Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. X, Y, Ü, Z, Å, Ä, Æ, Ö & Ø

János (John) Xántus (also using the name Louis deVesey, when working as collector for Baird) (5 Oct. - Csokoyna, Somogy County, Hungary) 1825-1894 (13 Dec. - Budapest), arrived in 1852 to USA and became during his last par of his visit to USA a natural history collector at the Baja California Peninsula. In 1864 he returned to Europe and in 1866 he was appointed Director of the Zoological Garden of Budapest [Umbrina xanti Gill, 1862, Cyclostremiscus xantusi (Bartsch, 1907), Crassispira xanti Hertlein & Strong, 1951].

Xico : (see Fernandes).

The coral name Leptoseris yabei (Pillai & Scheer, 1976) and the hydroid name Stenohelia yabei (Eguchi, 1941) are likely tributes to Prof. Hisakatsu Yabe, (3 Dec.) 1878-1969 (23 June), who in 1941 published on corals of Toyama Bay and also was the person who started micropaleontology research traditions in Japan. He kept publishing at least until 1959.

Prof. Dr. Jill Yager, (20 Nov.) 1945-, of Ohio, "indefatigable cave diver and biologist", mainly working on crustaceans, e.g. Remipedia, in Bahamas and the Caribbean area [Yagerocaris Kensley, 1988, Gloinella yagerae Fosshagen, Boxshall & Iliffe, 2001].

Dr. John Cameron Yaldwyn, (Wellington) 1929-, Honorary Research Associate at Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa,, Wellington, who has published on crabs, is honoured in the decapod names Bathyhippolyte yaldwyni Hayashi & Miyake, 1970 and Periclimenes yaldwyni Holthuis, 1959. He was Curator of Crustacea and Coelenterata at the Australian Museum between 1962-68.

The copepod name Harpacticus septentrionalis yamadai Ito, 1976 and possibly the plathelminth name Archotoplana yamadai Tajika, 1983 and the polyplacophoran name Cryptoplax yamadai Is. Taki, 1962 are likely honouring Tetsuo Yamada, 1906-1976, who worked on taxonomy and distribution of copepods.

Prof. Dr. Masashi Yamaguchi, 1942-, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, is the person, who is honoured in the name of the Habu-kurage Chironex yamaguchii Lewis & Bentlage, 2009, (initially wrongly identified as Chiropsalmus quadrigatus), because he has contributed much to the understanding of cubozoans and in 1982 he published "Cubozoans and their life history".

Dr. Satyu Yamaguti, (21 Apr. - Hawaii) 1894-1976 (11 Mar.), Japanese helminthologist and parasitologist, active from the early 1930s and well-known for his books in the series "Systema Helminthum" [Heteronybelinia yamagutii (Dollfus,1960), Megalocotyloides yamagutii Egorova, 1994, Raphidascaris yamagutii Vicente & Santos, 1974, Parasaurositus yamagutii Gupta & Johri, 1989, Heptochona yamagutii Kalyankar, 1972, Paraneophasis yamagutii Gupta & Jain, 1991, Tetragonocephalum yamagutii Muralidhar, 1990, Stenurus yamagutii Kuramochi, Araki & Machida, 1990, Heterobothrium yamagutii Ogawa, 1991, Opisthomonorcheides yamagutii Gupta & Singh, 1989, Podocotyloides yamagutii Khan & Karyakarte, 1989, Neolepidapedon (Neolepidapedoides) yamagutii Ramadan, 1987, Skrjabinozoum yamagutii Gupta & Gupta, 1986, Paranisakis yamagutii Naqvi & Gupta, 1987, Anuretes yamagutii Prabbba & Pillai, 1986, Panaietis yamagutii Izawa, 1976, Dactylostomum yamagutii Ramadan, 1985, Monostephanostomum yamagutii Ramadan, 1984, Pleurogenes yamagutii Gupta & Puri, 1984, Neodichadena yamagutii Ramadan, 1983, Diplectanum yamaguti Oliverr, 1983, Transversocreadium yamagutii Ahmad, 1983, Renodidymocystis yamagutii Madhavi, 1982, Balanobothrium yamagutii Jadhav & Shinde, 1982, Cycloplectanum yamagutii Beverley-Burton & Suriano, 1981, Uterovesiculurus yamagutii Ahmad, 1980, Ancyrocephaloides yamagutii Gupta & Sharma, 1980, Allopodocotyle yamagutii Gupta & Ahmad, 1977, Heteromicrocotyla yamagutii Gupta & Krishna, 1979, Paracardicoloides yamagutii Martin, 1974, Proopisthogyne yamagutii Koche, 1976, Taeniacanthus yamagutii (Shiino, 1957), Ectenurus yamagutii Nahhas & Powell, 1971, Axine yamagutii (Meserve, 1938), Nybelinia yamagutii Dollfus, 1960].

Gordon Yamakawa, 1885-1910, from Japan, a pupil of M. Yokoyama (q.v.). is honoured in the scaphopod name Episiphon yamakawai Yokoyama, 1927 (Laevidentalium yamakawai Yokoyama, 1927).

Senji Yamamoto, (29 May - Kyoto) 1889-1929 (5 Mar. - Tokyo, assasinated by a right-wing fanatic), Japanese zoologist, sex educator (and communist), who reconciled Darwinism with socialism.

Puntacteon yamamurae Habe, 1976 was named for Miss Yaeko Yamamura, 19??-, who collected specimen fro Zamboanga, Mindanao.

The alpheid name Cavipelta yamashitai Hayashi, 1998 (a synonym of Chelomalpheus koreanus Kim, 1998) must be named for a person named K. Yamashita (possibly identical with Kinji Yamashita, 19??-, assistant director of the Miyajima Aquarium), who collected Hayashi's type material. A partial namesake Hideo Yamashita , 19??-, published on marine biology in 1961.

Prof. Kiyoshi Yamazato, (2 June) 1930-2009 (13 Feb.), University of the Ryukus. Okinawa, is honoured in the octocoral name Sinularia yamazatoi Benayahu, 1995.

Isamu Yamazi, 1916-, Japanese editor of illustrated books, who has also worked on copepod distribution at the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory.

