but a marine creture of around human size (length up to 170 cm, weight of around 90 kg) was named for Otto Nordenskjöld, who found the fist skeletons at Seymour Island when in vain waiting for the ship Antarctic (see this expedition).

Ole Nordgaard, (8 Nov. - Tømmerås, Grong, Namdalen) 1862-1931 (3 Sep. - Trondheim, from cancer), Norwegian zoologist and hydrographer, first (from 1895) working in Bergen as the first director of the biological station in Puddefjorden (which was founded in 1892 as an initiative of i.a. Mohn and Nansen), later (from 1906) at the biological station in Trondheim, which had started in 1900. A polyhistor and jack-of-all-trades within zoology, but mainly a specialist on bryozoans and a member of several learned societies, including the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. [Nordgaardia Kluge, 1962, Rhopalaea nordgaardi Hartmeyer, 1922, Buprorus nordgaardi G.O. Sars, 1921, Laophonte nordgaardi G.O. Sars, 1908, Emplectonema nordgaardi (Punnett, 1903), Loxosomella nordgaardi Ryland, 1961, Viscosia nordgaardi Allgén, 1940, Cyatholaimus nordgaardi Allgén, 1933, Bougainvillia nordgaardi (Browne, 1903), Tylobranchion nordgaardi (Hartmeyer, 1922), Metafolliculina nordgaardi Dons, 1924].

Prof. Dr. Alexander Davidivic von Nordmann, (24 May - Kotka) 1803-1866 (25 June), Finnish zoologist of Swedish descent from the Viborg area, after studies in Åbo he left after the big fire in 1827 (which destroyed the library and collections of the academy there) for Berlin, where he was a disciple of Rudolphi (q.v.) and Ehrenberg (q.v.), together with i.a. F. Brandt (q.v.), Burmeister (q.v.), Lovén (q.v.), C. von Siebold (q.v.), A.F. Wiegmann (q.v.) and he also made friends with i.a. von Chamisso (q.v.) and Philippi (q.v.). His work there on some trematodes and particularly some crustaceans, which he discovered to be parasites made him professor in Odessa, where he worked from 1832. He was the first to show parasitism among crustaceans. During his time in Berlin and Odessa, he made many friends among colleagues, beeing considered nice and helpful, speaking several languages. In 1849 he was appointed professor in Helsinki, but was considered to have been an eccentric during his last years. [Evadne nordmanni Lovén, 1836, Encotyllabe nordmanni Diesing, 1850, Aplidium nordmanni (H. Milne-Edwards, 1841), Lepeophtheirus nordmannii (H. Milne Edwards, 1840), Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840, Salmincola nordmanni (Kessler, 1868), Lernanthropus nordmanni Wilson, 1922, Jaera nordmanni (Rathke, 1837), Glycinde nordmanni (Malmgren, 1866), Epiactis nordmanni Carlgren, 1921, Diplostomum nordmanni Shigin & Shapirov, 1986, Stenula nordmannni (Stephensen, 1931)].

Dr. Fritz Nordsieck, (8 Mar.) 1906-1984 (23 May), German typological malacological writer [Tricolia nordsiecki Talavera, 1978].

Dr. Hartmut Nordsieck, 19??-, German malacologist, specialist in clausilids [Sciocohlea nordsiecki Subai, 1993]. His wife, Frau Hiltrud Nordsieck, 19??-, is honoured in Hiltrudia Nordsieck, 1993.

Prof. Carl Fredrik Otto Nordstedt, (20 Jan. - Jönköping) 1838-1924 (6 Feb. - Lund), Swedish algologist in Lund, disciple of J. Agardh (q.v.), publishing mainly on limnic taxa. He was a descendant of Samuel Linnaeus, the brother of Carl von Linné. [Spirulina nordstedtii Gomont].

Dr. Fredrik Norén, (19 Aug. - Stenungsund) 1970-, Swedish marine biologist working on plankton algae, plastic and asphalt particles in the sea, in Lysekil, where he is living.

The nemertean name Aenigmanemertes norenburgi Sundberg & Gibson, 1995 was named for Dr. Jon L. Norenburg, (Feb.) 19??-, nemertean worker at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

Rev. Canon Alfred Merle Norman, (29 Aug. - Exeter) 1831-1918 (26 Oct. - Berkhampsted), belonged to an old Somerset family. He was born in Devon, studied theology in Oxford, worked from 1858 as clergyman in Durham - he was appointed honorary Canon of Durham Cathedral in 1885 - until his retirement in 1898, when he moved to Berkhampsted, Herts.. During his long life he interested himself in all kinds of marine invertebrates and spent almost all spare-time collecting - he was a renowned dredger - and describing this kind of animals, gladly together with like-minded. His gradually very large collection of invertebrates is now included in the collections of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) and his almost complete collection of 19:th century zoological publications was inherited by the Department of Zoology in Cambridge [Normanion Bonnier, 1893, Rhabdopleura normani Allman, 1869, Clathria (Microciona) normani (Burton, 1930), Halichondria normani Burton, 1930, Latrunculia normani Stephen, 1915, Stelletta normani Sollas, 1880, Notoplites normani (Nordgaard, 1900), Micropora normani Levinsen, 1909, Stomachetosella normani Hayward, 1994, Doropygella normani (Brady, 1878), Aspidoecia normani Giard & Bonnier, 1889, Cribropontius normani (Brady & Robertson, 1876), Ectinosoma normani T. & A. Scott, 1894, Thalestris normani T. Scott, 1903, Stenhelia (Delavalia) normani (T. Scott, 1905), Amonardia normani (Brady, 1872), Normanella Brady, 1880, Echinopsyllus normani G.O. Sars, 1909, Paradoxostoma normani Brady, 1868, Cymonomus normani Lancester, 1903, Gastrosaccus normani G.O. Sars, 1877, Onisimus normani G.O. Sars, 1891, Dyopedos normani (G.O. Sars, 1895), Echinopsyllus normani G.O. Sars, 1909, Euphysora normani (Browne, 1916), Anatanais normani (Richardson, 1905), Merlia Kirkpatrick, 1908, Merlia normani Kirkpatrick, 1908, Robertinoides normani (Goës, 1894), Hormosina normani Brady, 1881, Boeckosimus normani (G.O. Sars, 1895), Cymonomus normani Lankester, 1903, Cellaria normani Hastings, 1946, Calliostoma normani Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 189, Moelleriopsis normanni (Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 1897), Ondina normani Friele, 1886, Synagoga normani Grygier, 1983, Munida normani Henderson, 1885, Toledonia normani (Friele, 1886), Zeuxo normani (Richardson, 1905), Agononida normani (Henderson, 1885), Haplostylus normani (G.O. Sars, 1877)].

John Richardson Norman, 1899-1944, ichthyologist at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) [likely Blennius normani Poll, 1949, possibly Psammobatis normani McEachran, 1983].

Dr. Mark Norman, 195?-, well-known Australian cephalopod specialist, chiefly interested in octopuses. He is senior curator at the Museum Victoria, Melbourne.

The diatom name Nitzschia normannii Grunow in Van Heurck, 1881 may possibly be a tribute to George Norman, 1824-1882, British algal (including diatoms) researcher.

Lacking information about Noro in the polychaete name Epigamia noroi (Imajima & Hartman, 1964).

Dr. Thomas Norris, 17??-1852, British surgeon and shell and insect collector from Preston. His entomological collections were for sale 21 May 1873 [Norrisia Bayle, 1880 norrisi (Sowerby, 1838), Murexiella norrisii L. A. Reeve, 1845, Voluta norrisi]. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided the year of decease).

The Prasinophyceae name Pyramimonas norrisii Syn & Pienaar and the choanoflagellate name Stephanoeca norrisi Thomsen, 1973, may possibly be tributes to Dr. James N. Norris, 19??-, algae curator at the Smithsonian Institution, but much more likely tributes to Dr. Richard E. Norris, 19??-, Univ. of Washington, who was active as algal researcher at least from the 1960s and forwards.

Regarding the nudibranch name Glossodoris norrisi (Farmer, 1963): "Dr. Kenneth Norris, whom I accompanied on a trip to the Sebastain Vizcaino Bay area in 1953, provided time to collect nudibranchs.". Prof. Dr. Kenneth Stafford Norris, (11 Aug. - Los Angeles) 1924-1998 (16 Aug. - Santa Cruz, California), PhD at Scipps in 1959, was the founder of Marine Land of the Pacific, and a renowned marine mammal biologist, and a professor at University of California, Santa Cruz. (Dr. Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California kindly provided this information).

The Puget Sound copepod name Anthessius nortoni Illg, 1960 is named for John R. Norton, likely identical with John R. Norton III, (10 Apr. - Glendale, Arizona) 1929-, the founder of J.R. Norton Co. in 1955.

Lacking information about Noury in the cephalopod name Argonauta nouryi Lorois, 1852, but possibly a tribute to the French Vice amiral Baron Camille Adalbert Marie Clément de La Roncière-Le Noury, (31 Oct. - Turin, Italy) 1813-1881 (14 June - Cracouville), who possibly may have been the collector?

