A short selected list of written Biographical references.

Several biographical dictionaries, like Biographical Memoirs, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Current Biography, Dictionary of American Biography Supplements, National Cyclopedia of American Biography, The Dictionary of National Biography, etc., are omitted in the following list, because they are indexed in works like Pelletier (below). Some journals, like Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London are frequently publishing obituaries of naturalists. A large Cumuladed Bibliography of Biographies of Ocean Scientists is published on the Internet by Scripps, including several of the persons in this list, but of course most of them are lacking there.


Abbott, R. T. (Ed.), 1973. American Malacologists. A national register of professional and amateur malacologists and private shell collectors and biographies of early American mollusk workers born between 1618 and 1900. pp. 1-494 + iv. American Malkacologists, Falls Church, VA (USA) (Dr. Harry G. Lee, Florida, tipped me about this and the next paper, which I have not yet consulted).

Abbott, R. T., (ed.), 1987. Register of American malacologists. A national register of professional and amateur malacologists and private shell collectors. pp. 1-168 + xiii. American Malacologists Melbourne, FL (USA).

Allard, Dean C. 1999. The Origin and Early History of the Steamer Albatross, 1880-1887. Marine Fisheries Review 61 (4): 1-21.

Allen, David Elliston. 1976. The Naturalist in Britain. A Social History. 292 pp. Allen Lane, Penguin Books Ltd., London.

Arai, Mary Needler. 1992. Research on coelenterate biology in Canada through the early twentieth century. Archives of Natural History 19 (1): 55-68.

Arndt, Walther. 1936. Zahlenmässiges zur Verteilung der spongiologischen Veröffentligungen auf Sprachen und Länder sowie zur Entwicklung der Spongiologie. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde. 195-209.

Baker, R.A. 1991. The Durham connection in the history of arachnology in Britain. Archives of Natural History 18 (2): 221-230.

Bowman, Thomas E. 1995. Copepodology at the Smithsonian Institution. Monoculus News Letter 25.

Britten, James, George S. Boulger & A.B. Rendle (Eds.) 1931. A biographical index of deceased British and Irish Botanists. Ed. 2. 342 pp. Taylor & Francis, London. (More than 2,000 biographies. Not yet seen by the compiler of this list, because the only Swedish library copy is to be found in Umeå, some 1,000 km away).

Broch, H. 1954. Zoologiens historie i Norge til annen verdenskrig. (History of Zoology in Norway until WWII). 156 pp. Akademisk Forlag, Oslo.

Brummitt, R.K. & C.E. Powell (Eds.). 1992. Authors of Plant Names. A list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations. 732 pp. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew.

Carpine, Christian. 2002. La Pratique de l'Océanographie au Temps du Prince Albert Ier. Monaco: Musée Océanographique. iii + 331 pp., portraits.

Carpine-Lancre, Jacqueline. 1998. Albert Ier Prince of Monaco (1848-1922). Monaco: Editions EGC. 32 pp., portraits.

Christiaens, J. 1994. Chronological List of the Deceased Conchological Authors. Gloria Maris 33 (1-6) : 1-39 (Dr Yves Finet at the Natural History Museum, Geneva, kindly not only called my attention to this article but also sent me a copy of it).

Cleevely, R.J. 1974. A provisional bibliography of natural history works by the Sowerby family. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 6 (6) : 482-559.

Cleevey, R.J. 1978. Some background to the life and publications of Colonel George Montagu (1753-1815). Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 8 (4) : 445-480.

Corliss, John O. 1979. The ciliated protozoa, Characterization, Classification and Guide to the Literature. 2:nd ed., 455 pp. Pergamon Press.

Corneliuson, Jens 1997. Växternas namn. Vetenskapliga växtnamns etymologi. Språkligt ursprung och kulturell bakgrund. 602 pp. Wahlström & Widstrand. (In Swedish. Translation: Names of the plants. Etymology of scientific names of plants. Linguistic origin and cultural backgrond. - The book is dealing with herbs and ferns, but some of those are named for naturalists, who also worked with marine organisms).

Cosel, Rudo von 1998. Mayor Lischke and the Japanese marine shells. A bio-bibliography of Carl Emil Lischke and a brief history of marine malacology in Japan with bibliography. J. Malacozool. Ass. Yamaguchi 6 (1): 7-50.

Croft, L.R. 1993. P. H. Gosse in Newfoundland and Lower Canada, 1827-1838. Archives of Natural History 20 (1): 1-29.

Damkaer, C.C. & D. M. Damkaer 1979. Henrik Krøyer's Publications on Pelagic Marine Copepoda (1838-1849). Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 69 (6) : 48 pp.