Tadami Yanagisawa, 1910-1945 (17 Mar.), Japanese planktonologist, who was killed during an air bombing raid at the Kobe Marine Observatory.

Lacking information about Yani in the Guam octocoral name Ifalukella yanii Bayer, 1955.

Lacking informmation about Yang in the hagfish name Eptatretus yangi (Teng, 1958), but perhaps a tribute to Yang Zhongjian, (1 June) 1897-1979 (15 Jan.), Chinese vertebrate paleontologist.

Dr. Isaac ("Jitzchak") Yaron, (10 Sep. - Harbin, China, from Jewish parents originating from Russia) 1934-1985 (11 Apr. - disappeared when diving near Ras umm Sid). Jitzchak, as he was known among his friends, was used to speak Russian at home, Chinese with his friends in the street, English at school and Hebrew in the synagogue. Later on during and after his studies at the Haifa Technion in Israel (1955-1971), he mastered also French, Italian, German and even some Danish. The knowledge of so many languages not only was of great help in his study to become an Engineer ( 1958, M.Sc. in 1961, Dipl. Ing. in 1967 and D.Sc. in 1971, almost every time cum laude), but also in his beloved hobby: the study of marine molluscs. His interest in shells started already in China, but that collection he had to leave in the Far East when he emigrated to Israel. During his studies in Haifa he was mainly interested in Mediterranean molluscs. A post-doctorate at the Case Western Reserve University at Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A., left him enough spare time to study molluscs dredged along the east coast of North America. However, when he returned to Israel and was appointed as a senior research scientist at the Institute for Applied Research at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer Sheva, all his holidays were spent in the waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. During a collecting outing along the beaches of East Sinai, he disappeared. In spite of intensive searches his body was never retrieved from the waters. He was one of the founders of the Israel Malacological Society in 1969 and served as editor of its scientific journal "Argamon, Israel Journal of Malacology". His dream was to write a monograph concerning the molluscs of the Red Sea. In order to carry out this enormous work he visited most of the public collections in Western Europe and acquired an almost complete set of all the works ever written about the Erythraean mollusc fauna. He authored 45 malacological articles between 1970 and 1987. He was the author of three new species: Scissurella rota Yaron, 1983, Sinezona armillata Yaron, 1983 and Sinezona tricarinata Yaron, 1983, while five taxa were named so far after him: Anatoma yaroni Herbert, 1986, Chama yaroni Delsaerdt, 1986, Diodora yaroni yaroni Christiaens, 1987, Diodora yaroni isaaci Delsaerdt, 1986 and Mirapecten yaroni Dijkstra & Knudsen, 1998. His mollusc collection and malacological library form since 2003 part of the National Mollusc Collection of the Tel Aviv University. (Sources: Mienis, H.K., 1992. Isaac ("Jitzchak") Yaron (1934-1985). Argamon, Israel J. Malacology, 8: 1-7; Mienis, H.K., 2003. The Mollusc Collection of the late Isaac (Jitzchak) Yaron. The National Collections of Natural History, Tel Aviv University, 2002/2003 Annual Report, 21-22). ( Curator Henk K. Mienis, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem & Tel Aviv Univ., kindly provided all this information).

William Yarrell, (3 June - London) 1784-1856 (1 Sep. - Great Yarmouth), British naturalist, who published about British birds and fishes and was treasurer and vice-president of the Linnean Society of London [Laemonema yarrellii (Lowe, 1838)].

Dr. Lorenzo Gordin Yates, (12 Jan. - Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey) 1837-1909 (before Apr. - Santa Barbara), son of Richard Owen (likely not the palaeontologist by that name) and Rosetta Mary (Chambers) Yates, emigrated to USA at age 14 in 1851 (eventually settling in California), where he earned his money as a dentist, but spent his spare time collecting and describing natural products - including molluscs, partly inspired by Spencer Baird (q.v.) when young [Typhina yatesi (Crosse, 1865)].

The nudibranch name Herviella yatsui (Baba, 1930) is likely honouring the Japanese biologist Dr. Naohide Yatsu, 1877-1947, who i.a. worked at the Zoological Station in Naples.

The species name of the copepod Asterocheres jeanyeatmanae Yeatman, 1970 is honouring a person in the US copepodologist's Prof. Dr. "Harry" (Christened to Henry) Clay Yeatman Jr., (a farm near Columbia, Tenessee) 1916-, University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee (retired in 1980), [Neoscutellidium yeatmani Zwerner, 1967] family: Jean H. Yeatman, 19??-, his wife, also she a biologist and mushrom specialist.

Lacking information about Yendo in the cephalopod name Octopus yendoi (Sasaki, 1920). Possibly, however, a tribute to the marine algal worker Prof. Dr. Kichisaburo Yendo, (30 Aug. - Tsuiji-mura, province of Echigo, Japan) 1874-1921 (14 Mar. - Sendai).? Yendo made study trips to Canada in 1903 and to Europe (especially Norway) in 1911, but mainly worked in Japan. His health deteriorated two years before he died.

Colonel John William Yerbury, (Bengal) 1847-1928, British army officer and naturalist. He collected intensively flora and fauna while serving overseas. Much of his material is present in the British Museum (N.H.). He published among others about the birds and mammals of Aden. The following four marine molluscs all from Aden and described by E.A. Smith in 1891 are honouring him: Cerithium yerburyi; Strombus yerburyi; Chiton (Ischnochiton) yerburyi and Cytherea (Caryatis) yerburyi. He retired as Liutenant Colonel in 1892, but returned to Aden for a few months of collection in 1895. Although mainly with ornithological interest and somewhat shy and reserved, he was an excellent collector of every kind of natural history objects. Increasing blindness interfered with his collection interest and he was eventually knocked down by a motor car and the injuries from this event caused his premature death. (Curator Henk K. Mienis, Tel Aviv & Jerusalem, kindly provided this information).

von Yhlen : (see Ljungman).

The cephalopod name Loligo yokoyai M. Ishikawa, 1925 may possibly be in honour of Dr. Yu Yokoya, 18??-1967, Fisheries Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo Imperial Univ., who at least after 1917 published on Japanese decapod crustaceans and is honoured in the thalassinidean name Upogebia yokoyai Makarov, 1938?