Prof. Dr. Henri François Nouvel, (19 Mar. - Brest) 1905-1974 (3 Aug.), French "professeur titulaire de Biologie générale à l'Université Paul-Sabatier de Toulouse". Particularly a carcinologist (worked mainly on Mysidacea, shrimps and prawns) [Processa nouveli Al-Adhub & D.I. Williamson, 1975, Thalassomyces nouveli (Hoenigman, 1954), Paramysis nouveli Labat, 1953, Longithorax nouveli O. Tattersall, 1955, Hansenomysis nouveli Lagardère, 1983, Dicyema nouveli Kalavati, Narasimhamurti & Suseela, 1984], but also interested in other taxa, e.g. mesozoans.

Prof. Yuri Vasilyevich Novikov, (1 Dec.) 1925-1996 (7 Apr.), Russian ichthyologist. [the trematode name Lintonium novikovi Baeva, 1965]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided the eponym).

Lacking information about Noyes in the Nicaragua to Panama gastropod name Sinum noyesii W. H. Dall, 1903.

Lacking information about Nozaki in the scyphozoan name Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye, 1891.

Lacking information about Nozawa? in the monogenean name Tristomella nozawae (Goto, 1894).

The amphipod name Pseudambasia nui (Myers, 1985), is likely not named for a person, but for a place, (according to kind information from Prof. Wim Vader, Tromsø).

Lacking information about Numata in the scaphopod name Dentalium numatai Hirase. likely not honoring the Japanese botanist Dr. Makoto Numata, (27 Nov.) 1917-2001 (30 Dec.),.

Lacking information about Nunn in the harpacticoid name Heteropsyllus nunni Coull, 1975.

Prof. Dr. George Henry Falkiner Nuttall, (5 July- San Francisco) 1862-1937 (16 Dec.), MD at California in 1884, PhD at Göttingen in 1899. The same year he moved to Cambridge, England, where he stayed for the rest of his life and was appoinded professor of Biology in 1906. He founded i.a. the journal Parasitology.

Josiah Nuttall, 1771-1849 (6 Sep.), British (Heywood) natural history worker, mainly taxidermist and ornithologist.

Thomas Nuttall, (5 Jan. - Long Preston, near Craven, Yorkshire) 1786-1859 (10 Sep.), English-U.S. printer and natural history collector and member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. He lived and worked in USA between 1808-1841. [Ceratostoma nuttalli (Conrad, 1837), Nuttallina Dall, 1871, Lucina nuttalli (Conrad, 1837), Clinocardium nuttallii (Conrad, 1837), Tresus nuttalli (Conrad, 1837), Nuttallia Dall, 1898 nuttallii (Conrad, 1837), Saxidomus nuttalli (Conrad, 1837), Taliepus nuttalli (Randall), Mytilimeria nuttalli Conrad, 1837, Thyasira nuttalii T. A. Conrad, 1834]. He had many naturalist friends, e.g. the botanists Hardy Bryan Croom, (8 Oct. - Lenoir County, North Carolina) 1797-1837 (7 Oct., drowned at Cape Hatteras together with his wife and 3 children when SS Home broke down on its way from New York to Charleston), and Harris Loomis, (9 Sep.) 1770-1837. (See also Townsend).

Prof. Charles Cleveland Nutting, (25 May - Jacksonville, Illinois) 1858-1927 (23 Jan. - Iowa), U.S. marine biologist and ornithologist at the University of Iowa [Nuttingia Stechow, 1909, Polyipnus nuttingi Gilbert, 1905, Turbonilla nuttingi Dall & Bartsch, 1909, Poirieria nuttingi (Dall, 1896), Leucilla nuttingi (Urban, 1902), Antennarius nuttingi Garman, 1896, Xanthias nuttingi Rathbun, 1898, Asteroschema nuttingi Verrill, 1899, Rhabdodermella nuttingi Urban, 1902, Pilumnus nuttingi Rathbun, 1906, Calycella nuttingi Hargitt, 1909, Plumularia nuttingi Billard, 1911, Sertularia nuttingi Levinsen, 1913, Diphasia nuttingi Stechow, 1913, Telesto nuttingi Kükenthal, 1913, Sertularella nuttingi Billard, 1914, Astropecten nuttingi Verrill, 1915, Euplexaura nuttingi Kükenthal, 1919, Exosphaeroma nuttingi Boone, 1921, Crangon nuttingi Schmitt, 1924, Histocidaris nuttingi Mortensen, 1926, Lytocarpus nuttingi Hargitt, 1927, Compsometra nuttingi Clark, 1936, Suberogorgia nuttingi Stiasny, 1937, Barbatia nuttingi (Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938), Acabaria nuttingi Stiasny, 1939, Anthothela nuttingi Bayer, 1956, Peltastisis nuttingi Grant, 1976, Antipathipolyeunoa nuttingi Pettibone, 1991, Narella nuttingi Bayer, 1997].

Lacking information about Nutzel in the gastropod name Cerithiopsis nutzeli Jay & Drivas, 2002.

Echinoderes nybakkeni Higgins, 1986 is honouring it's detector Prof. Dr. James Willard Nybakken, (16 Sep.) 1936-2009 (20 June - Carmel Valley), of Moss Landing Marine Laboratories in California, who was a marine ecologist and malacologist (an expert on nudibranch gastropods - e.g. he and a colleague named Cerberilla mosslandica McDonald & Nybakken, 1975 after that marine center). (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided some of this information).

Prof. Dr. Orvar Nybelin, (11 June - Göteborg) 1892-1982 (10 Mar.), Swedish ichthyologist & parasitologist, who worked in the Natural History Musem in Göteborg (Gothenburg), where he early (only 11 ears old) had started to work, because his father knew the director Jägerskiöld (q.v.) and Orvar had an early interest in osteology [Nybelinia Poche, 1925, Gyrocotyloides nybelini Fuhrmann, 1931, Triglops nybelini Jensen, 1944, Desmodora nybelini Allgén, 1954].

Dr. Arne Birger Nygren, 1971-, polychaetologist at the Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University and Tjärnö Marine Biology Laboratory. He is especially interested in the Syllidae family, of which the subfamily Autolytine was basis for his PhD thesis in 2003.

Prof. Dr. Karl-Georg Nyholm, (25 Jan. - Norrtälje) 1912-1991 (2 Nov. - Göteborg), Swedish zoologist.Associated Professor (Docent) of Zoology in Uppsala, then in Göteborg, then again in Uppsala. Specialist on foraminiferans and kinorhynchs. His son Per-Georg Nyholm, (2 June) 1958-, became interested in his fathers work and they co-published some articles on foraminiferans and kinorhynchs. However, the son later on - beeing a MD in Gothenburg in 1992 - has restricted his research to medicine.

Olof O. Nylander, 1864-1943, US Malacologist.

Henri Joseph Pierre Nyst, (15 May - Arnheim) 1813-1880 (6 Apr. - Brussels), Belgian (palaeo-)malacologist. [Nystiella Clench & Turner, 1952].

Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli, (27 Mar.) 1817-1891 (10 May - München), Swiss botanist and natural scientist, a disciple of Oken (q.v.), who opposed the natural selection theory and thougt of species as unchangable [Polycystis naegeli Kölliker, 1845]. The German malacologist and theologist Gottfried Nägele, 1841-1914, is likely not related because of different spelling of the family names.

Prof. Dr. Arne Nørrevang, (10 July - Falsterholt, Jutland) 1933-, Danish zoologist (PhD in 1965 at the Univ. of Copenhagen), who was the leader of the BioFar project during the 1980s and early 1990s, before he formally retired, but remained on the Faeroes [Batillipes noerrevangi Kristensen,1978, Leucon noerrevangi Watling & Gerken, 1999, Noerrevangia Warén & Schander in Warén, Gofas & Schander, 1993].

Dr. Aksel Nørvang, (18 Sep.) 1914-1968 (13 Nov.), Danish foraminiferologist at the Zoological Museum in København (Copenhagen).

The amphipod name Acanthonotozomoides oatesi (K.H. Barnard, 1930) may likely be a tribute to Captain Lawrence Edward Grace "Titus" Oates, (17 Mar. - Putney, London) 1880-1912 (17 Mar. - Antarctic), 6:th Iniskilling Dragoons, who succumbed during the Terra Nova expedition (see this expedition) and became famous for his last words when leaving the tent in a snow storm on his 32:nd birth day on their way back from the South Pole: "I am just going outside and may be some time".

The spider crab name Hoplophrys oatesii Henderson, 1893 is a tribute to the English naturalist (mainly ornithologist) Eugene William Oates, (31 Dec. - Sicily) 1845-1911 (16 Nov.), who was educated in Bath and served in India and Burma between 1867-1899, before retiring to England.

The tardigrade name Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri (Doyère, 1840), may likely be a tribute to Johann Georg (Georges) Oberhäuser, (16 July - Ansbach) 1798-1868 (10 Jan. - Paris), German born well reputed instrument maker, who in 1818 moved from Wurzburg to Paris, where he started a business in Place Dauphine. He i.a. improved the drum microscope to its highest technical level and designed the horseshoe-shaped foot in microscopes. In 1860 he was succeded by his nephew Dr. Edmund Hartnack, who moved the business to Potsdam in 1870.