Damkaer, D. 1988. Mildred Stratton Wilson, Copepodologist (1909-1973). Journal of Crustacean Biology 8 (1). 131-146.

Damkaer, D. 1989. R. Norris Wolfenden, M.D.: The medical episode. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology 103 : 1005-1013.

Damkaer, D. 1999. A Century of Copepods: The U.S. Fisheries Steamer Albatross. Marine Fisheries Review 61 (4): 69-84.

Damkaer, D. 2000. Determination and enthusiasm: Richard Norris Wolfenden (1854-1926), his Plankton studies and other things oceanographical. Archives of natural history 27 (2)): 209-229.

Damkaer, D. 2000. Harriet Richardson (1874-1958), first lady of Isopods. Journal of Crustacean biology 20 (4): 803-811.

Damkaer, D. 2002. The Copepodologist's Cabinet. A. Biographical and Bibliographical History. Volume I. Aristotle to Alexander von Nordmann (330 B.C. to A.D. 1832). ixx + 300 pp. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting Useful knowledge. Vol. 240. ISBN: 0-871699-240-6, US ISSN: 00659738. (This is the definitive gold mine of information regarding early naturalists including several portraits, title pages, signatures, and plates in reprint).

Dance, S. Peter 1978. The art of Natural History. Animal Illustrators and their Work. 224 pp. Country Life Books. Distributor: Hamlyn Publishing Group, Ltd., London, New York, ...

Dance, S. Peter 1986. History of Shell Collecting. Revised Edition. 265 pp. E.J. Brill - W. Backhuys, Leiden.

Debus, Allen G. (Ed.) 1968. World Who's Who in science: a biographical dictionary of notable scientists from antiquity to the present. 1855 pp. Marquis Biographical Library. Marquis Who's Who, Chicago, Ill. (Including some 30,000 entries. Not seen).

Desmond, Adrian 1984. Robert E. Grant's later views on organic development: the Swiney lectures on "Palaeozoology", 1853 - 1857. Archives of Natural History 11 (3): 395-413.

Florey, E. 1995. Highlights and sidelights of early Biology on Helgoland. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 49 : 77-101.

Fransen, C.J.M., L.B. Holthuis & J.P.H.M. Adema 1997. Type-catalogue of the Decapod Crustacea in the collections of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, with appendices of pre-1900 collectors and material. Zool. Verh. Leiden 311: 1-344.

Gardiner, Brian G. 1993. Edward Forbes, Richard Owen and the Red Lions. Archives of Natural History 20 (3): 349-372.

Goy, Jacqueline 1992. François Péron, Charles-Alexandre Lesueur and the first classification of Medusae. Archives of Natural History 19 (3): 401-405.

Gunther, A.E. 1974. A note on the autobiographical manuscripts of John Edward Gray (1800-1875). Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 7 (1) : 35-76.

Gunther, A.E. 1977. The Life of William Carmichael M'Intosh, M.D., F.R.S. of St. Andrews 1838-1931. A Pioneer in Marine Biology. St. Andrews University Publications No. LXI.

Harrison, K. & E. Smith, 2008. Rifle-Green by Nature. A Regency Naturalist and his Family, William Elford Leach. Ray Society. Vol. 171. London. 621 pp. (ISBN: 978-0-903874-35-9).

Herdman, W.A. 1923. Founders of Oceanography and their work. An introduction to the Science of the Sea. Edward Arnold & Co., London. 340 pp. (as pdf).

Holthuis, L.B. 1993. The recent genera of the Caridean and Stenopodidean Shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) with an appendix on the order Amphionidacea. 328 pp. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden. (Each genus accompanied by etymology).

Horner, F.B. 1987. The French reconnaissance. Baudin in Australia 1801-1803. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria. xviii + 461 pp. ISBN:: 0-522-84339-5.

Hyamson, Albert M. (Ed.) 1966. A dictionary of universal biography of all ages and of all peoples. 2:nd ed. 680 pp. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. (Usually single-line entries with i.a. dates when known and with references to works with fuller biographical information. Thus, an index to several old biographical dictionaries, including Nouvel Biographie Universelle, 46 vols., 1852-66).

INDEX des ZOOLOGISTES, 1953. 431 pp. + Suppl. in 1959. 429 pp. Secrétariat de l'Union int. des Sciences Biologiques, Paris. (Only living zoologists. International coverage. Not seen by the compiler of this list, because it is not to be found in any Swedish library.).

Ireland, Norma 1962. Index to scientists. Faxon, Westwood, Massachusetts. (Not seen by the compiler of this list, because it is not to be found in any Swedish library. See also Pelletier)

Jaeger, Edmund C. 1955. A Source-Book of Biological Names and Terms. 3:rd ed. xxxv + 323 pp. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois. (With "Brief Biographies of Men in whose Honor Commemorative Names Have Been Given") ISBN: 0-398-00916-3.