The scaphopod name Fissidentalium yokoyamai (Makiyama, 1931), the gastropod name Seila yokoyamai Cossmann, 1897 and the bivalve names Crenella yokoyamai Nomura, 1922 & Nuculana yokoyamai T. Kuroda, 1920 may likely be tributes to Prof. Dr. Matajiro Yokoyama, 1860-1942, Geological Institute, Univ. of Tokyo, who published on pliocene fauna of Japan.

Yolanda : (see Camacho-Garcia).

The Spanish count Alfonso Maria de Aguirre y Gadea Yoldi, (24 Jan. - Granada) 1764-1852 (19 Jan. - Copenhagen), was from 1800 to 1818 Spanish ambassador in Copenhagen, later chamberlain at the court of king Kristian VIII of Denmark and keeper of his natural product collections [Yoldia Möller, 1842, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897].

Lacking information about Yolett(a) in the Californian gastropod name Turbonilla yolettae Hertlein & Strong, 1951.

Prof. Dr. Sir Charles Maurice Yonge, (9 Dec. - Wakefield, Yorkshire) 1899-1986 (17 Mar. - Edinburgh), British marine biologist, studied in Oxford and Edinburgh (PhD in 1922), became Assistant Naturalist in Plymouth in 1925. Two years later he went to Cambridge as an organizer of the Great Barrier Expedition, which he later was the leader of in 1928-29 (other members of this expedition were F.S. Russell, S.M. Manton and S.M. Marshall). Home again, he rejoined the Plymouth staff, but at age 34 he became (the first) Professor of Zoology at Bristol and in 1944 Regius Professor of Zoology at Glasgow. In 1964 he resigned to be able to do full time research, first in Glasgow and from 1970 in Edinburgh, his favourite city from his youth studies. He was knighted in 1967. Although mollusc studies was his main interest, he also devoted himself to studies of crustaceans and corals and was generally interested in marine biology and the history of this science [Miopontonia yongei A.J. Bruce, 1985, Acropora (Acropora) yongei Veron & Wallace, 1984, Microgloma yongei Sanders & Allen, 1973, Serolina yongei (Hale, 1933), Bryaninops yongei (Davis & Cohen, 1969), Prochaetoderma yongei Scheltema, 1985, Balanophyllia yongei Crossland, 1952]. (More).

The gastropod name Conus sazanka yoshioi Azuma, 1973, may likely be a tribute to Dr. Yoshio Kondo, (Maui, Hawaii) 1910-1990 (Oahu, Hawaii), malacological curator at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Mr. C.H. Young, 18??-19??, of the Geological Survey, Ottawa [Odostomia youngi Dall & Bartsch, 1910].

Prof. Dr. Craig M. Young, 19??-, PhD at Univ. of Alberta in 1982, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution Inc., Florida, from 2002 director of the Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Marine Biologist (interested in i.a. Ascidians), but also interested in the history of Marine Biology and Oceanography.

Prof. Dr. John Zachary Young, (18 Mar. - Bristol) 1907-1997 (4 July), zoophysiologist, who is connected much to nerve and brain studies of cephalopods.

Prof. Dr. Peter Colin Young, (9 Feb. - Sutton, Surrey) 1940-, Lancaster Univ., marine parasitologist, working i.a. in Australia.

Lacking information about Dr. R.A. Young, 1???-, Oregon State University, in the nematode name Southerniella youngi Murphy, 1964. Possibly, but not very likely identical with Dr. Roger Arliner Young, (Burgettstown, Pennsylvania) 1889-1964, who was the first Afro-American woman to achieve a PhD (University of Pennsylvania in 1940). She i.a. worked on Paramecium and sea urchin eggs at Woods Hole.

The South African epitonid Amaea (Filiscala) youngi Kilburn, 1985 is in honour of the late Bernhard J. Young, 19??-??, who sorted material for the author and gave some specimens of Ptychatractus youngi Kilburn, 1975 to the author. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided this information).

Prof. Em. Dr. Richard Edwin Young, (20 Aug.) 1938-, US (Hawaii) cephalopod researcher, who retired in 2001, but has continued to work as emeritus.

Dr. Marsh J. Youngbluth, (15 Sep.) 1940-, US plankton (e.g. copepod, appendicularian and siphonophore) researcher at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida, is honoured in Mesoikopleura youngbluthi Fenaux, 1993. Dr. Youngbluth provided specimens of this species.

Dr. James Locke Yount, (20 Aug.) 1922-, who had studied at the N.C. Univ. and published on Pacific salps during the 1950s (PhD on salps in 1954 at the Univ. of Hawaii) is honoured in the Thaliacean names Salpa younti van Soest, 1973 and Helicosalpa younti Kashkina, 1973.

Cantrainea yoyottei Vilvens, 2001 is named after Jean Claude Yoyotte, 19??-, Gaudeloupe, the fisherman who colleted the shell from deep waters. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli kindly provided this information).

Who is Yraida? (or possibly Y. Raid?) in the polychaete name Salvatoria yraidae (San Martin, 1984)?

Prof. Em., Dr. Hsiang-Ping Yu, 193?-, Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung [Typhlocarcinops yui Ng & Ho, 2003, Plesionika yui Chan & Crosnier, 1991, possibly Acanthochondria yui Shiino 1964] (retired Feb. 1 2004).

Lacking information about Yunfeng / Yun Feng in the nematode name Ceramonema yunfengi H.M. Platt & Z.N. Zhang, 1982.

The polyclade genus name Yungia Lang, 1884, must be a tribute to Prof. Dr. Émile Yung, 1854-1918, Prof of zoology and comparative anatomy at the Univ. of Geneva, who together with Carl Vogt (see Fritz Müller) published "Lehrbuch der praktischen vergleichenden Anatomie" in 1880.

Dr. Violetta Mikhaylovna Yurakhno, (7 July - Simferopol, Crimea) 1961-, Sevastopol myxosporean researcher.

Lacking information about Yuri in the ctenophore name Ctenoplana (Planoctena) yurii (Dawydoff, 1929).

Jurrien Zaagman, 19??-, who made the drawings, is honoured in the gastropod name Caecum zaagmani de Jong & Coomans, 1988.