Rosario Occhipinti, 19??-, Italian malacologist, possibly identical with a so named person, born in Napoli 7 Dec. 1930?

The Japanese ichthyologist Prof. Dr. Akira Ochiai, 1923-, is honoured in the fish name Callionymus ochiaii Fricke, 1981.

Prof. Kurt Wolfgang Ockelmann, 1924-, Danish marine biologist born in Hamburg, working at the marine biological laboratory in Helsingör (Elsinore). He is mainly a specialist on bivalves, but is also skilled with polychaetes and other invertebrates [Dacrydium ockelmanni Mattson & Warén, 1977, Eumida ockelmanni Eibye-Jacobsen, 1987, Prionospio ockelmanni Pleijel, 1985]. The crab name Goneplax ockelmanni R. Serène, 1971 is a tribute to the same person, who collected it in the Andaman Sea in 1966. He is also well-known for having designed the Detritus Sledge modell Ockelmann.

The amphipod mames Eogammarus oclairi Bousfield, 1979 and Imbrexodius oclairi P.G. Moore, 1992 must be tributes to Charles Edward O'Clair, 19??-, Friday Harbor Laboratory, who publish on amphipods, often together with Rita M. O'Clair, likely his wife.

Lacking information about Oda in the W Pacific skate name Rhinoraja odai Ishiyama, 1958.

Dr. Kazuko Odate, 1932-, Japanese, who worked on distribution of copepods and their use as current indicators.

The Lithodid name Lopholithodes odawarai Sakai, 1980 may possibly not honour a person's name, but possibly be found off Odawara City?.

Prince Oddone Eugenio Maria di Savoia, (11 July - Torino) 1846-1866 (22 Jan. - Genoa), the 3:rd son of king Vittorio Emanuele II, left a malacological collection to the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" in Genoa.

Prof. Dr. Nils Hjalmar Odhner, (6 Dec. - Stockholm) 1884-1973 (12 June), specialist on molluscs at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, succeded Bock (q.v.) as professor of invertbrate zoology and director of this museum department in 1946, until his retirement in 1949, when he was succeded by Karl Lang (q.v.). However, he continued to work and published (from 1907 on) until 1968. His interest in molluscs was broad, albeit his special area concerned opisthobranchs [Tritonia nilsodhneri Ev. Marcus, 1983, Dicata odhneri Schmekel, 1967, Gastropteron odhneri Gosliner 1989, Stylopus odhneri Alander, 1942, Paralysianopsis odhneri Schellenberg, 1931, Leptochiton odhneri (Bergenhayn, 1931), Microhedyle odhneri (E. &. E. Marcus, 1955), Pycnophyes odhneri Lang, 1949, Inquisitor odhneri Wells, 1994, Aporcelaimellus odhneri (Allgen, 1951), Thonus odhneri (Allgen, 1951), Vaginina odhneri Hoffmann, 1927, Sabulincola odhneri (Marcus & Marcus, 1955), Archidoris odhneri (MacFarland, 1966), Polycera odhneri Marcus, 1955, Bankia odhneri Roch, 1931, Specula odhneri A. W. B. Powell, 1927, Odhneripisidium Kuiper, 1962 (limnic)].

Prof. Dr. Nils Johan Teodor Odhner, (25 Feb. - Lund) 1879-1928 (29 Oct.), defended his dissertation in Uppsala 1905, was appointed professor in Kristiania (Oslo) in 1914, succeded in 1918 Théel (q.v.) as curator of the department of Invertebrates at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm and was after his death himself succeded by Sixten Bock (q.v.). He was a specialist on parasitical platyhelminths, but also published a few papers on decapod crustaceans and was distantly related to Nils Hj. Odhner (q.v.) [Odhnerium Yamaguti, 1934, Odhneriella Skrjabin, 1915, Paragymnophallus odhneri Ching, 1973, Plagiorhynchus odhneri Lundström, 1942, Lithacrosiphon odhneri Fischer, 1922, Tweedieia odhneri (Gordon, 1934), Progynotaenia odhneri Nybelin, 1914, Odhneria odhneri Travassos, 1921, Malika odhneri (Fuhrmann, 1901), Proctotrema odhneri Ramadan, 1985, Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924), Banareia odhneri Sakai, 1974].

Prof. Dr. Charles Henry O'Donoghue, (23 Sep. - Bedfordshire) 1885-1961 (28 Nov.), British zoologist and opisthobranch specialist (who was Professor of Zoology at the Univ. of Manitoba and at the Univ of Reading between 1939-52), is honoured in the nudibranch name Doris odonoghuei Steinberg, 1963.

Dr. Leendert P. van Ofwegen, 19??-, octocoral researcher (Curator) at the museum in Leiden. He has been publishing on such animals since 1987.

Dr. Colin Gerald Ogden, 1934-1991, BMNH, who has mainly published on Rhizopodea (sometimes together with the director of BMNH, Dr. Ronald Henderson Hedley, (2 Nov.) 1928-2006 (11 July)), also wrote at least one paper in 1971 on nematodes [Pheronus ogdeni Inglis, 1966, Ogdeniella Golemansky, 1982].

Cypsilurus ogilbyi Jordan & Dickerson, 1908, Callionymus ogilbyi Fricke, 2002 and Raja ogilbyi Whitley, 1939 (a synonym of R. whitleyi Iredale, 1938) was named for James Douglas Ogilby, (16 Feb. - Belfast, Ireland) 1853-1925 (11 Aug. - Queensland), of Brisbane, Australia, who helped the authors of the first name. Ogilby was an ichthyologist and taxonomist (also working on crustaceans and mammals), educated in Dublin, Ireland. Before arriving to Australia, he for some time worked at the British Museum, during this period spending some time in the USA. During 1885-90 he worked at the Australian Museum until he was dismissed because of "extreme and undiscriminating affinity for alcohol". After that he periodically worked for the Queensland Museum.

Prof. Dr. Robert Ogren, 1922-2005, platyhelminth (turbellarian) worker.

O'Hara : (see Poore).

Lacking information about the gastropod name Microliotia ohashii T. Kase, 1998, but possibly a tribute to Shuichi Ohashi, 19??-, of Kaiyo Planning Co. Ltd., Okinawa, who the author Dr. Tomoki Kase thanks in other papers for help with collection of submarine cave material.

Dr. Axel Gabriel Ohlin, (31 July - Visingsö) 1867-1903 (12 July - Sävsjö), Swedish naturalist, educated at the Lund University. In 1893, he became docent (reader) in zooology there. He took part in several arctic / antarctic expeditions and worked mainly on crustaceans, but died rather young in pulmonary tuberculosis [Obrimoposthia ohlini (Bergendal, 1899), Golfingia ohlini (Théel, 1911), Amblyopsoides ohlini (W. Tatterall, 1951), Scoloplos ohlini (Ehlers, 1901), Zeuxxoides ohlini (Stebbing, 1914), Cnemidocarpa ohlini (Michaelsen, 1898)].

The Japanese zoologist (interested primarily in echinoderms and opisthobranchs) Prof. Hiroshi Ohshima (sometimes transcribed Oshima), 1885-1971, at the Kyushu University, is honoured in the bivalve names Devonia ohshimai (Kawahara, 1941), Peregrinamor ohshimai Shoji, 1938, in the aplacophoran name Epimenia ohshimai A. Baba, 1940, in the pantopod name Achelia ohshimai Utinomi, 1951 and in the polyclade name Amakusaplana ohshimai Kato, 1938. Also a large book and paper (on Echinodermata) collection at the library of the National Fisheries University is named after him. K. Baba 1n 1974 published an obituary over Prof. Emer. Ohshima (in Japanese).

Prof. Dr. Susumu Ohtsuka, 19??-, copepodologist at the Hiroshima Univ., Japan.

The gastropod names Conus oishii Shikama, 1977, Mikadotrochus oishii Shikama, 1973, Galeoastrea tayloriana tamikoana Shikama, 1973, Conus (Virgiconus) tamikoae Shikama, 1973 and Perotrochus oishii Shikama, 1973 are not in honour of Shigeko Oishi, 1927-, copepod taxonomist, but of. Mrs. Tamiko Ôishi, 19??-, a shell collector, who published about gastropods together with Prof. Tokio Shikama, 1912 -1978, palaeontologist of the Yokohama Univ. during the 1970s.

Dr. Asajiro Oka, (18 Nov. - Sizuokaken) 1868-1944 (2 May), is honoured in the shrimp name Pontonia okai Kemp, 1922 and likely the ascidian name Leptoclinum okai Tokioka, 1949 may be a tribute to the same scientist, who published the first book written by a Japanese professional biologist on Darwinism, Shinkaron Kowa, in 1904. Oka went - after studies in Tokyo - to Germany for studies under Weissmann (q.v.), but was not satisfied, so he became a disciple of Leuckart (q.v.), whom he respected as his mentor for the rest of his life. (Dr. A.J. Bruce kindly supplied the first name and Dr. Junji Okuno, Coastal Branch of Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba, kindly provided the dates).