Laverack, M.S. 1983. Zoology. A natural history on natural historians. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 84B : 353-374.

Lindquist, A. 1995. Biografiska uppgifter om forskare och tjänstemän vid Havsfiskelaboratoriet i Lysekil och dess tidigare hydrografiska avdelning i Göteborg samt den hydrografiska stationen på Stora Bornö. Information från Havsfiskelaboratoriet Lysekil 1995 Nr. 3. 34 pp.

Mayerhöfer, Josef 1959-76. Lexikon der Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Biographien, Sachwörter und Bibliographien. (So far Lief. 1-8, pp. 1-847 + 1-172, from A-Edelsteinkunde and after this not continued for a long period).

McMillan, Nora F. & E.F. Greenwood 1972. The Beans of Scarborough; a family of naturalists. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 6 (3) : 152-161.

Mills, Eric L. 1978. Edward Forbes, John Gwyn Jeffreys, and British dredging before the Challenger expedition. Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 8 (4) : 507-536.

Mills, Eric L. 1983. Problems of deep-sea biology: an historical perspective. In G.T. Rowe (Ed.), Deep-Sea Biology. The Sea. Vol. 8. pp. 1-79. Wiley- Interscience.

Mills, Eric L. 1984. A veiw of Edward Forbes, naturalist. Archives of Natural History 11 (3): 365-393.

Mills, Eric L. 1989. Biological Oceanography. An Early History, 1870-1960. 378 pp. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, London.

Moore, P.G. 2005. Dr Baird and his feminine eponyms; biographical considerations and ostracod nomenclature. Archives of Natural History 32 (1): 92-105.

Moore, P.G. & E.G. Hancock. 2004. Alexander Patience (1865-1954): Glasgow's little-known Edwardian carcinologist. Glasgow Naturalist 24 (2): 119-129.

The Naturalists Direcory. Anthony, Phillipsburg, N.J. (Bi-annual publication, listing particularly plant and animal taxonomists of the western world. In 1961, e.g., the 39:th edition in 176 pp. arrived. However, it is seemingly lacking in Swedish libraries, so the compiler of this list have not seen any).

Nordenskiöld, Erik 1921-25. Biologins historia. En överblick. I-III. 168 + 253 + 467 pp. Björck & Börjesson, Stockholm. (In Swedish. However, an English translation arrived in 1928 " The history of biology: a survey" and a German translation arrived in 1926 "Die Geschichte der Biologie (Jena)").

Nordisk Familjebok, 2:nd ed. 1904-26. Band 1-38. (Swedish Encyclopedium in 38 volumes, including much biographical data).

Pelletier, Paul A. (Ed.) 1994. Prominent Scientists. An index to collective biographies. 3:rd ed. xxxix + 353 pp. Neal-Schuman Publishers, New York, London. (An index to biographies of scientists - including their life span - appearing in the most essential - around 300 - biographical books, with the primary emphasis on those written in English between 1960-92, but excluding books of a "Who is Who" nature. For a similar index, covering the period between the 1930s-1960, see Norma Ireland).

Praeger, Robert Lloyd 1941. Some Irish Naturalists: a biographical notebook. 208 pp. Tempest, Dundalk. (About 300 biographies. Not seen by the compiler of this list, because the only Swedish library copy is in Uppsala, but being helped with some of the names in it by Dr. D. Damkaer, who has a copy).

Ralph, Robert 1992. A portrait of William MacGillivray. Archives of Natural History 19 (3): 265-267.

Ralph, Robert 1993. John MacGillivray - his life and work. Archives of Natural History 20 (2): 185-195.

Rehbock, Philip F. 1979. The Early Dredgers: "Naturalizing" in British Seas, 1830-1850. Journal of the History of Biology 12(2): 293-368.

Sakshaug, Egil & Håkon Mosby 1996. A review of Norwegian Marine Biology and Oceanography until the Second World War. Museum of Archaeology and Natural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Trondheim Biological Station. pp. 3-38.

Salentiny, Fernand 2002. Encyclopedia of World Explorers. From Armstrong to Shackleton. Edited by Werner Waldmann. Dumont monte Verlag, Köln. 420 pp. ISBN: 3-8320-7125-3.

Sheets-Pyenson, Susan 1981. From the north to Red Lion Court: the creation and early years of the Annals of Natural History. Archives of Natural History 10 (2): 221-249.

Smit, Pieter 1974. History of the life sciences. An annotated bibliography. 1071 pp. A. Asher & Co. b. V.