The North Sea and Skagerrak foraminiferan name Melonis zaandami (Van Voorthuysen, 1952) is likely not honouring a person's name, but named for the Dutch town Zaandam.

The hydromedusa name Leuckartiara zacae Bigelow, 1940 and the stomatopod name Neogonodactylus zacae (Manning 1972) are not in honour of a person's name, but for the yacht Zaca, built for Templeton Crocker (q.v.) in the beginning of the 1930s and used for e.g. the Eastern Pacific Zaca Expedition in 1933, and later (in 1945) purchased by the actor Errol Flynn and used by him until he died in 1959. Flynn, who through his father (see Flynn) had marine biological interests made a Zaka expedition with biologists on board (e.g. the Hubbs couple) to the Southern Seas in 1952.

Zachs : (see Zaks).

Prof. Dr. Ernst Gustav Zaddach, (7 June - Dantzig) 1817-1881 (5 June - Königsberg), German zoologist and amphipod specialist, director of the Zoological Museum, Königsberg. [Gammarus zaddachi Sexton, 1912].

Prof. Viktor (or Victor) E. Zaika, 1936-, Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Nahimova St. 335000 Sevastopol, is honoured in the polychaete name Vigtorniella zaikai (Kiseleva, 1992). Likely the complete name is a tribute to him, because it was first placed in the preoccupied genus Victoriella by Kiseleva 1992, but moved to the similarily sounding Vigtorniella by her in 1996 after the homonymy was detected. Vigtor(n) is thus likely another spelling of Victor.

Prof. Dr. Yuvenaly Petrovich Zaitsev, 1928?-, marine scientist (neustonologist), who works at the hydrobiological station in Odessa. Although likely retired since 1989, evidently still working. (See also)). An earlier partial namesake was Philipp Adamovich Zaitzev (26 Mar.), 1877-1957 (20 June), Russian entomologist.

The Russian marine zoologist Ivan G. Zaks (or Zachs - his name originally spelled ze-a-ka-es), around 1889-194? (became 53 years old and died while being evacuated to Tashkent), with German roots, studied at Sorbonne before WWI, became a German prisoner for 4 years in the WW I, but escaped after 3 unsuccessful attempts. In 1921 he started as zoologist at the Murmansk Biological station. He is honoured in the nemertean name Cerebratulus zachsi Ushakov, 1926 [Zachsia Bulatoff & Rjabtschikoff, 1933, Platorchestia zachsi (Derzhavin, 1937), Onchidiopsis zachsi Derjugin, 1937, Pista sachsi Annenkova, 1925]. Zaks and the physiologist Jevgenij Kreps, 1899-1985, was ordered by the state to move individuals of Paralithodes camtschatica (Tilesius, 1815) to the Atlantic part of N Russia (an idea Zaks himself came up with and left in 1925 for the far east to study these creatures), but failed after having tried during several transportations from Vladivostok (taking 11 days in that time in jolting train wagons) and was "moved" as punishment after that and it was not until after the WW2 (introduced in the Barent's Sea during the 1960s) that Jurij Orlov succeded to move this species to the Atlantic parts now helped by air transportation, which was not possible during the 1930s. Zachs moved to Batum (Batumi), Georgia, a Black Sea city, at the place where the Greek colony Colchis was situated, after false accusations after his failure in 1932.

Dr. Giovanni Antonio Maria Zanardini, (12 June - Venice) 1804-1878 (24 Apr.), Italian physician and botanist (working i.a. on algae) [Streblonema zanardinii (Crouan frat) De Toni, Zanardinia Nardo ex Crouan frat., 1857].

The ascidian name Octacnemus zarcoi Monniot & Monniot, 1984 is in honour of João Gonçalves Zarco, later João Gonçalves Zarco da Câmara de Lobos or simply João Gonçalves Zarco da Câmara, 1390-1467? (Funchal, Madeira), the Portuguese navigator, (named after the Arabic word zarka, meaning blue eyed), who in 1419 / 1420 found the Madeira Islands and later died in Funchal, founded by him and named for the plant fennel, which was found there. (Dr. Helmut Zibrowius, Marseille, kindly provided this information, adding that a so called ZARCO cruise in 1968 could be suspected - with the old "Jean Charcot" ship plus the batyscaph "Archimède" being at Madeira jointly, but the result were published from the deepwater Abyplaine expedition 1981? off Madeira, (mainly with N. O. "Cryos", but some completing samles were later collected by "Jean Charecot"), so Zarco must be honoured here because of his connection with Madeira).

The shrimp name Periclimenaeus zarenkovi Duris, 1990 and the stomatopod name Heterosquilla (Heterosquilloides) zarenkovi Makarov, 1978 are both honouring Dr. Nikolai Alexeyevich Zarenkov, 1935-, who is a researcher on Decapod Crustacea at Lomonosov's Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (Faculty of Biology, Department of Systematics, Comparative Anatomy and Ecology of Invertebrates) [Solenocera zarenkovi Starbogatov, 1972, Pandalopsis zarenkovi B.G. Ivanov & V.I. Sokolov, 2001, Mursia zarenkovi Galil & Spiridonov, 1998, Golfingia confusa zarenkovi Murina, 1974 (now considered as a syn. of Nephasoma confusaum (Sluiter, 1902)]. (Dr. Zdenek Duris kindly provided this information).

Dr. Ricardo Zariquiey Alvarez, (3 Jan. - Barcelona) 1897-1965 (27 Jan. - Barcelona), Spanish pediatrician and decapod crustacean worker [Liocarcinus zariquieyi (Gordon, 1968), Sacculina zariquieyi Boschma, 1947 (possibly a tribute to his father - see below), Sirpus zariquieyi Gordon, 1953, Zariquieyon Manning & Holthuis, 1989]. He inherited the interest for decapods from his father Dr. Ricardo Zariquiey Cenarro, (3 Apr. - Caparroso, Navarra) 1870-1943 (8 Sep. - Barcelona), who from around 1934 had been interested in this group of animals and published several papers about them before he died [Palaemonetes zariquieyi Sollaud, 1939].