Dr. Yaichiro K. Okada, (24 June - Kaga City) 1892-1976 (28 Apr.), Japanese zoologist, born in the Ishikawa Prefecture, becoming Dr. of Science in 1929, working e.g. with nudibranch luminous organs in the 1920s and 1930s and later fishes and other vertebrates. However he had been a student of Ijima (q.v.) and published on Hexactinellida together with him. His name is presumably well-known from the mussel poison Okadaic acid (DSP) originally isolated from Halichondria okadai Kadota, 1922 [Okadaia Baba, 1930, Syllis (Typosyllis) okadai Fauvel, 1934, Siriella okadai Ii, 1964, Petrarca okadai Grygier, 1981, Parastaurosoma okadai Avdeev & Avdeev, 1975, Caprella okadai Arimoto, Proceraea okadai (Imajima, 1966), Munidopsis okadai ]. The namesake Prof. Dr. Yô Kaname Okada, 1891-1973, was a platyhelminth worker, who had studied in France during the 1920s and became Zoology professor in Tokyo (after a short time in Kyôto) after his return home.

Conus okamotoi T. Kuroda & K. Ito, 1961, is likely a tribute to Masatoyo Okamoto, (Fukuoka Prefecture) 1929-, a senior member of the Malacological Society of Japan and an editor of the Chiribotan newsletter [Amamiconcha okamotoi Habe, 1962].

The pyramidellid name Boonea okamurai Hori & Okutani, 1996 is likely a tribute to Shinichiro Okamura, 19??-, who has published on this family.

Prof. Dr. Ludwig Gilbert Lorenz Oken, (1 Aug. - Bohlsbach, southeast of Strasbourg) 1779-1851 (11 Aug.), German natural philosopher, who was editor of the journal "Isis" and published the well-known "Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte". It's nomenclature is not binominal, so the names in volume 3 (the zoology part) are unavailable for nomenclatural use. Oken, who descended from a very poor family of South German farmers, named Ockenfuss, got possibility to study and achieved a MD in 1804. In 1807 he was appointed assistant professor in Jena, where he began publishing his pan-scientific journal Isis (which continued between 1817-47) and he stayed there until 1819. Ha was a convinceed Germanist and for that reason thought of as a suspect figure by political authorities, and for this reason he became unemployed for some years until he got a professorship for some time in München (Munich). In 1832, however, he was appointed professor in Zürich, where he stayed for the rest of his life. His natural history journal "Isis" was banned three times by the censors, because of Oken's habit of venting his anger regarding political situations. Although less liked by political authorities in Germany, he was much appreciated as a person, teacher and organizer by university colleagues and students, perhaps with the exception of his natural philosophical colleague Goethe, who had different opinions about some cranial bones than what Oken had and made Oken move from Jena [Agalma okeni Eschscholtz, 1825, Tricharrhen okenii Kölliker, 1849, Okenia Leuckart in Bronn, 1826, Thyone okeni ].

Dr. Shiro Okuda, (29 Dec.) 1905-1950 (26 Dec.), Professor at the Hokkaido Univ., Japanese polychaetologist, who in 1933 began describing such animals from Japan [Halla okudai Imajima, 1967, Idanthyrsus okudai Kirtley, 1994, Didemnum okudai Tokioka, 1951, Nymphon okudai Nakamura & Child, 1991, Oenopota okudai Habe, 1958, Siphonodentalium okudai Habe, 1953, Pectinaria (Cistenides) okudai Imajima & Hartman, 1964]. (Obituary: Uchida, Tohru (1951) Obituary, Shiro Okuda. December 29, 1905-December 26, 1950. J. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Ser. 6, Zool. 10(3-4):i-iv, 1 pl.).

Prof. Dr. Kazunosuke I. Okugawa, 1907 -1994, Japanese platyhelminth worker.

Dr. Junji Okuno, 19??-, Japanese carcinologist.

Dr. Takashi A. Okutani, 1931-, Japanese malacologist, president of the Malacological Society of Japan; Professor Emeritus (retired in 1994?), Tokyo University of Fisheries [Nucula takashii, Bernard, 1983, Gonatopsis okutanii Nesis, 1972, Idioteuthis okutanii Salcedo-Vargas, 1997].

Prof. Dr. Eric Olausson, (Hede, Sörbygden, Bohuslän) 1923-2010 (Aug. - Gråbo, Göteborg), named the Father of Palaeo-Oceanography.

Lacking information about Olavo in the East Atlantic decapod name Lysmata olavoi Fransen, 1991.

The gastropod name Strombus oldi Emerson, 1965 is honouring William (usually called Bill) Erwood Old Jr., (14 Apr.) 1928-1982 (31 Dec.), at the Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist..

Mugga : 'nom de guerre' of the Swedish amphipod specialist Hugo J. Oldevig, 1879-1968, who together with R. Wahrberg (q.v.) was one of Eliason's (q.v.) dredging companions in collecting expeditions along the Swedish west coast during the end of the 1920s. Oldevig worked on amphipods until he eventually became blind during the last few years of his life. When he walked, he used to keep his hands crossed behind his back, thus reminding of the last pair of thoracic notopodia of the polychaete genus Mugga Eliason.

Charles Oldham, 1865-1942, British malacologist. (Andrew Vik, Tampa, Florida kindly provided the first name).

Ida Mary Shepard Oldroyd, 1857-1940 (9 July), published "The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America" in 1924-27. [Balcis oldroydae (Bartsch, 1917), Bittium oldroydae Bartsch, 1911, Alvania oldroydae Bartsch, 1911, Mitra idae Melvill, 1893, likebly Dendrophyllia oldroydae Oldroyd, 1924, Tellina idae Dall, 1891]. She was married to the malacologist Thomas (Tom) Shaw Oldroyd, (13 June - Huddisfield, England) 1853-1932 (3 Nov.), who had followed his parents to Flushing, Long Island at age two, but went to California in 1880 and married his partner in 1895. [Lepidozona oldroydi W. H. Dall, 1919, Hanleyella oldroydi P. Bartsch in W. H. Dall, 1919, Vitrinella oldroydi Bartsch, 1907, Melanella oldroydi Bartsch, 1917, Calinatica oldroydii (Dall, 1897), Mangelia oldroydi Arnold, 1903, Acteocina oldroydi Dall, 1925, Lepidopleurus oldroydi Dall, 1919, Oldroydia Dall, 1894, Cardiomya oldroydi (Dall, 1924), Atrina oldroydii W. H. Dall, 1901].

Ignatius (Ignaz) Franz Maria von Olfers, (30 Aug. - Münster) 1793-1871 (23 Apr.), German diplomat and director of museums. He had travelled to Brazil as a diplomate in 1816, but returned and was in 1838 made director of the Imperial Museum in Berlin. He published i.a. on the ray genus Torpedo and is e.g. the author in 1814 of the cirripedian genus Conchoderma [Argyropelecus olfersi (Cuvier, 1829), Astraea tecta olfersii Philippi, 1846].

H.J.P. d'Olivat, (4 Nov.) 1940-1969 (12 May), Dutch Malacologist.

Oliver in Sige oliveri Pleijel, 1990 is not a living or dead person, but Martin Toonder's cartoon gentleman bear Oliver B. Bumble.

Dr. Guy Oliver, 19??-, retired in 2002, systematician of diplectanid monogeneans at the University of Montpellier and Perpignan, France [Heteroplectanum oliveri Leon-Regagnon, Perez-Ponce de Leon & Garcia-Prieto, 1997, Diplectanum oliveri A. Williams, 1989]. (Prof. Jean-Lou Justine, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, kindly provided this information).

Walter Reginald Brook Oliver, (7 Nov. - Launceston) 1883-1957 (16 May - Wellington), Australian (Tasmania) born New Zealand zoologist, one of the members of the Kermadec Island expedition and collecting companion of the author of Brookula Iredale, 1912 & Onithochiton oliveri Iredale, 1914 [Octopus oliveri Berry, 1914].

Arthur Peter Hoblyn Oliver, 1918-1984, British Malacologist.

Lacking information about Oliver in the polychaete name Perinereis oliverae (Horst, 1889).

Lacking information about Olivera in the sea urchin name Clypeaster (Clypeaster) oliverai Krau, 1952.

Lacking information about Oliveira in the polychaete name Perinereis oliveirae Horst, 1889. The honoured person is likely not Manuel Paulino de Oliveira, 1837-1899, who in 1895 published on Portuguese opisthobranchs, but may be a M.L. Oliveira, 18??-1???, possibly with first name Marta?

Dr. Lejeune Pacheco Henriques de Oliveira, 1915-1982, was a Brazilian limnologist, who published on crustaceans, e.g. copepods, from the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro during the 1940s and 1950s. (André Trombeta, Brazil, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Dr. Baldomero (Toto) M. Olivera, 1941-, Philippine researcher with a lab in the University of Utah, USA. World expert on conotoxins. Taxonomist. Named many species in the family Turridae. [Mitra oliverai Poppe, 2008, possibly Poirieria oliverai S. Kosuge, 1984]. (G. Poppe kindly provided this information).