Smith, David G. & Jeffrey T. Williams, 1999. The Great Albatross Philippine Expedition and Its Fishes. Marine Fisheries Review 61 (4): 31-41.

Southward, A.J. & E.K. Roberts 1987. One hundred years of marine research at Plymouth. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 67 : 465-505.

Spärck, Ragnar 1924. Havsforskningen under nittonde århundradet. (Swedish translation from the Danish original. The title translated to English is "Sea Research during the 19th century"). 127 pp. Norsteds, Stockholm.

Stevens, Lester D. & Dale R. Calder 1992. John McCrady of South Carolina: pioneer student of North American Hydrozoa. Archives of Natural History 19 (1): 39-54.

Summers, Adam P., Karsten E. Hartel & Thomas J. Koob, 1999. Agassiz, Garman, Albatross, and the Collection of Deep-sea Fishes. Marine Fisheries Review 61 (4): 58-68.

Svensk Uppslagsbok 2:nd ed. 1947-55. Band 1-32. Förlagshuset Norden, Malmö. (Swedish Encyclopedium in 32 volumes, including much biographical data).

Théel, Hjalmar 1928. Bidrag till Kristinebergs historia. 48 pp + 4 plates. Kristinebergs zoologiska station. KVA.

Truesdale, Frank (Ed.) 1993. History of Carcinology. Crustacean Issues 8. 445 pp. Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield.

Turkevich, J. & L.B. 1968. Prominent scientists of continental Europe. 204 pp. Elsevier, New York. (3,154 short biographies of living national academy members, professors of leading universities etc. in Europe - including eastern Europe, e.g. Russia, but not the British Isles.).

Webster's 1953 (& 1960).Webster's Biographical Dictionary: a dictionary of names of noteworthy persons, with pronunciations and concise biographies. 1rst ed. 1697 pp. G. & C. Merriam, Springfield, Massachusetts. New ed. in 1967 of 1736 pp. (Including some 40,000 persons of which English-speaking persons are more generously included. Not seen by the compiler of this list).

Werner, Petra 1993. Die Grundung der Königlichen Biologischen Anstalt auf Helgoland und ihre Geschichte bis 1945. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 47 (Suppl.) : 1-182.

Wolff, Torben & Mary E. Petersen 1991. A Brief Biography of A. S. Ørsted, with Notes on His Travels in the West Indies and Central America and Illustrations of Collected Polychaetes. Ophelia Suppl. 5 : 669-685.

Zavodnik, Dusan 1991. Spiridion Brusina istrazivac jadrana. Zadarska Revija 40 (4-5) : 73-79.

Zavodnik, Dusan 1993. The centenary of the Marine Research Station at Rovinj, Northern Adriatic: staff names in the biological taxonomic nomenclature. Periodicum Biologorum 95 (4) : 507-508.

Zischka, Gert A. (Ed.) 1961. Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon. Biografisches Handwörterbuch zur Geschichte der Wissenschaften. 710 pp. Kröner, Stuttgart. (7,000 biographies of scientists of all times. Not yet seen by the compiler of this list, because the Swedish library copies is to be found more than 500 km away).

Zissler, D. 1995. Five scientists on excursion - a picture of marine biology on Helgoland before 1892. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 49 : 103-112.


Of course also nomenclatural works like Sherborn's "Index Animalium" 1758-1800 & 1801-50 and Neave's "Nomenclator Zoologicus" I-IV and it's appendix volumes (the last 2 volumes - VIII & IX - covering the period 1966-77 and 1978-94 were published by the Zoological Society of London in 1993 and 1996 and the internet edition is for the moment covering the period 1758-2004) have been very useful. There are also several older etymological books regarding scientific names, e.g. Miller, Walter, 1864-1949, a classical philologist, who in 1897 published the book "Scientific names of Latin and Greek derivation". San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, but these books are usually out of print and Edmund C. Jaeger's book (see above) and e.g. Brown, Roland Wilbur (1893-1961) 1956. Composition of Scientific Words. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. (ISBN: 0-87474-286-2), which still are available, are very good for finding roots of non eponymic Scientific names, and several other books in other languages also are available for this purpose. It may also be noted, that persons who are constructing scientific names, can find some help consulting e.g. Oscar E. Nybakken 1985. Greek and Latin in Scientific Terminology. 322 pp. Iowa State Press. (ISBN: 0-8138-0721-2). There are of course several other useful books or links - e.g. Brenner & al. Etymology in Nomenclature of Procaryotes, (book chapter in Bergey's Manual ® of Systematic Bacteriology) - but the books written by Jaeger and Brown are the most fundamental.

accesses since November 21, 1998