Lacking information about Vladimir Ivanovich Zatsepin, 19??-19??, in the polychaete names Zatsepinia Jirkov, 1986 & Nephtys zatsepini Jirkov, 1986. Zatsepin investigated the benthos and polychaetes of the northern seas of the USSR from around 1939 on, at least until 1980 [Lumbrineris zatsepini Averintsev, 1989].

Prof. Edoardo Zavattari, (21 Oct. - Tortona) 1883-1972 (17 Feb. - Genova), Univ. of Roma, Italian traveller, entomologist and collector of animals, e.g. marine invertebrates from Gabon and Nigeria. Several non marine animals - mainly insect - have been named for him.

Professor Dr. Dušan Zavodnik, 1934-, Slovenian invertebrate taxonomist and benthic biocoenologist, employed at the Marine Research Station, Rovinj, since 1960, director between 1964-68 and 1982-84. He has kindly supplied information about several Adriatic workers to these lists [Hormophora zavodnikia Jurilj, 1957, Nannomesochra zavodniki Petkovski & Apostolov, 1974, Diarthrodes zavodniki Petkovski & Apostolov, 1980, Runcina zavodniki T. Thompson, 1980, Harpinia zavodnikia Karaman, 1987].

Prof. Dr. Sven Zea, 1957-, is professor of zoology at the Universidad Nacional of Colombia, stationed at the INVEMAR in Santa Marta, Caribbean Colombia. He published an authorative book on sponges from the Colombian Caribbean, the first to combine taxonomic descriptions and accurate identifications with photographs made of the living animals [Pseudaxinella zeai Alvarez et al., 1998, Agelas sventres Lehnert and van Soest, 1996, Chalinula zeae de Weerdt, 2000]. (Dr. Rob van Soest kindly provided this information).

Prof. Dr. Miroslav Zei, (25 July - Nabrežina, Trieste) 1914-2006 (2 Nov.), Director of the Rovinj Marine Research Station between 1951-60. Fisheries biologist and fish morphologist [Amphiscolops zeii Riedl,1956, Cochlodina laminata ssp. zeii Bole,1969].

Dr. Wolfgang Zeidler, (Hamburg, Germany) 1947-, migrated with his parents to Australia in 1954. He has a BSc(Hons) and a PhD from the University of Adelaide and an MSc (Marine Biology) from the James Cook University of North Queensland. He joined the South Australian Museum in 1974.He is regarded the world authority on the systematics of Hyperiidean amphipods but has also published research articles on Molluscs and Echinoderms. His current research work involves a world revision of the systematics of the hyperiids. He is also collaborating with Lisa Gershwin, U. Cal. Berkeley, USA, in a revision of the Australian jellyfish fauna. [Laevidentalium zeidleri Lamprell & Healey, 1998, Paraconotrochus zeidleri Cairns & Parker, 1992, Euzonus zeidleri Hartmann-Schröder & Parker, 1995, Fonscochlea (Wolfgangia Ponder Hershler & Jenkins, 1989 ) zeidleri Ponder Hershler & Jenkins, 1989, Calamoecia zeidleri Bayly, 1984, Jardinella zeidlerorum Ponder & Clark, 1990] (Dr. Zeidler himself kindly updated the entry on him in 2001).

Dr. Hildegard Zeissler, (6 Mar. - Leipzig) 1914-2006 (28 Mar.), German Malacologist.

Engelina Zelickman, 1926-, from Moscow, worked in Murmansk on marine zooplankton organisms and parasitology of crustaceans and molluscs. From 1988 she lives in Jerusalem.

Prof. Dr. Carl (or rather Karl) Zelinka, (15 Dec. -Mehrenberg ) 1858-around or after? 1935 (Wien), achieved his PhD in 1908 (after having been Dozent in Graz from 1893 and professor in Czernowitz in 1897) and became later professor in Wien (Vienna) and worked mainly on kinorhynchs the decades before and after World War I, but did also work on the rotifers of the Plankton Expedition. His production culminated (after becoming Prof. Em. in 1924) in 1928 with "Monographie der Echinodera". He was likely jewish, so his last years may have been difficult because of the nazi regime in the neighbour country. [Zelinkiella Harring, 1913, Zelinkaderes Higgins, 1990, Pycnophyes zelinkaei Southern, 1914, Lepidochaetus zelinkai (Grunspan, 1908)].

The Australian (Giilgandra, New South Wales) diver, coral reef specialist, adjunct Lecturer in Marine and Tropical Biology at James Cook Univ., author of several books about his interests, etc., Len (Leonard Douglas) Zell, 1950-, is honoured in the sleractinian name Australogyra zelli Veron, Pichon & Wijsman-Best, 1977 and Pocillopora zelli Veron, 2000. (Zell kindly himself informed about his year of birth)

Dr. Gustavus Fridericus Guilelmus (or Wilhelm) Zenker, (2 May - Brunow) 1829-1899 (21 Oct. - Berlin), achieved his PhD in Berlin in 1850 on "De natura sexuali generis Cypridis" and published his "Monographie der Ostracoden" in 1854 [Eucypris zenkeri]. He may possibly have been a son of the more well-known botanist Prof. Jonathan Carl (Karl) Zenker, (1 Mar. - Remda, close to Weimar) 1799-1837 (6 Nov.).

Professor Lev Alexandrovitch Zenkevitch, (16 June) 1889-1970 (20 June), Russian-Jewish zoological oceanographer in Moskow, i.a. working on polychaetes. Famous for his book "Biology of the Seas of U.S.S.R." (Engl. translation 1963) [Eugerdella zenkewitschi (Gurjanova, 1946), Halalaimus zenkevitshi Filipjev, 1927, Zenkevitchiella Brodsky, 1955, Monoplacophorus zenkevitchi Moskalev, Starobogatov & Filatova, 1984, Verum zenkevitchi (Zevina), Zachsia zenkewitschi Bulatoff & Rjabtschikoff, 1933, Leviapseudes zenkevitchi (Kudinova-Pasternak, 1966), Neotanais zenkevitchi Kudinova-Pasternak, 1973].

Max Graf von Zeppelin, (6 Aug. - Stuttgart) 1844-1897 (3 Dec. - Stuttgart), German count, zoologist, "Hofmarschall" (marshall of the court) and traveller [Zeppelina Vaillant, in de Quatrefages, 1890].