Dr. Marco Oliverio, (31 Oct.) 1964-, malacologist at Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Rome (Italy) [Turbonilla oliverioi Penas & Rolan, 1997, Onoba oliverioi Smriglio & Mariottini, 2000, Epitonium oliverioi Bonfitto & Sabelli, 2001].

Guiseppe Olivi (di Briana), (Chioggia) 1769-1795 (Padova), Italian naturalist [Olivia Cantraine, 1835, Echinogammarus olivii (H. Milne Edwards, 1830), Gadila olivi (Scacchi, 1835)].

Olivia in the nudibranch name Spurilla oliviae (MacFarland, 1966) : (see MacFarland).

Dr. Guillaume-Antoine Olivier, (19 Jan.) 1756-1814 (1 Oct. - Lyon), French entomologist and malacologist. Bruguiere´s friend and collecting companion in Asia Minor, from where only Olivier returned alive home, because Bruguière died when they reached Italy, after having escaped several very dangerous situations along their collecting route, but also gained a friend in pasha Suleiman in Bagdad, who was thought to be dying, but who the two doctors cured in a few days. Both were very close friends of Lamarck (q.v.) [Coenobita olivieri (Owen, 1839)].

Gaston Maurice Ollivier, 1890-1929, French marine scientist, known i.a. as a collector of fungi and lichens. [likely Caulerpa ollivieri Dostál, 1929].

Mrs. Mary Packham Olney, (Oct. - Rhode Island) 1824-1903 (21 July (at age 78) - Spokane), US Malacologist. She became married to her father's cousin Cyrus Olney, 1819-1898, and was the president of the conchological section of the Rochester Society of Natural Sciences. (David S. Hollombe kindly supplied this information).

Dr. Ossian Herman Olofsson, 1886-1973, a Swedish fisheries biologist, earned his doctorate at Uppsala University in 1918. He studied marine fauna at Spitsbergen in 1909 and 1910, and along the Murmansk coast in 1913. His publications covered especially rotifers and copepods (he named several new species of Arctic harpacticoids). Besides pure zoology, Olofsson also wrote about fishing, hunting, and ethnology. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided much of this information and editor Ola Kellgren at Västerbottens Museum kindly provided the year of decease and mentioned that Olofsson left a large archive of photographs and notes, which now is deposited at the Nordic Museum Stockholm. He also mentioned that Olofsson's life is remembered in a special feature issue dealing with fisheries in the county of Västerbotten of the journal Västerbotten no. 1, 2000).

The Danish director of the Greenlandic commerce and justice of the supreme court Christian Søren Marcus Olrik, (13 Oct. - Julianehaab, South Greenland) 1815-1870 (14 Dec. - Frbg. funeral station (Solbjerg)), collected much natural history specimens for the Zoological museum in København (Copenhagen) and is honoured in the fish name Ulcina olriki (Lütken, 1876), the cestodan name Diplocotyle olriki (Krabbe, 1874) and the leach name Platybdella olriki Malm, 1863.

The central W Atlantic skate name Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951) must likely be a tribute to Dr. Yngve H. Olsen, 19??-, Danish? or Norwegian? Assistant Editor (helping the Editor Albert E. Parr (q.v.)) in printing Bigelow's and Schroeder's paper in the beginning of the 1950s. He worked during some years after WW II at Yale Univ - at least until 1963.

Dr. Peter D. Olson, 1969-, US (from Bellevue, Nebraska) parasitologist at the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), especially interested in cestodes.

Dr. Axel Adolf Olsson, (19 Apr.) 1889-1977 (26 Oct.), US (Coral Gables, Florida) palaeontologist and malacologist [Olssonella Petit, 1970, Calliostoma olssoni Bayer, 1971, Compsodrillia olssoni McLean & Poorman, 1971, Murex olssoni E. H. Vokes, 1967].

Dr. Peter J. Olsson, 1838-1923, became an associate professor (docent) in Lund, Sweden 1867, where he in 1865 had defended his thesis. He was a parasitologist and continued to publish some articles of this kind also after he in 1869 began working as an upper secondary school lecturer in Östersund. He collected material mainly from Sotenäset, Väderöarna and Koster in the county of Bohuslän [Olssonium Bray & Gibson, 1980, Brachydistomum olssoni, Enalcyonium olssoni (De Zulueta, 1908), Podocotyle olssoni Odhner, 1905, Neopechona olssoni (Yamaguti, 1934)]. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaya, Sevastopol, kindly provided the last eponym)

Abraham Oltmans, (16 Apr. - Amsterdam) 1811-1873 (10 Dec.?), Dutch curator of the Amsterdam Zoological Museum, after the collection of shells and corals of his family had been sold to the museum in 1844.

Prof. Dr. Johann Friedrich Oltmanns, (11 July - Oberndorf an der Oste) 1860-1945 (13 Dec. - Freiburg im Breisgau), German algologist.

Mr. Julian Adrian O'Maley, (27 Feb.) 1863-19??, of the Indian Government Telegraph S.S. "Patrick Stewart", Karachi [Clathurella omaleyi Melvill, 1899].

The cephalopod name Sepia omani W. Adam & W. J. Rees, 1966 is likely not honouring a person's name, but is named for the type locality: Gulf of Oman.

Lacking information about Omer in the nematode name Noffsingeria omeri Decraemer & Jensen, 1982. The authors explained the etymology of the genus name, but not the species name, but possibly a tribute to Omer-Cooper (below)?

The South African zoologist (entomologist) Prof. Joseph Omer-Cooper, (16 Apr. - Reading, England) 1893-1972 (9 Nov. - Port Elizabeth), is likely the person honoured in the isopod name Cristapseudes omercooperi (Larwood, 1954). He had worked during 9 years at the Univ. of Durham, before arriving to Rhodes Univ. College, Grahamstown, South Africa, in 1936. His wife Dr. Joyce Omer-Cooper, (19 Oct.) 1899-1979 (1 June), was also an entomologist and specialist on Dytiscidae. Their eldest son Prof. John Omer-Cooper, (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 1931-1998 (31 July - New Zealand), became a history professor, most active in Africa, but married to a girl from New Zealand.

Prof. Dr. Makoto Omori, (17 Nov. - Osaka) 1937-, Japanese planktonic copepod worker [Acartia omorii Bradford, 1976].

Dr. Hideo Omura, 1906-1993, Japanese cetologist [Balaenoptera omurai Wada, Oishi & Yamada, 2003]

Lacking indormation about On in the shrimp associated Gobiidae name Omiyamichthys oni (Tomiyama, 1936).

Prof. Takashi Onbé, 19??-, Japanese crustacean specialist at the Hiroshima Univ.

Lacking information about Ono in the medusa name Octorathkea onoi Uchida, 1927. Possibly, but perhaps not likely a tribute to the Japanese naturalist Ranzan Ono, 1729-1810, who i.a. published on triclades.

Dr. Shigeko Ooishi, (Kumamoto) 1927-, Japanese marine biologist, a specialist in copepod associations, particularly those found with ascidians. Retired from the faculty of Mie University, Japan, she has worked for the last decade (the 1990s) at the University of Washington's Marine Laboratories at Friday Harbor, U.S.A. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided most of this information).

Christiaan Hendrik Oostingh, (30 May - Meppel) 1889-1940, Dutch palaeo-malacologist.

Pierre Opic, (27 Nov. - Bordeaux) 1933-, scientific illustrator, photographer, naturalist, etc. at l'O.R.S.T.O.M., is honoured in the shrimp name Pontophilus opici Crosnier, 1971 and in the fish name Hemerorhinus opici Blache & Bauchot, 1972. (Dr. Alain Crosnier, MNHN, Paris, kindly provided this information).

Dr. Dennis Michael Opresko, 19??-, US anthipatharian taxonomist. Dissertation in 1974 at the Univ. of Miami.

d'Orbigny : (see Owen).

The botanist and natural history dealer Charles Russell Orcutt, (27 Apr. - Vermont) 1864-1929 (Jeremie, Haiti while doing field work), of San Diego, collected sponges at lower California, in which specimens of Balanus orcutti Pilsbry, 1907 were embedded [Amicula orcutti W. H. Dall, 1884, Caecum orcutti Dall, 1885, Barleeia orcutti Bartsch, 1920, Coralliophila orcuttiana Dall, 1919, Chlamydoconcha orcutti Dall, 1884, Bankia orcutti P. Bartsch, 1923].

Dr. Otto Haim Oren, (7 Jan. - Vinkovci, Yugoslavia) 1921-1983 (4 Nov. - Haifa, Israel), studied initially chemistry at the University of Zagreb (1940), but soon after the invasion of the German forces during WW II he left for Palestine (1941). He completed his chemistry studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1947) and began to work in the field of hydrography at the Sea Fisheries Research Station (SFRS) in Haifa, established one year earlier. His first papers were dealing with the hydrography of the Mediterranean off the coast of Israel (1952), soon followed by similar studies concerning the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret/Tiberias). His hydrographical investigations of the Eastern Mediterranean were extended to the whole Levant, in which the influence of the Nile and the Aswan Dam on among others the fisheries played an important role. Since 1958 he carried out also hydrographic and fishery related research in the Red Sea, not only in the Gulf of Aqaba, but also in the southern Red Sea of Eritrea. In 1962 he was the deputy leader of the first Israel South Red Sea Expedition to the Dahlak Archipelago. During his investigations he collected a wealth of zoological specimens, which are permanently stored in the National Natural History Collections of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Tel Aviv University. One of Dr. Oren's goals was the establishment of an independent aquatic research institute, which was materialized in 1973 with the completion of the premises of the National Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute near Tel Shiqmona, south of Haifa, operated by the Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Ltd. Dr. Oren published some 62 papers, which have been enumerated by A. Ben-Tuvia in BAMIDGEH, the Bulletin for Fish Culture in Israel (vol. 35: 120-126. 1983). At least two marine taxa have been named after him: the coral species Umbellulifera oreni Verseveldt, 1965 and the fish species Asymmetrurus oreni Clark & Ben-Tuvia, 1973 (now Hoplolatilus oreni). (Dr. Henk K. Mienis kindly provided all this information).

Dr. José María (Lobo) Orensanz, 1945-, Argentinian polychaetologist at Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT) Puerto Madryn, Chubut,, who i.a. has worked on Antarctic Eunicida (s. lat.) [Marphysa orensanzi Carrera-Parra & Salazar-Vallejo, 1998, Sabellaria orensanzi Kirtley, 1994, Lumbrineris orensanzi Hartmann-Schröder, 1980, Protodorvillea orensanzi Carrasco & Palma, 2000, Loboneris Carrera Parra, 2006]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last eponym).

Prof. Dr. Traian Orghidan, (27 Feb. - Ias¸i county) 1917-1985, Romanian biospeleologist, is honoured in the tanaid name Apseudes orghidani Gutu & Iliffe, 1989.

Oriana : (see Terra Nova expedition, 1910-)

Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, 19??-, Italian malacologist.

The nematode name Prochromadora orleji (de Man, 1880) must likely be a tribute to László-Tól Örley (Örlej), (27 Oct. - Pest) 1856-1887 (12 June - Budapest, by suicide), Hungarian zoologist, who i.a. published on "On the Nematodes in the possession of the British Museum" in 1882.

Zvi Orlin (6 Oct. – Lithuania), 1925-, moved to South Africa with his parents at age three, settled in Palestine in 1947, lives in Qiryat Motzkin, Israel, since 1958. He was an internal auditor by profession. In 1993, after his retirement, he became interested in marine molluscs: first in those from the Mediterranean coast of Israel, followed soon by those from the Red Sea in general and the Gulf of Aqaba (Elat) in particular. Since no suitable book on Red Sea shells was available, he decided to prepare a checklist based on material in the two National Mollusc Collections in Israel i.e. that of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Tel Aviv University, and the scattered literature. This checklist was published together with a Dutch malacologist in 2000 (Dekker, H. & Orlin, Z.: Check-list of Red Sea Mollusca. Spirula, 47 (Suppl.): 46 p.). Other short papers and book reviews were published in malacological and conchological journals like Triton (Israel), the Strandloper (South Africa), American Conchologist (U.S.A.) and Poirieria (New Zealand). In a rather short time he managed to assemble a large worldwide shell collection consisting of close to 10.000 samples. This collection was donated to the Tel Aviv University in 2008. His interest has now turned to fossil collecting. Lunulicardia orlini Mienis, 2009, a bivalve from the Red Sea, was named in his honour. (The author himself, Curator Henk K. Mienis, Tel Aviv & Jerusalem Univ., kindly provided this information).

The French sporozoan researcher René Ormieres, 1927-1981, is the person honoured in the copepod name Paralaophonte ormieresi Raibaut, 1968. (His son Frédéric kindly informed that Dr. Richard E. Clopton, Division of Science & Technology, Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska 68421, USA. (Telephone: 402/872-2284; mail: was provided with a lot of his father's scientific material a couple of years ago and thus has much biographical material on Ormieres).

Orr : (see Marshall, Sheina).

Dr. William N. Orr, 19??-, palaeontologist, Univ. of Oregon, is honoured in the crab name Eriosachila orri Schweitzer & Feldmann, 2000, which is a replacemant name for Zanthopsis rathbunae M.A. Kooser & W.N. Orr 1973, non E. rathbunae Maury, 1930.

Muricopsis orri Cernohorsky, 1976 (now attributed to the genus Attiliosa) has been named for Mr. John Orr, 19??-, at that time English vice-consul in Hong Kong, who had collected the species in Thailand several years prior to description. Reference: Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum, vol. 13 (1976): 116, figs. 12-20; type locality: South Andaman Ids., Indian Ocean, in 55 metres). Conus orri Da Motta, 1982 is as well named for a Mr. John Orr, 19??-, who discovered the holotype - probably the same person. (Dr. Hans Turner, Casa La Conchiglia, Rovia, Switzerland, kindly provided this information).

The gastropod name Strombus urceus orrae Abbott, 1960 is a tribute to the malacologist Virginia Orr Maes, 1920-1986 : (see Maes). (Winston Barney, Forth Worth, Texas kindly confirmed that Virginia Orr is the honoured person).

Prof. Dr. Lars Orrhage, 1930-, Swedish zoologist, who defended his thesis in Uppsala; later, he was working as a university teacher in his home city Göteborg (Gothenburg). Between 1975-81 he was professor of invertebrate zoology and director of that department at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (succeding Karling (q.v.) and preceeding Franzén (q.v.)) and later he became director of the Natural History Museum in Göteborg. He is a specialist on polychaetes, especially oral end innervation and kept working on this after his retirement.

Francesco Orsini, 18??-1???, Lt. in the Italian Navy, taking part in the the circumnavigation with the corvette "Vettor Pisani". Giesbrecht (q.v.) received a collection he had made in the Red Sea in 1884. Orsini had his name mainly associated with copepods [Crambionella orsini (Vanhöffen, 1888), Labidocera orsinii Giesbrecht, 1889].

Lacking information about Orsini in the Mediterranean nudibranch name Hypselodoris orsinii (Vérany, 1846). (L’origine de ce nom n’a malheureusement pas été précisée par l‘auteur).

Crisilla orteai Templado & Rolan, 1993 was named for Dr. Jesús Ortea Rato, 19??-, Spanish malacologist, who achieved his PhD in 1977 at the Univ. of Oviedo [Haminoea orteai Talavera. Murillo & Templado, 1987, Trapania orteai Garcia-Gomez & Cervera in Cervera & Garcia-Gomez, 1989].

Lacking information about Ortiz in the polychaete name Syllis ortizi San Martin, 1992, but possibly a tribute to Martin A. Ortiz, 19??-, who has published on polychaetes?

Prof. Dr. Arnold Edward Ortmann, (8 Apr. - Magdeburg) 1863-1927 (3 Jan.), Prussian zoologist and marine zoogeographer, disciple of Ernst Haeckel (q.v.) (Studied first in Kiel and Strassburg, but achieved his PhD in 1885 in Jena), who emigrated to USA in 1894 and became a naturalized citizen there in 1900. Worked as curator at Princeton University (until 1903), later at the Carnegie Institution and professor at Pittsburg University. He was a pioneer in seeng that different shapes, earlier considered to be different species, existed in several species - depending on the environment [Palaemon ortmanni (Rathbun, 1902), Menippe ortmanni De Man, 1899, Plesionika ortmanni Doflein, 1902].

Dr. James H. Orton, (21 Apr. - Seneca Falls, New York) 1830-1877 (25 Sep. - on board the schooner Aurora at Lake Titicaca, during his 3:rd expedition to South America), US curator at Vassar College, N.Y. and malacologist. Prof. Dr. James Herbert Orton, (11 Mar. - Bradford, Yorkshire) 1884-1953 (2 Feb.), Univ. of Liverpool & Fellow of the Royal Society in Britain is a namesake.

Lacking information about Osaotaki in the bivalve name Asthenothaerus osaotakii Okutani, 1964.

Bob Osborn, 1946-1998 (before 17 Sep.), Californian (growing up in Downey) polychaete taxonomist.

Which Osborn is honoured in the Californian amphipod name Polycheria osborni Calman, 1898? Maybe, most likely (if not just a local collector) the US palaeontologist / naturalist Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn, (8 Aug. - Fairfield, Connecticut) 1857-1935 (6 Nov.), who published on a diversity of items (i.a. describing Tyrannosaurus rex in 1905, while he was professor at Columbia Univ. after earlier having been professor at the Princeton Univ. until 1891), less likely the US entomologist Prof. Herbert Osborn, (19 Mar. - Lafayette, Wisconsin) 1856-1954 (20 Sep. - Columbus, Ohio), who is honoured in several insect names. Yet another Osborn candidate, Prof. Dr. Henry Lesley Osborn, (Newark, New Jersey) 1857-1940, first Prof. of Zoology at Purdue University, later at Hamline University, published on Abacia from the Woods Hole region during the last years of the 19:th and the first years of the next century.

Gordon Osborn, 1913-1991, FLS, British Malaccologist.