The green algal name Chaetomorpha zernovii Woronichin, the copepod names Oncaea zernovi Shmeleva, 1966 & Monstrillopsis zernovi Dolgopol'skaya, 1948 and the nematod name Pontonema zernovi (Filipjev, 1919), the larval trematode name Cercaria zernowi Sinitzin, 1911 are likely all honouring Sergej Alekseevich Zernov (Zernow), (10 June - Moscow) 1871-1945 (22 Feb. - Leningrad), Russian zoologist and hydrobiologist, who was head of the Sevastopol Biology Station between 1901-14. (Prof. Albina Gaevskaja, Sevastopol, kindly provided the last eponym).

The gastropod name Muricopsis zeteki J. G. Hertlein & A. M. Strong, 1951 and the bivalve names Septifer zeteki Hertlein & Strong, 1946 and Bankia zeteki Bartsch, 1921 is honouring the US entomologist Dr. James Zetek, 1886-1959, who also published on molluscs from Panama, where he lived.

Dr. Galina Benizianovna Zevina, (Moscow) (12 Feb.) 1926-2002 (24 Sep.), Russian barnacle (and fouling) specialist in Moscow, who was a disciple of Zenkevitch (q.v.) [Planoscalpellum zevinae Shreider, 1994, Pectinoacasta zevinae (Kolbasov, 1991), Periclimenes zevinae Duris, 1990, Neolepas zevinae Newman, 1979].

Carl (also known as Karl) Ludwig Philipp Zeyher, (2 Aug. - Dillenburg, Germany) 1799-1858 (13 Dec. Cape Town, South Africa), self-made botanist. He set out for Mauritius together with a Bohemian (Czech) naturalist Franz Wilhelm Sieber, (30 Mar. - Prag) 1789-1844 (17 Dec. - Prag), (who earlier had collected botanical items in Palestine, Egypt and at Cyprus) in August 1822, but was left at the Cape, while his companion continued to Mauritius (and later collected in Australia). Zeyher never returned again to Germany and started to collect extensively plants in South Africa for numerous botanists and museums in Europe, however, his own collection became part of the South African Museum. Besides plants at least also some marine molluscs were collected by him in the Cape area. Apart from numerous South-African plants named after him, the following marine gastropods, all described by Ferdinand Krauss in 1852, are honouring him: Marginella zeyheri; Purpura zeyheri and Trochus zeyheri. (Curator Henk K. Mienis, Tel Aviv & Jerusalem, kindly provided this information).

Lacking information abot Zezina in the tanaid name Leptognathia zezinae Kudinova-Pasternak, 1973, but likely the benthos researcher Olga Nikolaevna Zezina, 19??-, at the PP Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, may be the honoured person.

Lacking information about D.G. Zhadan, 19??-, (likely identical with the invertebrate - mainly decapod and amphipod - researcher Dmitry G. Zhadan, 1973-) at the Zoological Museum of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, in the heliozoan name Hedriocystis zhadani Mikrjukov, 2000.

Zhirkov : (see Jirkov).

E.V. Zhukov , 19??-, Russian parasitologist, who has published from around 1957 on, is honoured in the monogenean name Gyrodactylus zhukovi Ling, 1962.

Dr. Helmut Zibrowius, 1941-, working on madreporarians, serpulids and similar (deep sea) hard bottom fauna at Station Marine d'Endoume in Marseille, collected specimens of Hyalogyra zibrowii Warén, in Warén, Carozza & Rocchini, 1997 [Tanturia zibrowii Ben-Eliahu, 1976, Pileolaria (Duplicaria) zibrowii Knight-Jones, 1978, Hammatimyzon zibrowii Stock, 1981, Thecoscyphus zibrowii Werner, 1984 (n. nud.), Weltneria zibrowii Turquier, 1985, Zibrowia n.g., Grygier, 1985, Cecidocarcinus zibrowii Manning, 1991, Lagisca zibrowii Hartmann-Schröder, 1992, Bathyvermilia zibrowiusi Kupriyanova, 1993, Spiraserpula zibrowii Pillai & ten Hove, 1994, Zibrovia Kropp & Manning, 1995 galea Kropp & Manning, 1995, Pleotrochus zibrowii, Cairns, 1997, Neopycnodonte zibrowii Wisshak, López Correa, Gofes, Salas, Taviani, Jacobsen & Freiwald, 2008 (a large oyster from the Azores, thriving under overhangs in depths of 420-500 m.), Helmutneris Carrera Parra, 2006]. (Dr. Riccardo Giannuzzi-Savelli, Palermo, kindly provided the last eponym).

Erich Ziegelmeyer, 1910-1985, German malacologist.

Prof. Heinrich Ernst Ziegler, (15 July) 1858-1925, German professor of physiology; author of a zoological dictionary together with Bresslau (q.v.). Ziegler was a disciple of Weismann (q.v.) and worked in Stuttgart. A namesake was Franz Andreas Ziegler, 1761-1842, Austrian Malacologist.

J.C.M. van Zijp, 19??-, member of the former Dutch mollusca working group, is honoured in the gastropod name Odostomia (Megastomia) zijpi van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998.

Dr. Adolf Michael Zilch, (4 Mar. - Offenbach) 1911-2006 (1 Jan. - Wächtersbach), German malacologist [Pholeoters zilchi Subai, 1993, Turanena zilchi Gittenberge & Menkhorst, 1993, Thoanteus zilchi Hausdorf, 1993, Kuiperia zilchi Kadolsky, 1993, Zilchiola Kadolsky, 1993].

Prof. Dr. Carl Wilhelm Erich Zimmer, (29 Sep. - Sondershausen) 1873-1950 (8 Nov. - Hüll bei Wolnzach), German crustacean (Cumacea) specialist, working in Berlin [Zimmeriana Hale, 1946, Paralaophonte zimmeri (Douwe, 1929), Bathypalaemonella zimmeri Balss, 1914, Phoxocephalopsis zimmeri Schellenberg, 1931, Hypererythrops zimmeri Ii, 1937, Cumella zimmeri Petrescu, Iliffe & Sarbu, 1994, Iphinoe? zimmeri (Stebbing, 1910), Anchialina zimmeri Tattersall, 1951, Diastylis zimmeri (Ledoyer, 1977), Leptostylis zimmeri (Fage, 1929), Nannastacus zimmeri (Calman, 1911), Mopsella zimmeri Kükenthal, 1908, Paralaophonte zimmeri van Douwe, 1929].

Prof. Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann, (17 Aug. - Uelzen) 1743-1815 (4 July - Braunschweig), German geographer, philosopher and natural scientist, who studied in Göttingen and in 1766 he achieved a professorship in physics at Carolinum in Braunschweig. He travelled to England, Italy, France, Denmark, Sweden and Russia, was ennobled in 1796 resulting in the von in his name. As a zoologist, his primary interest was mammals and animal geography and he described some marine mammals, e.g. the Steller's Sea Cow in 1780 as Manati gigas, later moved to genus Hydrodamalis Retzius, 1794.

Prof. Dr. Friedrich Zimmermann, 1???-, German Malacologist active during i.a. the 1960s.

Dr. Donald Joseph Zinn, (19 Apr. - New York) 1911-1996 (18 Sep. (cancer)), PhD at Yale in 1942, in 1943 he - together with Pennak (q.v.) - discovered the Mystacocarida in a beach at Woods Hole. After WWII he continued his research at Woods Hole and in 1947 he took a position as marine ecologist and professor of zoology at the Univ. of Rhode Island, where he stayed for 28 years - working mainly as a meiobenthologist, until his retirement in 1974 [Aspidosiphon zinni Cutler, 1969].

Jakob Zinndorf, 1878-1951, German (Frankfurt) Malacologist.

Zinzulus in the ostracod name Cytheropteron zinzulusae Bonaduce, Ciampo & Masoli, 1976 is likely not a person's name, but probably the species may have been described from the Zinzulusa Cave at the Apulian coast of Italy.

Zio in the tardigrade genus name Zioella : (See Grimaldi de Zio).

The palaeontologist Prof. Dr. Karl Alfred (Ritter) von Zittel, (25 Sep. - Bahlingen, at Freiburg im Breisgau) 1839-1904 (5 Jan. - München), is honoured in the bivalve name Lithophaga zitteliana R. W. Dunker, 1882.

Prof. Dr. Claude Ephraim ZoBell, (22 Aug. - Provo, Utah) 1904-1989 (31 Mar. - La Jolla, Cal.), US microbiologist [Metschnikowia zobelli (van Uden & Castelo-Branco) van Uden,1961 (Ascomycota)].

The gastropod name Alvania zoderi Hoenselaar & Goud, 1998 may likely be a tribute to Dr. B. Zoder, 19??-, the Netherlands, who e.g. collected gastropods in the Baleares in 1967.

The Danish disciple of Linné, Johan Zoëga, (7 Oct. - Ravsted, Schleswig) 1742-1788 (20 Dec.), who foremost was an entomologist and botanist, specialized in mosses (a friend and relative of J.C. Fabricius), i.a. helped to order the left manuscripts of Forskål (q.v.). Zoëga also wrote "Flora Islandica" 1775. He suffered from a spinal bending from childhood and died unmarried.

The gastropod name Notovoluta gerondiosi Bail & Limpus, 2005 was named for the son of Michael Zografakis.

Dr. Raffaello Zoja, 18??-1896? (an obituary arrived this year), Italian zoologist working on hydroids during the 1890s and who also published on e.g. lamellibranchs.

Prof. Dr. Friedrich Wilhelm Zopf, (12 Dec. - Roßlebe) 1846-1909 (24 June - Münster), German fungiologist and phycologist [Zopfiella Winter, 19??].

The bivalve name Scacchia zorni van Aartsen & Fehr-de Wal, 1985 may possibly be a tribute to the palaeontologist Dr. Irene Zorn, 19??-, Wien.

Lacking information about Zotin in the polyplacophoran namme Tonicella zotini Jakovleva, 1952.

Lacking information about Zschau in the polyplacophoran name Tonicella zschaui Pfeiffer, 1886.

Prof. Friedrich (Fritz) Zschokke, (27 May - Aarau) 1860-1936 (10 Jan. - Basel), Swiss zoologist, who was professor in Basel (a "Festschrift" was published to celebrate his 60th birthday 27 May 1920). He also published on cestodes in Geneve 1888. He was a friend of F. Nansen (q.v.) [Orygmatobothrium zschokkei Woodland, 1927, Zschokkella Aurbach, 1910, Henneguya zschokkei (Gurley, 1894), Megalocotyle zschokkei ((Mola, 1912), Acanthobothrium zschokkei Baer, 1948].

The flatworm name Lepidapedon zubchenkoi Campbell & Bray, 1993 is honouring Dr Alexander V. Zubchenko, 19??-, parasitologist, Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Murmansk, Russia. (Dr. Rod Bray kindly provided this information).

Prof. Dr. Victor August Zullo, (24 July - San Francisco) 1936-1993 (16 July), Prof. of Geology & Adjunct Prof. of Biology at UNCW, cirripedologist from San Francisco, who in 1971 was appointed professor at the Univ. of North Carolina [Cryptophialus zulloi Tomlinson, 1973].

Dr. Antonio de Zulueta, (7 Mar. - Barcelona) 1885-1971 (Madrid), Spanish naturalist, who i.a. wrote an article about Lamippids in 1908, an article about copepods parasiting coelenterates in 1911 and in 1917 published on amoebas. He became an associate professor of histology, but was in difficulties during the Franco era, because of his republican ideas and his death was silenced by the authorities, until 16 years later.

Lacking information about Zurigne? in the Iberian bryozoan name Disporella zurigneae Alvarez, 1992.

Lacking information about Zvonimir in the Mediterranean fish name Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic, 1892), but possibly a colleague of Kolombatovic from Split or perhaps a collector by that name.

Linda R. Zylman 19??-, Palm City, Florida, is honoured in the gastropod name Muricopsis zylmanae E. J. Petuch, 1993.