Prof. Dr. Raymond Carroll Osburn, (4 Jan. - Licking County near Newark, Ohio) 1872-1955 (6 Aug.), was an American zoologist active from about 1910 to 1952. The recent bryozoans bearing his name include:Amphiblestrum osburni Powell, 1968, Conopeum osburni Soule, Soule & Chaney, 1995, Hemismittoidea osburni Soule & Soule, 1973, Plumatella repens osburni Rogick & Brown, 1942, Raymondcia osburni Soule, Soule & Chaney, 1995, Retevirgula osburni Soule, 1959, Trematooecia osburni Marcus, 1953. Additional fossil names include Osburnostylus. PhD in 1906 at Columbia Univ. Then working on Barnard College and later Connecticut College for Woman and between 1917-42 he was Prof. of Zoology and Entomology at Ohio State Univ. In 1918 Osburn also took over as summer director of the F.T. Stone Laboratory in Lake Erie after prof. Herbert Osborn (see above), when he retired after being its director since 1899, but Osburn did not arrive there until 1925, so it was meanwhile managed by the assistant director Prof. Frederick Hartzler Krecker, (21 Dec. - Tokyo, Japan) 1881-1968 (Sep. - Athens, Ohio). This laboratory was started by Kellikott (q.v.) and named for Franz Theodore Stone, (4 Jan. - Angerburg, Prussia) 1813-1862 (22 May - near Devils Lake, Michigan), an astronomer and mathemathician with interst in natural science of all kinds, likely aquired when he had assisted Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, (22 July - Minden, Westfalen) 1784-1846 (17 Mar. - Königsberg), and transformed his interest to his youngest son Julius Frederick Stone, (1 June - near Devil's Lake, Lenawee County, Michigan) 1855-1947, (Dr. Phil Bock kindly provided this information).

The nematode name Diplolaimelloides oschei Meyl, 1954 must be a tribute to the German zoologist Prof. Dr. Günther Osche, (7 Aug. - Neustadt an der Weinstraße) 1926-2009 (2 Feb. - Freiburg im Breisgau), who i.a. published on parasitic nematodes.

Dr. Steven O'Shea, 19??-, New Zealand (PhD in 1999 at the Univ. of Auckland) cephalopod researcher , who grew up in Onetangi Beach, Waiheke Island, Waitemata Harbour, Auckland, is honoured in the cirriped name Vulcanolepas osheai (Buckeridge, 2000). [Brucerolis osheai Storey & Poore, 2009, Calvetia osheai Taylor & Gordon, 2003, Awhiowhio osheai Kelly, 2007]

Mr. Toshiharu Oshikata, 19??-, father of Mr. Hirosuke Oshikata, president of Okinawa Shell Co. Ltd. [Calliostoma toshiharui Kosuge, 1997].

Lacking information about Oshima in the cephalopod names Loligo oshimai Sasaki, 1929 and Octopus oshimai (Sasaki, 1929) and in the porcelain crab name Neopetrolisthes oshimai Pardon, 1992, if not named after Oshima Village? Possibly, however, a tribute to Kokichi Oshima, 1???-19??, Japanese biologist, who i.a. worked at the Naples Zoological station. However, also a Hiroshi Oshima collected cephalopods in Sagami Bay in 1908.

Ingimar Óskarsson, (27 Nov.) 1892-1981 (2 May), Icelandic conchologist, who published "Skeldyrafána Íslands" 351 pp.

Dr. Klara van Osmael, 19??-, Zoological Institute, State University of Gent, provided the material of Thalassodrilus klarae (Erséus, 1987).

Lacking information about S.O. (or? S.U.) Osmanov, 1???-, publishing between at least 1940 until mid 1980s, in the myxozoan name Chloromyxum osmanovi Karataev, 1983.

Prof. Dr. Carl Emil Hansen Ostenfeld, (3 Aug. - Randers) 1873-1931 (16 Jan.), Danish botanist and plankton researcher [Ostenfeldiella Ferdinandsen & Winge, 1914, Alexandrium ostenfeldii (Paulsen) Balech & Tangen, 1985, Gymnodinium ostenfeldii Schiller 1928].

Mrs. Ruth E.M. Ostheimer, (25 Aug.) 1906-1979 (Oct. - Lyndell, Pennsylvania), Field Associate, ANSP (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia), often collecting together with her husband, the wealthy US businessman Dr. Alfred James Ostheimer III, (25 Apr, - Philadelphia) 1908-1983 (1 Sep.), owner of the yacht "Gloria Maris" (often used for sampling expeditions and named for Conus gloriamaris) [Crenavolva ostheimerae Cate, 1973].

The tanaid name Apseudopsis ostroumovi Bacescu & Carausu, 1947, the isopod name Idotea ostroumovi Sowinsky, 1895 and the amphipod name Gammaropsis ostroumowi Sowinski, 1898 may likely all be tributes to Prof. Dr. Aleksey Aleksandrovich Ostroumow, 1858-1925?, who i.a. in 1896 published on the results of the "Selânik" expedition from St. Petersburg. During 1891-1897 he was director of the Sevastopol Biology Station and in 1897-1925 he worked at the Zoology Department of the Kazan Univ. He should not be confused with the medical professor Aleksey Alekseevich Ostroumow, 1844-1908, of Moscow, medical adviser of his disciple Dr. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, (29 Jan. - Taganrog) 1860-1904 (15 July - Germany, who died from tbc with his last words "I haven´t had champagne for a long time").

Ostroumova : (see Paltschikowa-Ostroumowa).

Olivella oteroi Bermejo, 1979 was named "in honor of our malacologist friend Don José Maria Hernández Otero, (12 Mar.) 1946-2008 (16 Nov.), pharmacist in Gáldar, Gran Canaria".

The gastropod names Conus otohimeae T. Kuroda & K. Ito, 1961, Glyphostoma otohimeae S. Kosuge, 1981, Amalda otohime Is. Taki, 1938, Aforia otohimei Ozaki, 1958 may likely not be in honour of a living person, but more likely a tribute to Otohime, the godess of fishes.

The Lithodid name Paralomis otsuae R. Wilson 1990 is evidently a tribute to Miss Inés Otsu V., 19??-, Universidad de Chile, "who taught many generations of biology teachers".

Prof. Dr. Joerg A. Ott, 1942-, Austrian nematodologist [Turbanella otti Schrom in Riedl 1970, Trileptium otti Jensen & Gerlach 1976, Astomonema otti Vidakovic & Boucher, 1987].

Prof. Dr. Adolph Wilhelm Otto, (3 Aug. - Greifswald) 1786-1845 (14 Jan. - Breslau), Prof. of Human and Comparative Anatomy in Breslau, is honoured in the gastropod name Calliotropis ottoi (Philippi, 1844).

The Swedish Baron Fredrik Vilhelm von Otter, (11 Apr. - Fimmersta, Västergötland) 1833-1910 (9 Mar. - Karlskrona), was in British naval duty between 1857-60, taking part in the war against China, resulting in a medal for valour. Took part in several Swedish marine expeditions, e.g. with "Falk" in the Baltic and Kattegatt (1866), "Ingegerd" (q.v.) (1867), "Josephina" (q.v.) (1868), "Ingegerd" (& "Gladan") (q.v.) (1871), the corvette "Balder" in the North Sea & Atlantic (1873). He had become a navy captain in 1866 and in 1892 he advanced to become a vice admiral. Between 1874-80 he was Swedish minister of sea defence. Between 12 Sep. 1900-1902 5 July, he was prime minister in Sweden [Amphiura otteri Ljungman, 1872]. He is grand-grandfatrher of the Swedish opera singer Ann Sofie von Otter, 1955-,.

Dr. Eivind Oug, 1948-, Norwegian marine ecologist and polychaetologist, working with Oenonoidea and Dorvilleoidea [Ougia Wolf, 1986, Parougia Wolf, 1986].

Mr. Jean-Marc Ouin , 19??-, Aqualab, IHSM, Madagascar based biologist, is honoured in the platyhelminth name Pseudoceros ouini Newman & Cannon, 1994.

The Black Sea actiniarian name Synhalcampella oustromovi Wyragéwitch, 1905 must be a tribute to A.A. Oustromov (see the more normal spelling Ostroumow).

The New Guinea medusa name Catostylus ouwensi Moestafa & McConnaughey 1966 may possibly be a tribute to Peter A. Ouwens, 18??-19??, former Director of the Zoological Museum in Buitenzorg (now Bogor), who i.a. in 1912 described Varanus komodensis. The Goby name Sicyopterus ouwensi Weber, 1913 is also in his honour.

The parasitic nematod name Philometroides oveni Parukhin, 1975 is a tribute to Lidii? Sergeevich Oven, 19??-,.

Lacking information about Oven in the W African fish name Halosaurus ovenii J.Y. Johnson, 1864.

Lacking information about Overdiep in the gastropod name Manzonia overdiepi van Aartsen, 1983.

Dr. Robin Miles Overstreet, (1 June) 1939-, parasitologist at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Department of Coastal Sciences, College of Marine Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, is honoured in the flatworm name Overstreetia Bray, 1985. (Joyce Shaw, librarian at the Gunter Library, kindly provided most of the information).

Prof. (later Sir) Richard Owen, (20 July) 1804-1892 (18 Dec.), from Lancaster, studied medicine in Edinburgh, had a practice in London for some time, but spent his spare time with anatomical studies and after a while he was appointed amanuensis at the Hunterian Museum, eventually it's director. In 1860 he was appointed superintendent of the natural history department of the British Museum and organized its move to South Kensington. He was primarily a comparative anatomist - founder of the expressions homologies and analogies (and the word dinosaur) - and he i.a. discovered the trichina and the Venus's Flower Basket (Euplectella) and has been called "the last of the natural philosophers", a devoted defender of the view of the constance of species (and arch-enemy of Darwin's chief supporter T.H. Huxley (q.v.) - and also known for his long time antagonism with his colleauge Dr. J.E. Gray (q.v.) and as beeing a tory to the core and a rival concerning comparative anatomy, Owen of course was an enemy of the very radical Prof. Robert Grant (q.v.)) [Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1841, Galathowenia Kirkegaard, 1959, Teuthowenia Chun, 1910, Ourozeuktes owenii H. Milne Edwards, 1840, Donax owenii Gray, 1843, Bractechlamys oweni Gregorio, 1884, Pristiophorus owenii Günther, 1870]. He also was a palaeontologist, thus a colleague of the author of Sepietta oweniana (d'Orbigny,1839-41, in de Férussac & d'Orbigny), Prof. Alcide Charles Victor Dessalines d'Orbigny, (6 Sep. - Couéron, Loire-Atlantique) 1802-1857 (30 June - Pierrefitte-sur-Seine), one of the disciples of Cuvier (q.v.), who was sent out by the Paris Museum between 1826-33 on a collecting venture in South America; palaeontologist and zoologist, mainly foraminiferologist. He was born in dépt. Loire Inférieure, as the son of a physician and amateur naturalist, working in Coueron, later in La Rochelle. In La Rochelle d'Orbigny became acquainted with the marine fauna and decided to devote his life to natural history studies. He became a disciple of the geologist Pierre Louis Antoine Cordier, (31 Mar. - Abbeville) 1777-1861 (30 Mar.), in Paris before he entered his S American venture. He reported on parts of his S American collections himself, while other parts were written by other zoologists at the museum. In 1853 he was appointed professor of palaeontology at the museum. d'Orbigny, had thus lived among the native people in South America and became a spokesman for their emancipation from the white "dictators" [Nerocila orbignyi (Guérin, 1832), Alcidia Bourguignat, 1889, Ampullaria dorbignyana Philippi, 1851, Pinna dorbignyi Hanely, 1858, Fissurina orbignyana Seguenza, 1862, Immergentia orbignyana Fischer, 1866, Alvania dorbognyi Audouin, 1826, Pollia dorbignyi Payraudeau, 1826, Sepia orbignyana de Férussac, in d'Orbigny, 1826, Fossarus orbignyi Fischer, 1864, Lima orbignyi Lamy, 1930, Haminaea orbignyana (de Férussac, 1822), Trophon orbignyi Carcelles, 1946, Conus orbignyi J.- V. Audouin, 1831, Pollia dorbignyi (Payraudeau, 1826), Rissoina dorbignyi A. Adams, 1853, Platyxanthus orbignyi (Milne Edwards & Lucas, 1843)]. His brother, Charles Henri Dessalines d'Orbigny, (2 Dec.) 1806-1876 (14 Feb.), contributed in the Dict. universel d'Hist. Nat.

The cowry name Bistolida owenii (G.B. Sowerby, 1837) is in honour of Hugh Owen, British shell collector. If he is identical with Sir Hugh Owen, (14 Jan. - Anglesey) 1804-1881 (20 Nov. - Mentone, France), the educationist, who was a great collector of e.g. books, is not known to the compiler of this list.

The gastropod name Triphora oweni F. Baker, 1926 was named for Mr. Virgil W. Owen, 18??-19??, "Ornithologist and Mammalogist of the expedition of 1921"

Lacking information about Owen in the cestodan name Echinocotyle oweni (Moghe, 1933).

Prof. Harding Boehme Owre, neé Michel (Louisville, KY) 1924-2002 (Aug.), Florida (Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science) marine zoologist, who worked on copepods (published i.a. "Copepods of the Florida Current") chaetognaths, etc., and together with Frederick M. Bayer (q.v.), she published invertebrate textbooks like "The invertebrates: a new synthesis". During her later life she often again used her maiden name Michel in her publications. The ostracod name Bathyconchoecia hardingae Deevey, 1975 is honouring her according to kind information from Dr. Gareth C.H. Harding at the Bedford Institute in Halifax, who also provided the obituary.

The Goblin shark name Mitsukurina owstoni Jordan, 1898, another shark name Centroscymnus owstoni Garman, 1906, the fish name Liparis owstoni (Jordan & Snyder, 1904), the sipunculan name Golfingia owstoni (Ikeda, 1904) and the echiuroid name Thalassema owstoni Ikeda, 1904 are named for Alan Owston, (7 Aug. - Pirbright, Surrey) 1853-1915 (30 Nov. - Yokohama), British merchant and collector of natural history objects based in Japan from 1871 (where he i.a. cooperated with Ijima (q.v.) on glass sponges) and later in northern Vietnam. He owned a fast yacht, the Golden Hind and founded the Yokohama Yacht Club. He was married twice to Japanese women and had several children. He even himself employed collectors to bring him interesting objects.

The Polish zoologist Dr. Mieczyslaw Oxner, (25 Dec. - Ruda Guzowska (Zyrardow), Warsaw department, Blonie district, Poland) 1879-1944 (5 July - Auschwitz), was the eldest son (among 5 siblings, three brothers and two sisters) of a jewish father, Charles Oxner, 1860-1933, and a protestantic mother Leonilla Nowak, 1861?-1936. He studied in Warsaw until spring 1899, after which he moved to Berlin for further studies, but later moved on to Zürich, where he finished his dissertation to become a doctor in 1905, directed by prof. Arnold Lang (q.v.). In 1905 and 1906 he visited the zoological laboratory at Sorbonne led by prof. Yves Delage (q.v.) and marine laboratories in France (Roscoff & Villefranche-sur-Mer), where he became interested in nemerteans and published from this time on more than 20 articles about such creatures, either alone or together with a Polish colleague. In 1907 he began working at the Musée océanographique in Monaco and became an assistant under Jules Richard (q.v.) in 1910. In 1912 he visited marine laboratories in Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The wife of his first marriage, Alice Greer, 1878?-19??, had a career as an opera singer under the name Patricia Oxner, and she was honoured by her husband in the nemertean name Oerstaedia patriciae Oxner, 1907; they had married in London in 1907. In 1920 he very accurately described in detail the method to be used for chlorinity determination. However, this marriage failed after a few years and he remarried a lady named Hélène Gossey, 1879-19??, in Monaco in 1935. Together with Sirvent (q.v.) he became "soux-directeure de la laboratoire" in 1928. In January 1943 he was arrested by Italian troups and brought to Rome, but was released in April. However, the night between April 30 and May 1 1944 German troups arrested him again in Monaco. Sadly he ended his days in the nazi concentration camp Auschwitz. [Floriceps oxneri Guiart, 1938, Hymedesmia oxneri Topsent, 1928]. (Dr. D. Damkaer kindly provided some of this information, but Dr. Jacqueline Carpine-Lancre, Beausolei, France, kindly sent her "Un rapport inedit de Mieczyslaw Oxner: voyage d'etudes en Allemagne et en Scandinavie (1912). Organon 34 : 2005, pp. 119-180", from which much of the information above is taken and by email also sent some information, e.g. about Oxner's first wife).

The gastropod name Tutufa oyamai Habe, 1973 and the bivalve names Leptaxinus oyamai T. Habe, 1962 & Modiolus oyamai T. Habe, 1981 must be tributes to Dr. Katura Oyama, 19??-199?, Tokyo, ex vice president of the Malacological Society of Japan.

Prof. Dr. Paul Hermann Gustav van Oye, (24 Aug. - Ostend) 1886-1966 (11 Oct. - Gent), Belgian (Univ. of Gent) hydrobiologist and specialist on protozoans, rotifers, flatworms, and freshwater algae [Desmoscolex vanoyei de Coninck, 1943]. (Dr. David Damkaer kindly provided this information).

The person, who described the preoccupied Umagillid name Xenometra Ozaki, 1932 in J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., Zool., which later was changed to Ozametra Marcus, 1949 [Minabea ozakii Utinomi, 1957] must likely be Dr. Yoshimasa Ozaki, 1891-1976, (active at least until 1966), who mainly was a trematode specialist at Imperial Univ., Tokyo. The octocoral name Minabea ozakii Utinomi, 1957 seems to honour another person, Mr. M. Ozaki, 19??-, who found the specimen from bottom samples taken by a trawler Kaiun-maru".

The scaphopod name Siphonodentalium ozawai Yokoyama, 1927 and the bivalve name Thyasira ozawai Yokoyama, 1926 are likely not in honour of a person's name, but from fossil deposits at Osawa-mura, Yamagata Prefecture.