Prof. Dr. Bertil Åkesson, (Aug.) 1927-, Swedish zoologist, educated in Lund, later working in Göteborg (Gothenburg); during his last active decades he became specialized in Ophryotrocha [Akessonia Bresciani & Lützen, 1962, Pusillotrocha akessoni Westheide & von Nordheim, 1985, Ophryotrocha akessoni Blake, 1985]. (Åkesson, when working on sipunculans at Kristineberg Marine Research Station, mentioned in one of his papers a "fat disgusting parasite" from Nephasoma minuta and when his friends later studied it and described it they could not resist to give it the name Akessonia occulta )

Dr. Augusta Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde, (28 Mar.) 1870-1953, daughter of the farmer pair Anders Andersson and Augusta Larsson, Ernbäcks gård (farm of Ernbäck), Vingåker, Södermanland, Sweden. Upper secondary school in Örebro in 1888, fil. kand. (Bachelor of Science) in Uppsala in 1892. After this she left the womans hostile Uppsala and became a teacher until she in 1896 got a teaching assistent employment at the zootomical institute at the in that time liberal Stockholms Högskola (which later became the University of Stockholm). Axel Klinckowström*, who returned after a long journey and found that professor Jacob Wilhelm Ebbe Gustaf Leche, (4 Sep. - Helsingborg) 1850-1927, who mainly worked on mammals (but wrote at least one malacological paper), in the meantime had employed a female teaching assistent wrote in his memoirs "Klinckans minnen" that "...There was, it's true, absolutely nothing to remark against the lady in question. She was both pleasant and competent and neither young enough nor beautiful enough to disturb, but yet she was a woman (using the today somewhat disparaging Swedish word 'fruntimmer'), and whether she wanted it or not - I'm quite sure that she did'nt want - her mere presence completely disturbed the long established calm of our male preserve. The old unconstrained tone of our discussions was a thing of the past...". Married in 1898 to the lawyer fil. kand. Edvard Eilert Christie-Linde. She achieved her final university examination (licentiatexamen) in 1908 and PhD in 1909. From 1916 she was employed as assistant zoologist at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm and worked with taxonomy of ascidians until 1940, but actually continued a little also after her retireing, writing a paper on Faeroe ascidians from a Danish expedition th these islands in 1927, which was completed in 1952, but not published until 1971. (Sif Johansson, SNV, has kindly contributed this information about this clever researcher, not mentioned by any Swedish encyclopedium) [Polycarpa aernbaeckae F. Monniot, 1964, Pseudodistoma arnbacki Pérès, 1959].
*) Baron Dr. Axel Alexander Camille Rudolf Emanuel Klinckowström, (24 Dec. - Darmstadt, Hessen) 1867-1936 (12 May - Stafsund, Ekerö), Swedish zoologist and author of poems, books of travels, history of art, etc., PhD in Würzburg in 1895, Assistant Professor (Docent) at Stockholm's Högskola between 1895-1904, mainly working on vertebrate anatomy and bacterians.

Prof. Anders Sandøe Ørsted, (21 June - Rudkøbing, Langeland Island) 1816-1872 (3 Sep. - København), Danish biologist. Worked as a zoologist in the beginning of his career, mainly with polychaetes, but his doctoral thesis 1844 dealt with zonation researches in the Sound (Öresund), e.g. recognizing the green, brown and red algal zones (the systematical recognition of green, brown and red algae was made by Lamouroux (q.v.) in 1813). After an expedition to the Caribbean and central parts of America between 1845-48 he returned, not as it was thought with annelids in his luggage, but with herbs (actually he brought also some annelids but they were turned over to Grube (q.v.)), left the zoology and became a botanist. He was professor of botany in København (Copenhagen) between 1862- 1872, when he died of dysentery. During his travels in central America he discovered the existence of micro algae, using a net with finer mesh size than what Vaughan Thomson (q.v.) earlier had used, and stated that these micro algae were the primary food for smaller pelagic animals. He married a 18 years younger woman in Aug. 1858. He should not be confused with his uncle and namesake, the wellknown legal expert and prime minister, 1778-1860, or the other uncle (a brother of the prime minister), the reputed physicist (and pantheist) Hans Christian Ørsted, (14 Aug.) 1777-1851 (see also Nees) [Oerstedia de Quatrefages, 1846, Heterotanais oerstedi (Krøyer, 1842), Allostoma oerstedi (Levinsen, 1879), Syllis oerstedi (Malmgren, 1867), Eunoe oerstedi Malmgren, 1865, Panthalis oerstedi Kinberg, 1855, Eunice oerstedi Stimpson, 1854, Euclymene oerstedii (Claparède, 1863), Dentalium oerstedii Mørch, 1861, Pisione oerstedi Grube, 1856, Solen oerstedii O. A. L. Mørch, 1860, Batophora oerstedii J. Agardh, Gonodactylus oerstedi, Ophiothrix oerstedii ].

Jens Mathias Østergaard, (26 Aug. - Tødsø sogn, Thisted amt) 1878-1969 (11 Aug. - Mountain View, California), at the Dept. of Zoology & Entomology, Univ. of Hawaii, in 1955 named Elysia elsieae for his daughter Elsie "for the interest and enthusiasm she showed in my pursuit of its study". He is himself remembered in the cowry name Erosaria ostergaardi (Dall, 1921). He had arrived in Honolulu on 27 May 1901, after having emigrated from Denmark to USA at age 19. In 1954, he moved to California, where he lived with his daughter and son in law.

Artur Hjalmar Östergren, 1869-1935, Swedish zoologist born in Kyrkefalla in the neighbourhood of Skara, where he achieved his pre-university education. In Uppsala, where he arrived in 1888, he specialized in botany, but came under the influence of the zoology professor Tullberg (q.v.) and became later a specialist on holothuroids. In 1898 he achieved his fil. lic (final university examination). He was director of the Kristineberg Marine Zoological Station between 1906-1922. After this period he moved to Göteborg (Gothenburg), where he worked on questions regarding public aquariums. [Enteroxenos oestergreni Bonnevie, 1902, Oestergrenia Heding, 1931].

The diatom names Oestrupia H. Heiden, Diploneis oestrupii Hustedt, 1931-59, Surirella oestrupii Gran, 1900 and Navicula oestrupii Cleve, 1896 must honour the Danish algal (mainly diatoms) worker Ernst Vilhelm Østrup, 1845-1917.